Question 1: Study Source A. What can you learn from Source a about the early stages of the Battle of the Somme, July 1916?



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Question 1: Study Source A. What can you learn from Source A about the early stages of the Battle of the Somme, July 1916?

Skill: TWO supported inferences





Inferences

Support

First day a failure



Underestimated the Germans



Poorly planned




Question 2: Study Source B and use your own knowledge. What was the purpose of this illustration? Use details of the illustration and your own knowledge to explain your answer.
Skill: Supported purpose

EXAMPLE ANSWER

Skill

Example

Purpose



Source



Knowledge


The big problem with this question is people get MESSAGE but not purpose! The message on this source is that the attacks were successful – why would you want to show this? Remember not to question RELIABILITY HERE!



Question 3: Study Sources A, B and C. Do these sources support the view that the first day of the Somme was a failure? Explain your answer, using the sources.
Skill: Cross referencing and evaluation

Both A and B suggest that the first day was a failure in some way. It is clear in the foreground of B that soldiers died in the first morning and this is reflected b7y the ‘Hundreds of dead... strung out on barbed wire’ in A.







Agrees

Disagrees

Strong or weak?

A




Yes

One soldier who had witnessed only one part of failed attack

B

Yes

Yes

Government propaganda


C

Yes




Written by Haig



Can I use this plan to write the remaining TWO paragraphs?
The sources also disagree that the first day was a complete failure...

All the sources have weaknesses when assessing the view of the first day of the Battle of the Somme...



Question 4: Study Sources D and E and use your own knowledge. How useful are Sources D and E as evidence of the effects of a gas attack on the Western Front? Explain your answer, using Sources D and E and your own knowledge.
Skill: Reliability/ usefulness of CONTENT and NATURE, ORIGIN and PURPOSE



Source E is useful because it suggests that a gas attack was a terrible experience for those affected by it, causing terrible suffering. It was written by someone who served in the trenches and witnessed its effects. However, it is a poem which uses dramatic language deliberately to exaggerate the effects of gas by someone who, due to personal experiences, cannot write in an objective way.





Useful

Not

D CONTENT

As it shows the impact of a gas attack

Limited to only mustard gas

Only one snapshot of one attack of gas



D NOP

Photographs reflect a moment in time

Produced after war had ended – no censorship




Only based on earlier photographs

Not sure when original photo was taken – limited in assessing impact on Western Front = 4 years of war




CONCLUSION: WHICH BEST AND WHY





My addition to...

Question 5: Study all the sources (A to F) and use your own knowledge. Spelling, punctuation and grammar will be assessed in this question. ‘The heavy British casualties on the Western Front in the years 1915-17 were mainly the result of poor leadership by the British commanders.’ How far do the sources in this paper support this statement? Use details from the sources and your own knowledge to explain your answer.
Skill: BALANCED argument that has been evaluated


I agree that it was mainly due to the commanders and that ‘because they used outdated tactics. Source A shows that they sent men to attack heavily defended German positions and the commanders could not ‘imagine’. However, this was written by a British soldier who lost many friends and may want to blame the commanders. This lack of knowledge is also shown by Haig in source C, where he claims that the attacks were ‘very successful’. It is here the poor leadership shown by the commanders, although Haig may be covering up the disaster as he is writing to the British government and would not want to report a failure. There si evidence that Haig pushed forward with the attack despite company commanders warning him of the failure of the bombardment, costing the lives of some 20,000 men dead and 40,000 wounded in the first day alone.


Skill

Agree with statement – Casualties caused by leadership

Disagree with Statement – Casualties not caused by leadership / caused by something else.

Strong

C – COMMANDERS UNAWARE OF FIRST DAY FAILURES - HAIG




Weak

A – COMMANDERS SENT INTO HEAVILY DEFENDED AREAS – SOLDIER PERSPECTIVE


D – NEW WEAPONS – BASED ON PHOTOGRAPHS

C – NEW WEAPONS – WRITTEN TO THE GOVERNMENT

C – DEFENDS COMMANDERS - HAIG

F – DEFENDS COMMANDERS – BIOGRAOHY OF HAIG



OK

First day – 58,000 casualties.

Fighting continued for 3-4 months after despite 1st day failure

Ignored on the ground information that said defences not destroyed.


Machine guns 400-600 rounds. Trench warfare and artillery.

Haig and others testing things as they went =- new type of warfare – attrition still worked so successful. Casualties inevitable



CONCLUSION



My addition of the paragraph DISAGREEING with the statement


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