re oen on tc _h t la rr o L e r and n ^Cc he ces 01 o ce n 39.-, Jap-tTk tta« jr £t he ~ a j,.
c, Ca nee test ^lanv o the Chinese classes.
_ ur In ool Tsr-.en *c the aa II «, a very complicated, highly elitp'j but Russia Fiance cal stjJe, vvcre in bter days do: understood in parts Various
Germany masted upon its retrocesson In rS-5 Russia vas commentator; had aftempted expansion ot the test in order to ?jxen a a?-year lease oa Port Arthur, Dalny and du= souiben: tip bring some neaaj>g out of the passages m question but tenual of the Liaorung peninsula, and a railway wis promptly bailt scuth criticism bad eoi ret become a rtal study, from Harbin to'ilukfei and the new'leasehold la 1900 Rdss,a The Emperor K ang Hsi, however gathered together from a.! sent troops into ilacchuria to suppress ±e Boxers-. She delated , parts of tne empire the best scholars and grammarians and se. withdrawal and by \d~wus steps sojghi to strengthen ier hold them to ^ork on an 'IjBpeml EiUon' of the classics Thjs&i. Japan, Great Bntaji and the I'juted" States attempted to check: , uon v-as io appear \vitb the text m parallel columns, Chinese «ad her by diplomacy V.Tien this tided Japjn, alarmed as much ' iJsnctni and sirce an acceptable Manchu tianslaiioa of a passage cy ihs: threat to'Korea jls tc- Mancbuna, derfsred war (1904>, ! not utider^tood was. rnipossibJe the best commentators vere em defeateo Rds=3a, and J> the Treaty of Poriwseuu ffas awarded . ployed to elucidate the tests before they went io the Board oi the Russian pisseMU-is ia somaern Maachurls, including the • Translators, Fro.-n a careful study of the Manchu x*ersions hgfet iEaseiolds aad the railways south of Chang-dmc, Tie Japanese, ' was for the first time thrown on many obscure passages m tiie easier for econcmie expansion develupeti ther new hol&ngs , classjcaj librarj*.
raniGly, and -^ere iooc more £nrl> earenched thaa the Rus- j -Another activity of the Manchu dynasty, of great importance iiarta had been ie 19:5 Japan :a"foag ad\antas;e oi Europe's j to tbe hterary scwtent of Further Asia, -was the publication, agaia preoccupation tvith the Waric War, rrude demands oa Cima : DsJinggaJ of Alanchu works which ^ere now translated into which rtsuitsc fc the ex:es>:on of the leases to 99 \ears and 3n Chmese, This brought a new force into CMutrse effort arid the other concessions The Hjsaaa coiapse in 1917 and ig:S for I hieraiy change^, small though they were, passed into art m a Pine seemed to rcske pois^ble the ettraswc of Japanese ncwtr j r.s various forms, being especially marked m the pottery of the
to the Bortt but the revival of Russia under the Soviec Govern-men!: restored Sussian jnfluer.ce and a Swo-Sovie: agreement of iQ?4 costirmed Russian particapatioa rn the Chinese Eastern rain ay
A Ho=ierManchuria, (1904^!, A, KjnaoswLe, J
Ming dynasty. Pajntogs also suffered a slight chiuge, again the stream of active life was mforoiing' the latent powers of the Chinese and another golden age was begun
aiitna, a. S'nvey (zg~'j}; L H, C?jlnte-fn&iio*i&l RiialrifS at
Mancu una,, i6$fh-i^as (1926); S H liu> China and her Pohitcal
Entity (igsfi).(K S. L )
MANCHUS. The term Uancha, which is receat ia origin, has s. dynastic connotation, and refers to those people, linguists ally asd culturally, connected Tfith tie eastern Tungus, who in the i7tn centurj coaqnerea China and placed their chief on the Dragon Throne. Somatologically they appear to beloag to two strains, one is closely alan io me northern Chinese, the other to sn element extremely common araong foe Bunsts While the first
The weli-fcncv/n capacity of the Chinese for absorption of an aiiei people is clearl> shows in the case of the Manchu Onginally essentialiy differPDt from the Celesnal, be has, through the centuries been impressed •with the Chinese seal until to-day there is rso means of distinguishing between the menibcrs of the two peoples ; they are in effect one and the same The Manchus begun well full of vigour and animated by a passion for reorganization, they occupied themselves vrilh multifarious activities calculated to bring again the Chinese Empire into its former eminence. But tiie inevitable result of a too highly concentrated period of achievement was the incidence of a time of Indulgence and licence and the Manchns were finally overthrown by their subjects.
bibliography — R. Twii, Joant Coll So Tokyo Imp. Vwv. voi T^a (1514) . S M SbiroLogoroff China- Breach of Rzyal Astatic Society, extra vol m, f 19^3) , 1, H D Btiston, The Peoples c/ Am (1925, biol)
case, the graduil absorption of tae Vanchus by
Chinese is a continuatioc of a process which has been going on
tor a long ptriod.
