Reading Guide 4 Name Vocab: Be prepared to define each of the following terms

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Unit 1- Reading Guide 4 Name_________________________
Vocab: Be prepared to define each of the following terms

First Industrial Revolution

Market Revolution

Free enterprise


Lowell Textile Mills

The National Trades’ Union

Commonwealth v. Hunt

Samuel Morse

King Cotton

Planter Aristocracy

Second Great Awakening


Dorothea Dix

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Seneca Falls Convention

Declaration of Sentiments

American Colonization Society

William Lloyd Garrison

The Liberator

Frederick Douglass

Nat Turner

Harriet Tubman

Underground Railroad

Wilmot Proviso


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Gold Rush

Compromise of 1850

Popular sovereignty

Gadsden Purchase

Liberty Party & Free Soil Party

Republican Party

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Guided Reading Questions: Provide comprehensive answers, in complete sentences, to each of the following questions.

  1. During which period was power-driven machinery introduced in to the United States? Where was this revolution primarily located? What war helped this phenomenon grow?

  2. Eli Whitney is famous for his cotton gin, but another concept of his was even more impactful to the Industrial Revolution. What was that concept?

  3. Who created the first commercially successful steamboat in the U.S.? What was it called? Were they safe? Explain.

  4. After you’ve defined Market Revolution, describe how it works. Explain how each region began to specialize and how they were interconnected.

  5. Explain how the textile mills at Lowell, Massachusetts were an example of opportunity for women. What changed for women there, and how did they react?

  6. What role did Irish immigrants play in places like Lowell?

  7. You may have noticed that steamboats have paddled back into the notes. Explain why they were an integral part of the strengthening of regional specialization during the Industrial Revolution.

  8. With numbers, provide evidence of the growth of canals and railroads.

  9. What were the results of the Industrial Revolution during the first half of the 19th century?

  10. What evidence can you find that Americans were beginning to establish a distinct cultural and literary independence during the early 19th century? Be sure to explain Noah Webster’s contribution.

  11. Explain how the centuries old economic differences between the states solidified during the antebellum period. What divisive social idea grew in the North as that region industrialized?

  12. What effect did Eli Whitney’s cotton gin have on the production of “King Cotton?” How did that effect the slave population in the South?

  13. Explain, statistically, the reality of the domination of southern society by the “planter aristocracy.” How important was southern agriculture to the nation’s economy at the outbreak of the Civil War?

  14. What were the characteristics of the spiritual awakening that swept the nation after 1790? What was this Second Great Awakening and explain an example of how it helped spur many other reform movements during the 19th century.

  15. What were the key ideas in the philosophical movement known as Transcendentalism? Who was one of its founders?

  16. Explain how the women were inspired by the Second Great Awakening to take the lead in reform movements.

  17. Be sure you know what reform movement each of the women listed were a part of.

  18. What experience led Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott to hold a women’s rights convention? What was that convention called? What was the message of the Declaration of Sentiments?

  19. Why was the women’s rights movement less successful in the early 19th century?

  20. What was the goal of the American Colonization Society?

  21. What message did William Lloyd Garrison advocate for in his antislavery paper, The Liberator?

  22. Describe Frederick Douglass’ rise to prominence in the abolitionist movement.

  23. What effect did Nat Turner’s rebellion have on slave owners in the South?

  24. What was the excuse to declare war on Mexico in 1845? What was the true reason Polk, and many others, wanted war?

  25. Why did many northerners strongly object to war with Mexico? Explain how that sentiment is seen in Congress in 1846. How does the South react to the Wilmot Proviso?

  26. What are the provisions of the Compromise of 1850?

  27. Be sure you know the purpose for the founding of the new political parties that emerged over the slave issue.

  28. Describe the effect that Uncle Tom’s Cabin had on the issue of slavery and the Fugitive Slave Act.

  29. How did Stephen Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska Act attempt to solve the issue of slavery in those territories? Explain the series of events that led to violence in Kansas.

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