† = poetic or archaic word (e.g. †él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë "corruscation, †swordblade"), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or in an inflected form (e.g. #apa, #Apanóna; see AFTER below), TLT = Tolkien's lifetime (by some called "Real Time", as opposed to:) MET = Middle-Earth Time (or rather Arda Time, since Quenya originated in the Blessed Realm), LotR = The Lord of the Rings (HarperCollinsPublishers, one-volume edition of 1991), Silm = The Silmarillion (HarperCollinsPublishers 1994), MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth's Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), TI = The Treason of Isengard, WJ = The War of the Jewels, PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1,LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2,Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters), GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon [PE] #11 – references are selective), QL = Qenya Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #12 – references are again selective), VT = Vinyar Tengwar (PE and VT being journals publishing Tolkien material edited by C. Gilson, C.F. Hostetter, A.R. Smith, W. Welden and P. Wynne; please refer to the individual journals here referenced to determine which editors are involved in any given case), vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in LotR). When s in a word represents earlier Þ(th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (Þ) immediately following the word in question (e.g. sanda, sanya-; see ABIDE, ABIDING below).