Questions/Main Ideas: Notes



Download 75.86 Kb.
Date29.04.2016
Size75.86 Kb.

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:


  • M à Militarism

  • A à Alliance

  • N à Nationalism

  • I à Imperialism

  • A à Assassination



























War Declared:





  • August 4th 1914, Great Britain declared war and Canada was immediately at war as well.

  • Why?

















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
A Little Bit of Background Information:


  • At the beginning of the 20th Century:

  1. Austro – Hungarian

  2. Russian

  3. Ottoman

Crumbling empires that were dominating Eastern Europe before WWI

























Why were Empires a Problem?




  • Many nationalities within countries resented being part of an empire

  • They were being controlled by a foreign power

  • Wanted independence

  • Political independence

  • Cultural identity

















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
More Background information:


  • Countries began to form alliances to protect themselves

  • Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary formed the Triple Alliance in 1882

  • France, Russia, and Britain formed the Triple Entente in 1907



























Canada’s Contribution: Command of the Army:




  • In the beginning Canadian Soldiers were under British command

  • Field Marshall Douglas Haig was responsible for Canadian soldiers dying in battles of attrition.

  • For example: At the Battle of Somme the Royal Newfoundland Regiment was advanced in error and lost the majority of their men.

  • June 3rd, 1917 Sir Arthur Currie (Canadian General) assumes command of the First Canadian Infantry

















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
Canada’s Contribution: The Troops (Canada’s Expeditionary Force)

  • Troops had to be trained and made ready for war

  • Valcartier, Quebec = training center

  • Minister of the Militia: Sam Hughes

  • First 32, 000 troops were ill-prepared

  • Wartime training brought Canadians from all over the country together

  • Development of a Canadian national identity

  • CEF maintained independence during the war despite Britain’s control of Canadian foreign affairs



























Sam Hughes:




  • Minister of the Militia

  • In charge of armament industry

  • Shell Committee – oversees manufacturing of shells

  • He was not great

  • $170 million contracts - $5.5 million actually made

  • Gave contracts to friend who were more interesting in money than quality goods

  • Boots that fell apart

  • Shells that exploded before being shot

  • Guns that jammed

  • Not awesome L

















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
Canadian Contributions to WWI: Military Battles

























Battle of Ypres:

  • Battle of Ypres in Belgium

  • April 1915

  • This was the first battle for Canadian troops

  • 6000 Canadian soldiers killed, wounded or captured

  • Germans used Chlorine gas

  • Second battle: SPEARHEADED by Canadians and the first time a colonial force pushed back a major European power!!!

  • Canadians used urine-socked cloths to counteract the chlorine gas so that they could advance on German lines and stop German success.














Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:

Battle of the Somme:



  • The Somme

  • 1916

  • A British offensive – General Douglas Haig

  • His strategies from previous wars were useless in trench warfare à German machine guns

  • 4 months

  • 24000 Canadians dead

  • Royal Newfoundland Regiment at Beaumont Hamel – only 110/780 men survived the first day of the battle

  • 1 million casualties between both side

  • The first day of the battle became the bloodiest in British history.

  • Why was it fought? à The intent of the battle was to draw troops away from the Battle of Verdun which was where the Allies were trying to break German lines.

























Battle of Vimy Ridge:

  • Battle of Vimy Ridge

  • April 1917

  • Area of strategic importance for France

  • France failed to get Vimy back several times

  • New effort led by Canadian General Julian Byng à well trained soldiers

  • Canadians captured the ridge àUNDER CANADIAN CONTROL – NOT BRITAIN

  • 3598 soldiers killed

  • This moment was a defining moment for Canadians in WWI – they developed their own identity – Used “Creeping Barragetechnique

  • This battle took months to plan, and only lasted 5 days

  • Major Canadian milestone














Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
Creeping Barrage” Technique:

  • By 1916 this was the main way that troops deployed artillery to support an infantry attack.

  • The infantry would follow as close to the advancing Barrage as possible.

  • Employing artillery in this way made it possible to understand neutralizing rather than destroying the enemy in artillery fire.



























Hill 70

  • Hill 70 battle was led by Arthur Currie

  • August 1917, lasted ten days

  • Between Canadian Corps and 5 divisions of the German Army

  • Germans used flamethrower and mustard gas attacks

  • The “Creeping Barrage” technique that was used at Vimy Ridge was used at Hill 70 as well.

  • This battle was fought in attempt to draw German soldiers away from the third battle at Ypres

  • The Canadians took Hill 70

















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:

Battle of Passchendaele:



  • Passchendaele was known as the Third Battle of Ypres

  • October and November 1917

  • Fought by the Allies against the German empire.

  • During this battle Canadian soldiers broke German defensive lines

  • 15, 000 soldiers killed

  • The battle was fought in extremely muddy and rainy conditions which made movement for both sides extremely difficult

  • Allies wanted to get through Ypres to reach German submarine bases responsible for shooting down Allied ships.

























Hundred Days Offensive:

  • Aug-Nov 1918

  • Does not refer to a specific battle or victory

  • This is the last 100 days of the war

  • A continuous series of Allied offensives and victories

  • Forced the Germans to retreat

  • As Germans retreated they were forced to leave behind supplies and equipment which made it hard for them to resist defeat

  • Fighting continued right up until an armistice was signed at 11:00 on November 11th 1918














Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:

Canada’s Last 100 Days



  • Series of attacked made on the Western front

  • By Canadian Corps

  • Major role played by Canadians in the retreat of the German army

  • Canadians fought at the Amiens, Arras, Hindenburg Line, Canal de Nord, Bourlon Wood, Cambrai, Denain, Valenciennes, and at Mons

  • 20% Casualties

  • 100,000 men forced the retreat of ¼ of the German army



























Other Canadian Contributions to WWI















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
Canadians at war:

  • At the beginning of WWI the Canadian population was roughly 8 million people

  • During the war 619,636 men and women served

  • 66,655 were lost in battle

  • 2 à 100 + Naval ships

  • 1600 pilots lost their lives




























Munitions, food, nurses, and more:

  • Canadians supplied:

- Munitions and equipment for the war

  • Raw materials and food

  • Pilots (Like “ACE” Billy Bishop)

  • Canadian Army Medical Corps

  • “Bluebirds” à Female Canadian nurses
















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
Women: The Western Front

  • 2500 à medical and field ambulance corps

  • Nurses à “Blue birds”

  • Hospitals in Britain

  • Military hospitals in battle zones



























Minority Enlistment

  • Those who were not welcomed: Non-whites and those born in enemy territory

  • 1915: Aboriginal Canadians were allowed to enlist

  • Some were accepted into the 114th Battalion

  • Blacks in Nova Scotia were told “This is not for you fellows, this is a white man’s war!”

  • One black unit was formed called the No 2. Construction battalion – they were not allowed to fight for their country – they were to build trenches and shelters.

  • They trained in Pictou, Nova Scotia

  • They formed their own brass band

















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:

Notes:
Minority enlistment:

  • Won the Boston Marathon in record time in 1907

  • He had a professional career as a runner winning several different titles

  • He was a dispatch runner in WWI and retired after the war

  • He was married to Lauretta Maracle

  • Interesting fact: He was mistakenly declared dead during WWI and remarried afterwards

  • He died of pneumonia in 1949


























The End.















Summary:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page