Question 1 (Worth 5 points) Question 1



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Question 1 (Worth 5 points)

Question 1 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 MC)Which of the following represents an effect of the dissections of human bodies that occurred during the Scientific Revolution?

It led to the discovery of DNA.

It allowed for important discoveries such as the circulation of blood through the body.

It was a first step toward creating the germ theory of disease.

It reaffirmed the importance of tools such as the microscope in the study of human anatomy.



Points earned on this question: 5
Question 2 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 MC)Use the excerpt from Bacon's The Advancement of Learning below to answer the following question:



"Another error hath proceeded from a kind of adoration of the mind and understanding of man; by means whereof men have withdrawn themselves away from the contemplation of nature, and the observations of experience, and have tumbled up and down in their own reason and conceits. Upon these Heraclitus gave a just censure, saying, MEN SOUGHT TRUTH IN THEIR OWN LITTLE WORLDS, AND NOT IN THE GREAT AND COMMON WORLD."
Public Domain

How does Sir Francis Bacon criticize previous scientific methods in the quote above?

Bacon accuses scientists of stealing ideas from previous thinkers without citation.

Bacon believes that no scientist should publish theories without first getting permission from the Church.

Bacon says some scientists use faulty reasoning to prove conclusions they hold about what is true rather than determining what is true by analyzing the facts.

Bacon states that all observations of the universe should be shared by the public rather than credited to one particular scientist.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 3 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 MC)Which idea did Descartes contribute to the Scientific Revolution?

The nature of God could be analyzed as a machine.

Given the choice between two theories, the simpler one is usually correct.

Logic and mathematics could figure out the uncertainties of existence.

Individual consciousness is the only thing that never changes in a changing world.



Points earned on this question: 5
Question 4 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 MC)How is the work of Rene Descartes related to that of Sir Isaac Newton?

They both made their most famous discoveries while working for the king of England.

Newton and Descartes revolutionized navigation with their research, which led to increased colonization of the Americas.

Descartes's developments in analytical geometry were used by Newton in his development of calculus and research into optics.

Descartes was inspired to create a system of analytical geometry to describe Newton's Theory of Gravity.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 5 (Worth 5 points)

(05.01 MC)The following map shows the members of the European Union. Use the map to answer the following question:


© 2012 The Exploration Company

How does this map show that Europe has changed greatly since the 17th century?

Many nations are now allied economically to avoid constant conflicts.

Most nations have joined their military forces to defeat smaller European countries.

All members of the EU use a common constitution, religion, and laws.

Nations are more antagonistic towards each other than ever before.

Points earned on this question: 0
Question 6 (Worth 5 points)

(05.01 MC)The following chart shows religious beliefs in modern Europe. Use the chart to answer the following question:


© 2012 FLVS

How would a chart of mid-17th century religious beliefs differ from this chart?

Fewer people would believe in a single God because most people believed in multiple gods.

Fewer people would identify as atheist, because people were not willing to share alternative religious beliefs publically.

More people would list their religion as unknown because there were no strong religious entities during this era.

More people would believe in a spirit or life force because such beliefs were encouraged during this era.

Points earned on this question: 5
Question 7 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 MC)How did Islamic influence during the Middle Ages contribute to the Scientific Revolution?

Islamic trade bolstered the economy and helped scientists fund their research and increase exploration.

Most of the leading thinkers of the Scientific Revolution held Islamic religious beliefs.

The Islamic Empire placed great value on learning, and later European scientists were able to build on the advancements of Islamic scholars.

As Europeans conquered Islamic territory, they captured classical Greek and Roman texts in the process.



Points earned on this question: 5
Question 8 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 MC)How did developments from the Renaissance affect Andreas Vesalius's work?

Inventions such as the printing press allowed him to publish influential writings.

He borrowed from ideas of Renaissance astronomers and astrologers.

His research was funded by the increasingly powerful Catholic Church.

He based his theories on the idea that individuals were subject to God's will.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 9 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 MC)Use the image below to answer the following question:


Public Domain

How might Leonardo da Vinci's sketches of the human body, such as the one above, have inspired later scientists?

His depictions of the human form made subsequent dissections unnecessary.

The sketches showed that the human body could be studied as a system, using scientific principles.

His depictions of the human form emphasized that it was a simple subject to study.

The sketches popularized the scientific study of anatomy among common people.

