King of England from 1603-1625. He was the first of the Stuart Family to rule England and came to the throne after the death of Elizabeth I. He is described as “lazy, frivolous, slovenly” as well as “intelligent and well-read”. James I was a believer in Divine Right and thought that the king should rule without the input of parliament. Relations between the Stuart monarchs and the English Parliament began to deteriorate under his reign and continued to get worse with his successors.
King of England from 1625-1649. He is described as indecisive, shy, and having a stammer in his speech. Relations between Charles I and Parliament worsened due to his financial policies. He levied taxes without Parliament’s consent and imprisoned those who refused to pay. In 1628, he was forced to sign the Petition of Right, which temporarily limited his power. He then also dissolved Parliament in 1629 and ruled for 11 years without a Parliament. Relations with Scotland also deteriorated under Charles I’s reign; in order to raise the money to fight the Scots, Charles needed to pass new taxes. He reconvened a new Parliament but the power struggle between the king and Parliament continued. Charles I was the King of England during the English Civil War. In 1649, he was tried and found guilty of treason by a group of Parliamentary radicals known as the “Rump Parliament”. He was executed on January 30, 1649.
Petition of Right
Document signed by Charles I in 1628. Drafted by Parliament, this document was an attempt to limit the power of the English monarchs. During the Stuart Dynasty, the kings attempted to rule as divine kings without the consent of Parliament. This document declared that the king could not levy taxes without the Consent of Parliament; the king was also restricted from arresting people without just cause or declaring martial law. Although an important step in limiting the power of the English monarchs, this document had minimal impact because Charles I dissolved Parliament soon after signing the document.
In April 1640, Charles I reconvened Parliament (they had not met in 11 years) in an attempt to pass new taxes. When Parliament refused to levy the taxes, Charles ordered them to dissolve after only 2 months….hence the name “Short” Parliament.
A form of Protestantism that is very similar to the Anglican Church or Church of England. Armenian Christians rejected the Calvinist ideas of predestination and believed salvation was achieved through free will. Arminians, like Anglicans, continued to emphasize the role of church hierarchy including the role of bishops. Arminians also saw the king as the head of the church. Many common people in England believed the Arminians and Anglicans were too similar to Catholicism since they kept many of the same customs and traditions of the Catholic Church (see the card for William Laud).
Refer back to ID card from Chapter 5. In chapter 6, we learn that the Puritans were in major conflict with the Church of England and the Arminians.
Bishop of London who temporarily served as head of the Church of England as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury. Laud was an Arminian Christian and considered a “devout, hard-working, and pious” man. Puritans disliked him because they believed he was secretly a follower of the Catholic Church.
English Civil War
1641-1649; Sometimes known as the “Puritan Revolution”; a military conflict that emerged as a result of conflict between the king (Charles I) and Parliament. This war caused chaos and destruction in England. The war ended with the execution of Charles I in 1649, which was followed by the establishment of the Commonwealth of England.
Common name for the King’s army during the English Civil War
1599-1658; Leader of the Roundheads and the New Model Army. Following the defeat of the king’s army and the execution of Charles I, Cromwell served as leader of the Commonwealth of England until his death in 1658.
New Model Army
Founded in 1645 during the English Civil War, the New Model Army was led by Oliver Cromwell. The soldiers were sometimes known as “ironsides” and were very successful in battle.
A religious group that emerged during the English Civil War; composed largely of Baptists and Puritans, the Levellers supported political reform that would benefit all levels of English society. The Levelers were especially concerned with property rights. Tip to remember them=they wanted to “level” the playing field for all English citizens.
A religious group that emerged during the English Civil War. They opposed private property of land and were especially concerned with agrarian reform. They briefly created a farming colony that was open to the poor and the landless. Tip to remember them: diggers=farming
Commonwealth of England
A military dictatorship led by Oliver Cromwell following the English Civil War. Supposedly a republic, this government oppressed the people by passing taxes without the consent of Parliament and executed members of Parliament who questioned the authority of Cromwell. Parliament was often dissolved and reconvened during the time of the Commonwealth. Cromwell’s government promised religious freedom to Puritans while denying the same rights to Anglicans and Catholics. Jews were allowed to return to England; they had been expelled from England in 1290.
Following the death of Oliver Cromwell, his son, Richard, became the leader. Other military leaders followed in their footsteps, but none were very capable rulers.
As time went on, people began to call for the restoration of the Stuart monarchy. The Commonwealth of England was dissolved.
Member of the Stuart Family and son of Charles I who had been living in exile in the Netherlands during the English Civil War. He was crowned king of England in 1661 and ruled until his death in 1685. He is described as having “considerable charm, energy, courage, good humor, and loyalty to those who were loyal to him”. He was well-liked by his subjects, but earned criticism for his favoritism to Catholics and Anglicans (see Test Act for example). England’s economy expanded during the period of Charles II rule due to trade, but Charles II relied heavily on Parliament for levying of taxes. Eventually, Charles followed in his father’s footsteps and had conflict with Parliament
Brother of Charles II and a devout Catholic. Ruled England from 1685-1688. Wanted to increase his own power and reduce the authority of Parliament. He also worked to place Catholics into important government positions, which was seen as a threat to the Protestants and Church of England. His actions eventually lead to the Glorious Revolution in which he is forced from the throne and replaced by William and Mary.
Members of Parliament who supported limited monarchy and wanted Parliament to have more power than the king
Members of Parliament who supported divine right and wanted the king to have more power
William and Mary
King and Queen who assumed the throne of England as a result of the Glorious Revolution in 1688. Mary was the daughter of James II and was Protestant; she married William of Orange was from Netherlands. William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights.
1688; a “revolution” in which James II abdicated the throne and was replaced by William and Mary. It is called a “glorious” revolution because this change in power occurred without bloodshed. James II learned that William of Orange from the Netherlands and his wife Mary had been invited to take the throne of England. William was attempting an invasion of England, which prompted James II to flee to France in exile. William and Mary then signed the English Bill of Rights and became the new rulers of England.
English Bill of Rights
Very important government document signed by William and Mary in 1689. This document solidified England’s limited monarchy. It reduced the power of the king/queen and reaffirmed the power of Parliament. The document guaranteed basic freedoms such as rights to private property, fair trials, and religious tolerance among other things. It did not, however, guarantee all religious groups equal access to government positions.
The English Bill of Rights was a model for our own Bill of Rights.
1632-1704; English philosopher and supporter of limited government. He favored the exile of James II and believed that Parliament was right in its attempts to limit the power of the king. He was a supporter of religious tolerance. Locke is often associated with the “social contract theory” of government, which argues that government exists to benefit the people and people have a right to overthrow an unjust government. Famous work: Two Treatises of Government
1606-1669; Famous Dutch artist who was active during the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic. He was a loner and did not get along well with his patrons. Most of his fame came after his death. He is most famous for his self-portraits…he painted over 80 of them.