R&D isn’t t violates Energy production it’s pre-production

If they don’t do r&d vote neg on presumption because that’s obvi what all their solvency cards are about and fusion wouldn’t work without it

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If they don’t do r&d vote neg on presumption because that’s obvi what all their solvency cards are about and fusion wouldn’t work without it


The aff is an elaborate expression of the unconconscious fantasies that motivate and sustain pro-space activism---attention to what the 1AC takes for granted reveals that their project is saturated in fantasies of omnipotence and narcissism

Ormrod 9 James S. Ormrod, Lecturer in Sociology at Univ. of Brighton, 2009 “Phantasy and Social Movements: An Ontology of Pro-Space Activism”, Social Movement Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 115–129, April 2009

The centrality of fantasy or daydreaming to those pursuing the human exploration, development and settlement of space is well established. McCurdy (1997) argues that motivation has been based on constructed romantic images of space travel. It is reported that the early rocket pioneers like Robert Goddard were driven by imaginative daydreams. Carl Sagan describes a young Goddard sitting in a cherry tree and envisioning exotic new vehicles (cited in Kilgore, 2003, p. 42). My own interviews showed that pro-space activists continue childhood daydreaming about space in later life, as Melvin, a 35 year-old parttime student from the UK testified; Me: Do you find yourself still daydreaming about space a lot? M: [resounding] Yes. Probably too much, but its one of those things that’s so rigid in my psyche I don’t suppose I’ll ever be able to get it out really. Nor would I want to, I don’t think. Yeah, a lot of people say I spend too much time up there. There were also more subtle clues that vivid space fantasies lay behind individuals’ activism. Middle-aged Bruce McMurray gave the most speculative talks about space settlement at one of the pro-space conferences I attended. What was noticeable about his talks was the authority with which he pronounced not that we could build houses for our space colony in a particular way, but that we will build our houses in a particular way. This was not unique to Bruce but suggested that what he was doing was not forwarding possible solutions to potential engineering problems, but instead describing a very elaborate fantasy he had constructed. Pro-space activists report two main catalysts for their fantasising. The first is reading science fiction. The second is having witnessed previous space missions. Despite crucial differences from science fiction fans (discussed later), science fiction is an essential part of many activists’ paths to joining the movement. One veteran estimated that seventy per cent of members got into the movement through reading (or, less commonly, watching) science fiction. For many of them, the interest in science fiction began at an early age, even as young as four (‘Rupert and the Spaceship’). From this point, activists often developed an insatiable appetite for the genre. Arthur C. Clarke and Robert Heinlein (along with Isaac Asimov and Ray Bradbury) have a particularly close relationship with the pro-space movement. But crucially, pro-space activists did not simply read science fiction passively, they elaborated their own fantasies based on it. The creative aspects of science fiction fandom have been emphasised by Jenkins (1992). When discussing how they ‘got into’ space, nearly all pro-space activists will mention something about their memories of watching space missions, usually huddled around the family TV, or perhaps witnessing a launch in person. Again, childhood memories are the most pertinent. Amongst those I interviewed, first memories ranged from Sputnik I, the first satellite to be put into space in 1957, to the first launch of the American Space Shuttle in 1981. There is a large cohort that grew up during the Apollo era, clearly the most stimulating American space program, but there are many activists inspired by other programs. Journalist Marina Benjamin (2003) explains how NASA’s ‘dream-peddling’ had filled her and others like her with inspiration when they were young, and gave them high hopes for what mankind could achieve in the future. Looking back, she asks reflexively whether these were delusions; ‘Was I naı¨ve to believe we’d simply hop from the moon to other planets and thence to the stars?’ (Benjamin, 2003, p. 3). It is clear that for Benjamin, as for so many pro-space activists, seeing space missions unfold before them had encouraged daydreams and fantasies every bit as much as reading science fiction. Activists’ fantasies about the future have largely been ignored in social movement research. This is despite the fact that any utopian movement must, by definition, imagine some form of alternative future society which exists only in the mind and not in reality, as Robin Kelley (2002) has pointed out in his celebration of the imagination in radical social movements. There are many theoretical positions from which fantasy can be approached, however (Ormrod, 2007), and my psychoanalytic framework is quite different to Kelley’s. Where Kelley sees the imagining of future worlds as a positive creative force operating on a conscious level, I argue that conscious imaginings are best understood as manifestations of underlying unconscious phantasies about the self. 2 Space Fantasy and Unconscious Phantasy One initial piece of evidence for the unconscious origins of space activists’ motivation is that often they cannot explain why they want to get into space. Jim, a software engineer from Illinois, is articulately inarticulate on the matter 3; Me: For what reasons would you want to go? J: For the fun of it or for the . . . It’s hard to say it’s just been a dreamofmine to be in space, you know. So, why do you want to be in space; it’s exciting, you know, it’s not something that everybody does but still its not trying to beat the Joneses or anything. It’s just one of those desires you grow up with from when you’re a kid, it’s just a strong desire so you kind of loose track of the original reason [ . . . .]