Smce the advent of the Maachu dynasty fie MaacEus, organ-wed oa a military basis as s baanermea," have been widely scattered over China, where as i Mad of hereditary militia they were
supported as a charge oa the Imperial treasury For the mos* pan j Naples as administrator of jras+ke, m which capacity he suppressed howier, they have become absorbed physically and culturally j the religions orders, revoked the Concordat, proclaimed the ngk
of the sra;e to Church praperty, and unified civil and commercial
among the Cninese and have acquired Chinese culture in, the place of their old £s3xisg and hunting habits.
An luteiesffiig problem is raised by the long- association of the Manchus aatl the Caiaese, first s.s enemies but tviih definite separate organizatcaa, a.ad later as a mixed people with the Maa-
are only rooaerateiy roundliedded., the latter are extremely brachy-cephalic and probably represent aa old mixture of Alpine and Yellow mas "VViile some of the Manchus are hardly to be distinguished from the northern Chinese, others Jfo-ve a distinctly western type of countenance. It ass been suggested fay SbJrokogo- \ MANCINI, PASQITALE STANISLAO (1817-1888), Ital-voff that origiraliy tie distribution of the people culturally akw j iati Jurist and statesman, was born at Cistel Baronia, sn the prov-to die Tungns stretched ipto the plain of China. If tiis is the j rice of Avelhno ofi Marrb 17 rSi- Tn 1848 he helped to persuade Ferdinand II of Naples, to participate in the war aganist Austria Upon the triumph of the reactionary party he undertook the defence of tbe Liberal political prisoners. Threatened with imprisonment in hts turn he lied to Piedmont, where he obtained a tmiversify pro fes>so'•ship and became preceptor of the crown priuce Humbert After the fall of the Bourbons he mrent to
jurisprudence. In 1862 he became minister of public instruction in the Rattaz^i cabinet, and induced the Chamber to abolish capital punishment For the next :q years, he devoted himself cfeie3y to questions of international law and arbitration, but in 1876.
ehus in a soodlnal ascendancy, occupying the Dragon Throne, apoa the advent of the Left to power, became minister of justice The Manchus achieved supremacy m north China at a time when j m the Depretis cabinet
freedom, the repeal of imprisonment for debt and the abolition of ecclesiastical tithes. During the Conclave of 1876 he succeeded, by negotiations wilh. Cardinal Feed fafterwards Leo SKI), as inducing the Sacied college to remain m Some and, after the efec-
Chinese activity was at a. low ebo, all the giones of the Tang and ) Mancinfs Liberalism found expression in the extension o! Lung periods baa become submerged and scholars felt the oppression of the long Mongol regime siill upon them Moreover, the Chinese were wasted and weakened by the struggle of -warfare Tba llaachu dynasty provided just chjs necessary stimulatioa.
F' jshed with victory and -with long-desjred power aver her south- j dm of foe new- pope, arranged for his temporary dbsenc« from fi era aeighbour, Manchuria determined to raark cfce whole empire j Vatican for the purpose of setting pri\ ate business Resigning ^itb her personalitj'. The arts were encouraged and special I office in March :S~S, fee resumed ihe practice of law, and secured schools lor research v.ere established Tie Mancbas were fully j f-he annuimpnt of Garibaldi's marriage The fall of CairoE led ty alive to the necessity for continuing Chicese customs and a form ! Maacini's sppointtneut (1881) to the ministry of foreign of govenauent which by long usage had become not merely pal- ' An indiscreet announcement of tbe Ujnitatioas of the
amble but sacrosanct to the Chinese Perhaps the ;?re-nat work of the
' Alliance contrfhuted to his f*a m June iSSs, when lie was sir-wa= the i«ue of ' ceeded b> C&uat 4i Robilant He died m Rome on Dec