Points earned on this question: 5
Question 10 (Worth 5 points)

(05.02 MC)Use the excerpt below from the English Bill of Rights to answer the following question:

"That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious;

That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law…"


Public Domain

How did the English Bill of Rights represent a change from the existing political trends in 17th century Europe?

It limited royal power and made Parliament the supreme authority.

Most other governments didn't codify and publish laws.

It was issued by the king of England to limit his own power.

It mentioned government authority regarding religion.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 11 (Worth 5 points)

(05.02 MC)How does the role of the Russian nobility in government during the 18th century compare to that of the French nobility in the 17th century?

Russian nobles were forbidden from taking positions in government, while French nobles were encouraged to take active roles in government.

In both France and Russia, nobles dominated the government, weakening the power of the monarchy.

In France, nobles were removed from a role in government, while in Russia they were employed in government.

In both France and Russia, nobles were excluded from government, which was administrated by commoners.



Points earned on this question: 5
Question 12 (Worth 5 points)

(05.01 MC)The map below shows areas of Europe controlled by Charles V (of Spain) at the time he stepped down as king. Use the map to below to answer the following question:


Public Domain

What does this map demonstrate about the boundaries of empires in the 16th century?

Empires outside of Spain were small and insignificant.

Empires were not necessarily one continuous territory.

Empires formed according to strict geographic boundaries.

Empires outside of Spain were located in Spanish speaking regions of Europe.

Points earned on this question: 5
Question 13 (Worth 5 points)

(05.01 MC)The map below shows Europe in 1619. Use the map to answer the following question:


Public Domain

How did England's geography help to make it a naval power?

Since much of England was forested, there were ample resources for shipbuilding.

Its location at the northwestern edge of Europe made it a natural trading post for the continent.

As an island nation, England depended upon a strong navy for defense and for trade.

England's numerous gold and silver mines made it a target for invasion.

Points earned on this question: 5
Question 14 (Worth 5 points)

(05.06 MC)Which social class would it have been most dangerous to belong to during the French Revolution?

the aristocracy

the priesthood

urban workers

rural farm workers



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 15 (Worth 5 points)

(05.06 MC)The American Revolution greatly affected France. Which of the following was not one of the effects?

The French people were inspired to attempt a revolution of their own.

French rebels modeled their declaration of freedom on U.S. documents.

The French were inspired to sign a truce with the British like the Americans had.

The economy of France was greatly weakened because of trade with America.



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Question 16 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 LC)Who were the philosophes?

monarchs who tried to use their power for the good of society

leading political and social writers of the French Enlightenment

rulers who supported the monarchy on intellectual grounds

thinkers who believed that knowledge cannot extend past experience



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Question 17 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 LC)What religious issue helped cause the Enlightenment?

debates about whether the existence of God could be logically proven

questions as to whether scientific discoveries conflicted with religion

attempts by churches to suppress or censor independent thinking

the desire for religious harmony after the conflicts of the Reformation



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 18 (Worth 5 points)

(05.04 MC)Use the photograph below showing the physicists Albert Einstein and J. Robert Oppenheimer talking to answer the following question:


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Which of the following topics relates the most to both physicists' contributions to 20th century science history?

mapping the universe

discovering evolution

splitting the atom

creating new elements

Points earned on this question: 5
Question 19 (Worth 5 points)

(05.04 MC)Which scientific development has given rise to the most debate about the ethics of tampering with nature?

the cloning of animals

the invention of the computer

theories of dark matter

the search for extraterrestrial life



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 20 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 MC)Use the following excerpt below from Voltaire's A Treatise on Tolerance (1763) to answer the following question:

When Bishop Alexander and Arius the priest began first to dispute in what manner the Logos proceeded from the Father, the Emperor Constantine wrote to them in the following words…: "You are great fools to dispute about things you can not understand."

If the two contending parties had been wise enough to agree that the emperor was right, Christendom would not have been drenched in blood for three hundred years.


Public Domain

What view of religion does Voltaire express in this passage?

People need to accept and tolerate the beliefs of other faiths.

Religion is the cause of much war and bloodshed.

It is a mistake to hold one religious belief rather than another.

All faiths should unite in the beliefs that they all share.



Points earned on this question: 5
Question 21 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 MC)How did the political ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau compare to those of John Locke?

Both believed in the theory of a social contract.

Both believed that individuals were corrupted by society.

Both condemned the idea of individuals having the rights of life, liberty, and property."

Both were fearful of revolution.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 22 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 LC)Why did some philosophers and scientists criticize Margaret Cavendish?