. So let me think about that, I might be able to answer you better in the future, but it’s not one of those things . . . It’s sort of like asking somebody ‘why do you scratch your head up here instead of over here?’ It’s like ‘I just got into the habit of doing it’. 118 J. S. Ormrod Jim could no longer remember why it was he wanted to go into space (assuming he ever knew). Lots of other pro-space activists got agitated when pushed on the origins of their selfconfessed ‘drive’.One resorted to saying ‘the mystics amongst us might say God put it there’. My argument is that the conscious fantasies of pro-space activists play out intrapsychic conflicts and desires relating to the break from the state of primary narcissism experienced in the first few years of life.4 After reading science fiction or watching space missions, these unconscious phantasies are translated into fantasies about the exploration, development and settlement of space. Two pleasurable aspects of the stage of primary narcissism are relevant here. Arguably the precedent one is the unity of the infant with the mother (‘the monad’, Grunberger, 1989) and indeed the rest of its universe. This is a state in which the infant does not even recognise the separate existence of other selves. Some have suggested this begins with the pre-natal relationship between child and mother in the womb. As the child grows older, it learns to appreciate the independent existence of others (Mahler et al., 1975). The other aspect is the experience of omnipotence - of power and control over the world - afforded to the infant treated as ‘HisMajesty the baby’ (Freud, 1995, p. 556). This is a world in which all demands are satisfied. In normal development these experiences are, of course, shattered by the realities of family life and social existence. Pro-space activists’ fantasies can be understood, however, as translations of phantasies about regaining the self of primary narcissism. I distinguish three dominant themes in pro-space fantasy, though often they occur in combination. The first relates to trips, often just into Earth’s orbit, in which the activist experiences the pleasure of floating around in zero gravity. This weightlessness has been likened to being in the womb (Bainbridge, 1976, p. 255; White, 1987, p. 23). And if sexual partnerships are sought in part as a return to the monad as many psychoanalysts contend, then one activist’s fantasy of having zero-gravity sex perhaps represents the ultimate nirvana. An alternative interpretation is to relate the ease of movement in zero-gravity environments to the way in which at will infants command their parents to pick them up and carry them around. The social and oedipal restrictions that gravity comes to represent are symbolically escaped. A second theme is the fantasy of seeing the Earth from space as a unified (and in many accounts insignificant) whole. This demonstrates the activist’s need for separation from the mother coupled with power over her. Earth is commonly referred to as a ‘mother’, and activists talked about being able to obscure the Earth with their thumb – literally being ‘under the thumb’. But at the same time there is the anticipation of a new feeling of unity with the whole Earth, seen without political boundaries. Indeed in White’s (1987) account of astronauts’ experiences he describes it as ‘the ultimate journey from part to whole’. There is a magical resolution here to the infant’s developmental dilemma. Mother Earth is at once transcended and brought back into one being with the observer. The third theme is present in fantasies about the development and settlement of other planets, the Moon and asteroids. Here the omnipotent desire to tame, conquer, control and consume the universe is manifest in fantasies such as playing golf on a course on the moon, mining asteroids or building a colony on Mars (possibly having terraformed the planet – changing its climate to make itmore Earth-like). The envisioning of such distant objects being brought under personal control and symbolically consumed back into the allencompassing self plays out the desired but impossible regaining of the phantasized omnipotent self of primary narcissism around which the whole universe was oriented.

This space fantasy is the culmination of the long western imperial project of organizing the world in its own image—space is merely the final frontier onto which the aff projects its fear of instability in an attempt at total control which creates the conditions for warfare and extinction

Directory: download -> Northwestern
Northwestern -> 1ac – Heg Advantage
Northwestern -> I emphasize this point because
Northwestern -> 1nc Off-Case *Off
Northwestern -> China da 1NC
Northwestern -> Congressional oversight is necessary for a pragmatic, flexible approach to threats executive discretion results in knee-jerk policy failure
Northwestern -> A. Interpretation and violation the affirmative should defend topical action grounded in the resolution
Northwestern -> Advantage 1 is accountability
Northwestern -> Contention 1: internment the Internment Cases have not been analyzed by modern courts yet
Northwestern -> “Armed Forces” means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard
Northwestern -> Security is a psychological construct—the aff’s scenarios for conflict are products of paranoia that project our violent impulses onto the other

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