Read graph, interpret date from a graph and chart Calculate a tidal range

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  1. Read graph, interpret date from a graph and chart

  2. Calculate a tidal range

  • Subtract low tide height from high tide height

  1. At least three factors that lead to a increased tidal range.

  • Gravitational effects of the Moon, Earth, and Sun. (spring tides create the greatest tidal range)

  • Physical features of the coastline where the tide is occurring.

  • Environmental factors such as wind, air pressure, size of the body of water, and weather.

  1. Know the position of the Sun, Earth, and Moon (phrases also) that causes a spring tide.

  1. Draw the position of the Sun, Earth, and Moon causes a neap tide and spring tide.

  • During a spring tide, the Earth, Moon and Sun are in a straight line (either the Earth between the Sun and Moon or the Sun and Moon on one side of Earth)

  • Full Moon and New Moon causes a spring tide

  • During neap tides, the Sun and Moon are at a right angle to each other with the Earth as the pivot point.

  • First Quarter moon and Last Quarter Moon causes a neap tide

  1. Explain why the position of the Sun, Earth, and Moon causes a neap tide and spring tide.

  • The alignments of the Earth, Moon, and Sun in a straight line amplifies the gravitational effects the Moon and Sun have on Earth, creating a larger than average ocean bulge, which causes a spring tide.

  • Neap tides occur during the first and last quarter Moon. The Sun and Moon are pulling the ocean in opposite directions, creating a smaller than average ocean bulge.

  1. Describe how the conditions differ in the southern Pacific Ocean during an El Nino event.

  • As winds push the water into the central of southern Pacific Ocean, the temperature is getting warmer than normal and increases convection, which increases rainfall. In the southern west Pacific Ocean, the winds are reduced preventing warm water and moist air from moving to the west and no rainfall or less rain lead to drought conditions in Indonesia and Australia. Also, the temperature is color than normal in the southern west Pacific Ocean.

  1. Describe and explain the effects of an El Nino event on the fish populations off the western coast of South America.

  • Without the upwelling off South American coast, there is no fresh supply of nutrients or cooler water to reduced surface temperature. As a result, many cold water species die and primary productivity goes into a steep decline due to lack of nutrients. The lack of producers impacts upon every other level of the local food webs.

  1. Explain how ocean surface currents are produced.

  • Surface currents are typically driven by global winds caused by uneven heating of Earth’s surface by the Sun. The large amount of solar radiation have excess heat energy in the air, which causes the air to rise in the atmosphere. As the air rises, it begins to transfer away some of its heat energy until it begins to sink in areas with less radiation and cooler temperature. This movement of air convection currents forms predictable winds, which lead to constant surface sea currents.

  1. Know the mean density of different parts of the Earth (greatest to the least dense). Continental crust, Mantle, Oceanic crust and sediments on the continental shelf.

- 1. Mantle

- 2. Oceanic crust

- 3. Continental crust

- 4. Sediments

  1. Know how to calculate density

  • Density = mass g

Volume mL

  1. Explain what is meant by the term estuary

- An estuary is a partially enclosed areas, brackish water from weathering and erosion action of wave, with river flows into in the sea. The bottom is made of find sand and silt that falls out of suspension when the water is still. The water in estuaries is very dark as a result of the fine sediments.

  1. Explain why muddy shores often form in estuaries

- Muddy shores often form in estuaries because most estuaries have a muddy substrate with lack of erosion and little water movement allows fine suspended particles to settle.

  1. Know the different tectonic plate boundaries and the direction of their movement
    - Divergent boundaries is where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other. Convergent boundaries is where crust is destroyed as one plate dives under another. (two plates are colliding). Transform boundaries is where crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other.

  1. Describe how under water earthquakes are caused by the movement of tectonic plates toward each other.

- Underwater earthquake are formed at a convergent boundary where two tectonic plates moving towards each other and subduction zone happens, which they may get stuck. When this happens, the pressure starts to builds until there is a sudden releases of energy. These releases seismic waves cause a submarine earthquake.

  1. Explain how an underwater earthquake are caused by the movement of tectonic plates towards each other.

- When an earthquake occurs on the seafloor, stored energy is released to the seabed. This energy displaces the large volume of water lying above the seafloor. The water holds on to this energy and begins to move quickly but unnoticeably through deep ocean water. The water moves toward the shore in circular motion, and slow down near the shore, creating a tsunami

  1. Know which factors are involved in the formation of tropical cyclones / hurricanes.

- Low air pressure allows water to swell. High winds are capable of pushing water onto the shore. These two factors can create a tidal surge, which is a dangerous rising of water.

  1. At least two harmful effects of a tropical cyclone on a country.


--cause floods

--physical damage to buildings/infrastructure


-disruption of economic activity

  1. Know at least two beneficial effects of a tropical cyclone on a country.

--reduce temperature

-refill lakes and rivers

--idea of increased land suitable for crops

-rebuilding storm resistant infrastructure

  1. Know why the wind speed falls as a tropical cyclone makes landfall

- Wind speed falls as a tropical cyclone makes landfall due to frictional difference between water and land with atmosphere.

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