They accused her of taking credit for her husband's work.

They considered her a traitor for helping the exiled Queen Maria Henrietta.

They found it unusual for a woman to publish writings under her own name.

They believed her poetry discussed dangerous topics and would incite rebellion.



Points earned on this question: 5
Question 23 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 HC)Which statement supports the claim that the political philosophy of John Locke was as revolutionary as the scientific revolution of Copernicus?

Just as Copernicus replaced the Earth with the Sun at the center of the solar system, Locke replaced the individual with the monarch at the center of the political system.

Just as Copernicus replaced the Earth with the Sun at the center of the solar system, Locke replaced the monarch with the aristocracy at the center of the political system.

Just as Copernicus replaced the Earth with the Sun at the center of the solar system, Locke replaced the monarch with the individual at the center of the political system.

Just as Copernicus replaced the Earth with the Sun at the center of the solar system, Locke replaced the monarch with the clergy at the center of the political system.



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Question 24 (Worth 5 points)

(05.06 MC)What role did the Jacobins play in the French Revolution?

The Jacobins reached an agreement with moderate French leaders to end the revolution.

The Jacobins opened French government to full participation by women.

The Jacobins returned France to a monarchy by supporting Napoleon.

The Jacobins instituted a radicalized government in France.



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Question 25 (Worth 5 points)

(05.06 MC)The passage below is an excerpt from Robespierre's On the Moral and Political Principles of Domestic Policy (1794). Use this passage to answer the following question:

We must smother the internal and external enemies of the Republic or perish with it; now in this situation, the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by reason and the people's enemies by terror.

If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it is not so much a special principle as it is a consequence of the general principle of democracy applied to our country's most urgent needs.


Public Domain

Which statement best summarizes Robespierre's argument?

Violence is equally regrettable no matter which side uses it.

Revolutions must be ruthless in destroying the enemies of the people.

The violence of the Reign of Terror was a mistake, but was limited.

In a revolution, the frenzy of the people cannot be controlled by law.



Points earned on this question: 5
Question 26 (Worth 5 points)

(05.06 HC)Suppose a historian wanted to argue that the Enlightenment had a more positive influence on the American Revolution than on the French Revolution. Which statement below would be the strongest evidence for the historian's view?

The French Revolution overthrew a monarchy and a social system, while the American Revolution only freed a group of colonies.

The American Revolution was led by men who admired Enlightenment thought, such as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin.

The American Revolution produced a Declaration of Independence, while the French Revolution produced a Declaration of the Rights of Man.

In the French Revolution, the will of the people turned away from justice and toward mob violence, fanaticism, and dictatorship.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 27 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 MC)How did the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?

It lessened the importance of observation and measurement in scientific discovery.

It led to a violent revolution and the overthrow of the crown.

It strengthened people's belief in the authority of the Church.

It led thinkers to seek out explanations instead of accepting common knowledge.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 28 (Worth 5 points)

(05.03 LC)With what scientific discovery is Sir Isaac Newton most commonly associated?

the Theory of Gravity

Boyle's Law

heliocentrism

the circulation of blood



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Question 29 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05/6 MC)Which statement conveys an idea of John Locke's that influenced both the American and the French Revolutions?

In the state of nature, there is only one social class, not a division into "estates."

When government violates individual rights, the people have the right to rebel.

Colonialism is immoral because it replaces one people's culture with another's.

Government should exist only to protect the nation, not to control people's lives.



Points earned on this question: 0
Question 30 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05/6 MC)How was France's Ancien Régime challenged by Enlightenment philosophies?

The monarchy and nobility increased their status and prestige.

King Louis XVI began challenging the power of the Catholic Church.

Lower- and middle-class citizens became more insistent on gaining equal rights.

Thinkers such as John Locke and Thomas Hobbes personally led French rebellions.



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Question 31 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 MC)How was Benjamin Franklin similar to Enlightenment thinkers?

He had a rebellious attitude toward the U.S. government.

He lived most of his life in France learning from French philosophers.

He believed in the power of reason to improve human life.

He wrote and published prudent "how-to" advice for the general public.



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Question 32 (Worth 5 points)

(05.05 MC)What was the significance of Voltaire's novel Candide?

It called for the confiscation of Church lands and the taxing of Church income.

It warned of the negative effects of freedom of speech.

It recounted the hardships Voltaire had experienced in England.

It used humor to illustrate the need for social reform.



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