Public schools and the development of sport

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Socio-Cultural and Historical Effects on Participation in Physical Activity and their influence on Performance
January 2013
Why were the boys in English public schools encouraged to play sport? (4)
June 2012
Sport has remained a major recreational activity in the UK since the 19th Century. The majority of sports were rationalized in the 19th Century. What is meant by the term rational recreation (3)

A. Played regularly/often/fixtures/ leagues/regionally/nationally-based

B. Written/complex rules/codification

C. Standards of behaviour/etiquette/ civilised/fair play/sportsmanship

D. Highly structured/set times/number of players/boundaries/officials/kit/ equipment

E. Skill based/refined/complex/tactics developed

F. Spectators as well as participants

Why were the majority of sports rationalized in the 19th Century (3)

A. Society becoming more civilised/ better mannered/less violent/Acts of Parliament banned activities – mob football

B. Upper/middle classes controlled society/social control (of working classes)

C. Industrialisation – need for disciplined workforce/factory teams

D. Era of social reform/philanthropists

E. Role of church/Protestant work ethic/ church teams/boys clubs

F. Lack of space meant no room for popular recreations/urbanisation

G. Administration needed as more clubs/national governing bodies/ ‘melting pot’

H. Transport and communication developed

January, 2010
Early forms of modern sports were primarily developed by men for men. It is only since

the start of the 20th century that women have become more actively involved in sport.

How did 19th century public schools contribute to the technical development of

‘rational recreation’? (3 marks)

3 marks for 3 of:

A. Rules/numbers/boundaries/facilities

B. Inter-house/intra-school competitions/matches

C. Training/coaching

D. Skills/tactics/positions

E. Leadership/captain

F. Kit/equipment

G. Introduction of officials

H. Division between players and spectators
How did 19th century public schools and universities help to spread of rational

recreation into wider society? (3 marks)

3 marks for 3 of:

A. Universities as ‘melting pots’/lots of different types/styles of game/new


B. Codification/rules standardised

C. Provided facilities

D. Factory/church teams

E. Officers to troops

F. British Empire – over the world/missionaries/diplomats/military/clerics

G. Old boys network

H. Clubs/NGBs formed

I. Teachers to schools

J. Competitions/fixtures/leagues/internationals
January, 2009
Sporting activities can reflect the changes experienced within a society.

(a) What were the characteristics of popular recreation, such as mob football, and how did these activities reflect pre-industrial society in the United Kingdom? (4 marks)


1. Played occasionally/festivals/ holydays

2. Few/simple/unwritten rules (not just ‘no rules’)

3. Violent/injuries/damage to property

4. Male/wagering/alcohol

5. Low structure/unlimited time and numbers of participants/few boundaries (not just


6. Limited facilities/equipment needed

7. Working classes

8. Force rather than skill

9. Local/village V village

Reflection on soceity

10. Little free time

11. Uneducated so no written rules

12. Harsh lifestyles/society uncivilised

13. Little money

14. Little transport/mobility across country/rural & agricultural/space

15. Reflected division between social classes
(b) What technical developments did the 19th century English public schools make to the way in which games were played? (4 marks)
1. Developed rules/written/codification

2. Skills

3. Strategic/tactics

4. Kit to distinguish teams

5. Division of labour/eg attack defence/leadership/captain

6. Boundaries eg pitches

7. Facility/equipment developed

8. Competition – house/inter school

9. Officials/coaches
(c) Account for the delay in the opportunities for the working class to be able to play games such as lawn tennis. (4 marks)
1. Didn’t have enough time/worked long hours

2. Lack of disposable income/couldn’t afford – equipment/no garden (not

just space)

3. Was not included in state school system until the 20th century

4. Initially amateur development/middle and upper classes

5. Excluded from clubs/local authorities/discrimination by middle class

6. Lack of public provision/local authority

7. Did not have same middle class values/dress codes/etiquette
January, 2008
(c) Physical recreation is an activity that takes place during leisure time.

What factors led to an increase in leisure opportunities for the working class during the 19th century? (4 marks)

1. Saturday half day;

2. Early closing Wednesday;

3. Bank holidays;

4. Factory Acts/reduction in working hours;

5. More public provision e.g. parks/baths;

6. Increase in transport especially railways;

7. Access to seaside/countryside;

8. Development in spectator facilities;

9. Developments in education/media informed the working classes of sport – leisure;

10. More disposable income enabled working classes to e.g. afford equipment;

11. Middle classes encouraged working classes in rational recreation / factory

teams / patronage / seaside excursions

4 marks
Sport has remained a major recreational activity in the United Kingdom since the 19th century.

