WHAP Unit 3 Chapter 8 Reading Guide Name:
Read Chapter 8 and Identify the following:
Tang dynasty: Chinese dynasty during a golden age saw a vast introduction of cultural elements from the “western barbarians” including religions, fashions, and art
Song dynasty: Chinese dynasty (960-1279) marked by an increasingly urbanized and cosmopolitan society
Neo-Confucianism: philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought; Zhu Xi
Grand Canal: North/south water trade route built during Sui dynasty
Foot binding: practice in China that showed patriarchy and social status by placing women under father/husband control, involves the breaking and binding of the feet in order to keep them small
Middle Kingdom: China is the center of the world, others are inferior and subordinate
Barbarians: people outside of Chinese civilization, central Asian northern nomads
Tribute system: a set of practices that required non-Chinese authorities to acknowledge the superiority of China by paying tribute and performing the kowtow.
Xiongnu: an early nomadic confederacy that was a serious threat to China
Jurchen: nomadic peoples who established a state that included much of the steppes as well as parts of Northern China
Silla Kingdom: Korea, under tribute system/control of China
Seventeen Article Constitution:
Japanese document that proclaims emperor and encourages Buddhism and Confucianism
Samurai: Japanese warrior who lived by the code of bushido
Bushido: the “way of the warrior”, the code of conduct of the Japanese samurai that was based on loyalty and honor
Kami: sacred spirits who can be either human ancestors or natural phenomena
The Tale of Genji: written by Murasaki Shikibu, provides firsthand look at the intrigues and romances of life at the Japnaese court c. 1000
Pure Land School: branch of Buddhism that emphasizes salvation by faith without study or intensive meditation, involves faithful repetition of the name of Amitabha Buddha, regarding that as sufficient to ensure rebirth in a heavenly realm
Key Concept 3.1
Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks
I. Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.
A. Existing trade routes flourished and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities.
Silk Roads, Grand Canal, Sea Roads, Yellow River
Chang’an, Kaifeng, Yangzhou, Hangzhou, Suzhou
C. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organizations; use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization.
Silk, spices, feathers, pearls, tortoise shells, melons, etc.
Over Silk Roads
Letters of Credit (flying cash), promissory notes, checks, paper money due to shortage of copper coins
D. Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures.
Communication networks and transportation: roads, horses, human runners, inns, postal stations, stables
E. The expansion of empires facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.
I. Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged.
A. Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties---Sui, Tang, and Song---combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to the current circumstances.
Sui: military campaigns, legalism, high taxes, 589 CE, Sui Yangdi
Tang: communication and transportation networks, equal-field system, bureaucracy of merit, tributary system
Song: merit pay=more taxes, no military, fell to Mongols 1279
B. In some places, new forms of governance emerged; including those developed in various Islamic states, the Mongol Khanates, city-states, and decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan.
Feudalism in Japan=Shogun, samurai, bushido during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods (1185-1573)
C. Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions.
Japan adopted court, equal-field system, Confucianism, Buddhism
Traditions spread to Korea, Vietnam and Japan
II. Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers
Between Tang China and the Abbasids:
Korea/Silla Kingdom and Vietnam forced into tributary system with China.
Key Concept 3.3
Increased Economic Productive Capacity and Its Consequences
I. Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions.
A. Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations.
Iron tools, plows
B. In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia for foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions.
Champa rice/fast-ripening rice
Oranges and sugarcane grown in Southern China
C. Chinese, Persian, and Indian artists and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export; industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China.
Iron and steel used for weaponry, tools, and construction
II. The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline, and with periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.
A. Multiple factors contributed to the declines of urban areas in this period.
Sacking of cities by Uighers/barbarians
Threats on the borders from barbarians
B. Multiple factors contributed to urban revival.
More food leads to higher population
Safety in travel/trade
Merchants traveling in from other areas
Influence of China on outside areas
C. While cities in general continued to play the roles they had played in the past as governmental, religious, and commercial centers, many older cities declined at the same time that numerous cities emerged to take on these established roles.
Nara, Heian, Kamakura, Hangzhou, Guangzhou,
III. Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
A. As in the previous period, there were many forms of labor organization.
Compulsory labor for the government
B. As in the previous period, social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies. Patriarchy persisted; however, in some areas, women exercised more power and influence.
Footbinding: upper class women
Vietnamese women had a greater role in society than Chinese, they were greatly involved in commerce/business
Enhanced family solidarity through more ritualistic/ceremonious behavior
C. New forms of coerced labor appeared. Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.
Compulsory labor for the government
In 610, rebellion brought down Sui dynasty—Sui Yangdi was assassinated
D. The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neoconfucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure.
Neo-Confucianism: reasserted family rituals and propriety, filial piety, ceremony
Monasteries went against idea of the family and ancestor veneration, but “one son in the monastery brings salvation for generations”