(a) Sports were rationalised in the 19th century English public schools.

i)What is meant by the term rational recreation? (2 mark)
1. (Played) regularly/often;

2. (Rules) – written/complex/sophisticated;

3. (Behaviour) – etiquette/codes of behaviour/civilised/fair play/


4. (Highly Structured) – set times/number of players/boundaries;

5. (Skill) – refined/complex/developed. 2 marks

ii)Why were the majority of sports rationalised in the 19th century? (4 marks)
1. Society becoming more civilised/manners/less violent;

2. Middle class were in control of society’s values/social control of working


3. Industrialisation – need for disciplined workforce;

4. Era of social reform/philanthropists;

5. Mass of population needed entertaining;

6. Lack of space meant no room for old popular recreations;

7. Administration needed as more clubs/national governing bodies.

4 marks
(iii) What aspects of character building did the public schools hope to develop when encouraging the boys to participate in sporting activities? (4 marks)
1. Loyalty;

2. Teamwork/cooperation/trust;

3. Leadership/response to leadership;

4. Courage/bravery;

5. Self discipline;

6. Decision making/strategic/tactical;

7. Win and lose with honour. 4 marks
b) The 19th century public schools provided the children of the middle and upper social classes with the opportunity to participate in a variety of sports that were not available to the working class.
Suggest reasons why social class can still be a determining factor in the number and type of sporting activities in which an individual might become involved. (4 marks)
1. Money to afford equipment/facilities;

2. Type of schooling – curriculum offered e.g. private/state;

3. Parental interests;

4. Amount of leisure time;

5. Cultural values e.g. high culture – low culture/working class/middle class;

6. Access to clubs;

7. Whether likely to have a controlling position/administration etc.

4 marks
January 2007
British Society experienced many changes in the 19th and 20th centuries, resulting in the need for people to develop and adapt their skills and roles.

1 (c) (i) What were the characteristics of public and state schools in the 19th century?

(4 marks)

1. Day/local;

2. Free to go/after small initial charge;

3. Mixed ages/sexes;

4. Poor cramped facilities/few facilities;

5. For the working classes;

6. Gave a basic education the in the 3 R.s and the 4th R . Religion;

7. Physical activity included military drill/forms of gymnastics/physical training.


8. Boarding/residential/rural/non local

9. Single sex/boys

10. Fee paying/elitist/run by trustees

11. Middle upper class

12. Sophisticated facilities/larger grounds

13. Spartan/fagging/strict discipline system
Games are popular recreational and sporting activities.

2 (b) (i) Mob football was a game played in the 19th century. What were the

characteristics of mob games? (4 marks)
4 marks for 4 of:

1. Local;

2. Unstructured in terms of boundaries/number of players/time/kit/no

spectators/participation based/disorganised;

3. Rules were few/simple/unwritten (do not credit no rules);

4. Male;

5. Working class;

6. Violent/many injuries/alcohol fuelled;

7. Limited equipment/cheap;

8. Initially rural/ later some urban adaptation/village rivalries;

9. Played occasionally/holy/feast days;

10. Force not skill.

(ii) Mob games are no longer played regularly in the United Kingdom. What

social factors caused the decline of mob games in the 19th century?

(3 marks)
3 marks for 3 of:

1. Banned by authorities/unpopular with middle class/churches/violent/

disorderly/damage to properties/land;

2. Lack of space in urban areas/no space;

3. Need for disciplined workforce/time off work due to injuries/no time/losing

holy days/increased working hours/machine led/lack of free time;

4. Rationalising/civilising of society ongoing process;

5. Middle class encouraged rational forms of recreation/factory/church teams;

6. Developed in public schools.
2 (c) Public schools in the 19th century left a tradition of games in British schools.

How did the Public schools in the 19th century bring about the technical and

moral development of games such as football? (5 marks)

1. Lots of time/regular play

2. Developed rules

3. Developed structure e.g.

time/boundaries/number of


4. Division of labour e.g.


5. Equipment changes/goal posts/kits

6. Competition/house/later school


7. Code of behaviour/etiquette

8. Sportsmanship/fairplay

9. Leadership/response to leadership

10. Win and lose with honour

11. Respect for opponents

12. Athleticism/physical endeavour

with moral integrity

13. Teamwork/cooperation
3 (ii) Figure 2 depicts a football match between England and Scotland at the Oval in 1875 as an early example of rational recreation.

Using the information provided in Figure 2 as a guide, describe the

characteristics of rational recreation. (4 marks)

1. Resources . access to money/facilities/effective coaching/transport/clubs/

disposable income;

2. Social status/middle classes more likely to participate/unemployment issues;

3. Peers/friends/family . influence of (positive or negative);

4. Cultural / religious/race issues/holy days/dress codes or


5. Leisure time - amount of;

6. Previous experience / Past enjoyment or not of PE /previous success in

sport/ private schools;

7. Age / old / young . require explanation

8. Gender e.g. women may have less access to resources / men more likely to


9. Disability . less access or increasing opportunities;

10. Discrimination . require explanation;

11. Media coverage/societies image/role models/health awareness.

January 2006
3(b) How did the 19th century public schools and universities influence the

development of games and their spread into wider society? (4 marks)

4 marks for 4: max 3 per section



1. Developed rules/boundaries/playing numbers/facilities

2. Competitions/House/inter-school

3. Training/coaching

4. Skills/tactics / strategies

5. Leadership/captain

6. Kit to define teams

Must relate to Universities or beyond to credit

8. Acted as melting pots

9. Codification

10. More variety

11. Higher standards

12. Factory /church teams

13. Provided facilities employers/church

14. Officers to troops

15. British Empire . across the


16. Old Boys/ Old Girls network

17. Clubs/governing bodies

18. Teachers to schools

3(c) Why was participation in sport by the working class delayed compared with

participation by the middle and upper classes in the 19th century? (3 marks)
(c) 3 marks for 3 of:

1. Little leisure time/had to wait for leisure time e.g. Wednesday half day/little disposable income;

2. No facilities of their own/little public provision;

3. Traditional activities lost in urban areas (eg mob football)/legislation/banning;

4. Lack of space for mass of population;

5. No schooling until 1870/then only drill/no sport or recreation focus;

6. Poor health of population/little energy;

7. NGBs/administration was controlled by upper/middle classes. 3 marks
3(d) Provision of leisure facilities, such as parks and baths, began during the Victorian era and continues today with local authorities. Why were such facilities provided? (4 marks)
(d) 4 marks for 4 of:

1. Health/hygiene of population;

2. Morale of population/socialising;

3. Civilising of society/middle class values;

4. Social control/temperance movement/lower crime rate;

5. Prestige of local council/area;

6. Philanthropy/social justice/concern for lot of working classes;

7. Expectations of community;

8. Economic benefits/employment; (Present day)

9. Part of wider social policy. 4 marks

June 2005
1 (b) Many games developed in 19th century public schools as a result of the boys’ interest in sporting activities and as a means to control behaviour.

(i) What was the role of the sixth form in the development and rationalisation of games? (2 marks)

(b) (i) 1. Sixth form given responsibility for organising/officiating games/inter-school fixtures;

2. Initially little involvement by the masters/later acted as authority for masters;

3. Devised (individual school) rules/technical development of games;

4. Developed sports committees e.g. Harrow Philathletic;

5. Became games elite/earned respect and status/Captain of a team had high status/leadership skills/sixth formers as role models;

6. Given responsibility of younger boys/fagging system/social control/stop brutality/bullying. 2 marks

(ii) How did public schools use team games such as cricket as a form of social control? (4 marks)
(ii) 1. Positive use of leisure time/alternative to poaching/trespassing/counter bad behaviour;

2. Could be played on school grounds;

3. Obeying rules developed a code of conduct/gentlemanly behaviour/fair play;

4. Loyalty to team/teamwork/team game equiv;

5. Smaller boys (fags) helped in practice/feel involved/team ethics/idea of service;

6. Junior teachers acted as players and coaches (due to nature of cricket);

7. Headmasters allowed boys to play respectable games;

8. Inter school fixtures brought the boys together/those who didn.t play could watch and support (must qualify effect of fixtures to credit);

9. Respect for Captain/leadership;

10. Character building/self discipline;

11. Sixth Form/older boys given authority/fagging system.

(Must use team games to credit) 4 marks

(c) Explain the reasons why the upper/middle classes became the controllers and administrators of sport in the late 19th century. (3 marks)

(c) 1. Went to public schools/well educated;

2. Had high social status/ powerful following industrial revolution/political clout/wealthy (do not credit money unless qualified);

3. Ex public schoolboys/girls set up original clubs/governing bodies;

4. Had a lot of leisure time to fill/ Working class did not have a lot of leisure time;

5. Were used to being leaders/developed leadership skills/would be leaders in society;

6. Wanted to control leisure of working class/gave sport a moral focus;

7. Working class did not have the power/skills to be administrators/not educated.

3 marks
3 (c) How did 19th century public schools develop sporting excellence? (4 marks)
(c) 4 marks for 4 of:

1. Boys able to play regularly/use of leisure time;

2. Develop skills;

3. Sporting talent could participate together/created a school elite;

4. Extensive/better facilities/grounds/equipment;

5. Coaching standards developed/masters began to become involved/Oxbridge Blues;

6. Competitive opportunities via house/inter-school;

7. Prestige of winning led to serious training/employment of professional coaches in some instances;

8. Encouragement by headmasters/time given to sport;

9. Sport thought to promote athleticism.

4 marks
January 2005
2. Since the 19th century the United Kingdom has developed from an industrialised and urban society to a knowledge-based and service-based economy.

(a) Modern sports are partly a result of changes that occurred in the 19th century.

(i) How did English public schools influence the technical development of games? (3 marks)
2 (a) (i) 3 marks for 3 of:

1 Boys brought activities from villages and schools;

2 Played regularly in free time;

3 Devised initial rules/individual schools versions;

4 (This allowed) inter House competitions;

5 Later adopted standardised rules;

6 (This allowed) inter-school competitions;

7 Structural changes boundaries/time limits/numbers on teams/strategies/roles/skills/techniques/kit;

8 Leadership/captain roles/games elite. 3 marks

(Do not credit fair play)
(ii) How did sport spread from the English public schools in the late 19th century? (3 marks)
(ii) 3 marks for 3 of:

1. British Empire/colonising other cultures/exporting British traditions;

2. Officers;

3. Teachers to schools/blues/colours;

4. Clergy through church;

5. Employers through employees;

6. Establishing the modern sport club structure/regional/national;

7. Creating National Governing bodies/administration structures;

8. Ex public school boys high status/jobs/influential/government;

9. University. 3 marks

(Do not credit old boys/armed forces on their own)
4 Attitudes towards sporting activities have changed since the 19th century.

(a) Concern over the nature of the leisure activities of the working class became a priority for the middle classes, who sought to rationalise sport.

What were the characteristics of rational recreation? (3 marks)
4 (a) 3 marks for 3 of

1. Played regularly

2. (Complex) written rules/highly structured/administrative/levels of competition;

3. Refined skills;

4. Strategies/tactics;

5. Moral values/etiquette/code of conduct;

6. Sophisticated facilities/equipment. 3 marks
(b) How and why did the Church promote physical recreation activities in the late 19th century? (4 marks)
(b) 4 marks for 4 of: max. 3 per section

June 2004
1 (a) One of the aims of public and state school education, since the 19th century, has been to help to prepare young adults for later life.

(i) What were the characteristics of the 19th century English public schools? (3 marks)

1 (a) (i) 3 marks for 3 of:

1. Gentry/upper class/middle class;

2. Fee paying/exclusive/elitist;

3. Rural/non local/not many of them;

4. Residential/boarding;

5. Single sex/all boys/all girls;

6. Spartan/fagging system/bullying;

7. Strict discipline;

8. Endowed/trustees. 3 marks
(ii) Boys at public schools participated in team games. How were team games used to help prepare the boys to become leaders in society? (4 marks)
(ii) (4 marks for 4 of):

1. Organising their own sport events/organising experience/sport committees/

in charge of young boys/ran by sixth formers;

2. Teamwork/raising team morale/create loyalty in a team;

3. Captain/captain in sport/learn to give orders/respect for leadership;

4. Physical hard work/fitness/health/strength to lead;

5. Devising tactics/strategies to overcome problems/decision making;

6. Competitive to exist in competitive society;

7. Prepare them to behave well under pressure/test temperament/self discipline;

8. Test courage and bravery;

9. Leading by example;

10. Expectations of high moral standards/sportsmanship/fairplay. 4 marks

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