Psyc 353 adult psychopathology brian Price, Ph. D

Neurotransmitter imbalances

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Neurotransmitter imbalances

  • Synapse

  • Neurotransmitter

  • Hormonal imbalances

  • Structural imbalances
  • Hypothalamus

  • Pituitary gland

  • Chromosomal Abnormalities

The Relationship of Genotypes and Phenotypes

  • A person’s total genetic endowment

  • Phenotype

  • The observed structural and functional characteristics

  • Methods for Studying Genetic Influences

  • The pedigree (family history) method

  • The twin method

  • The adoption method

Learning Model
Learning Model: Assumption

Learning Model: Abnormality

  • can be either individual deficit or environment; mostly environment

  • defined in terms of unacceptable by individual or agent, type, frequency, and duration

Learning Model: Characteristics

  • focus upon situational by environmental factors

  • less culturally bound

  • use of behavioral assessment methods

  • assessment is continual, criterion-referenced, and idiographic

Learning Model: Nature of Treatment

  • use of various behavioral interventions

  • Joseph Wolpe

Cognitive Model
Cognitive Model: Assumption

  • all behavior is learned, but mediated through thinking

  • imitation learning, attributions, and attributional styles

  • behavior is a result of interaction between environment and individual

  • mostly individual

Cognitive Model: Abnormality

  • Dysfunctional thought patterns result in abnormal emotional and/or behavioral patterns

Cognitive Model: Characteristics

  • focus upon person by environmental factors

  • less culturally bound

  • use of self assessment methods

  • assessment is continual, criterion-referenced, and idiographic

Cognitive Model: Nature of Treatment

  • Ellis’s Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Treatment

  • Beck’s Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Social System/Deviance Model

Social System/Deviance Model: Assumptions

  • multiple expectancies or roles affect behavior

  • persons possess both competencies and deficits as expressed in different settings/roles

Social System/Deviance Model: Abnormality

  • systems-specific; behavior violates (or deviates against) set of expectancies within system

Social System/Deviance Model: Characteristics

  • deficit and asset model

  • social system bound

  • role bound

  • cultural and racial issues limited to individuals (roles)

  • Sociometric and self-report measures

Social System/Deviance Model: Treatment

Humanistic-Existential Model
Humanistic-Existential Model: Assumptions

  • All living organisms are endowed with a growth potential which may or may not be encouraged in face of environmental encounters

Humanistic-Existential Model: Abnormality

  • People are considered as being abnormal when they are incongruent or inconsistent from either their true or real self.

Humanistic-Existential Model: Characteristics

  • The democratic ideal. “belief in the worth and dignity of the individual”. This attitude essentially focuses upon the behavior rather than criticizing the client.

  • The fundamental predominance of the subjective.

  • A tendency toward growth and actualization. This is the perspective that all organisms are innately endowed with abilities to express themselves or grow.

  • The essential trustworthiness of persons.

  • The Value of an Authentic Human Encounter in the Present.

Humanistic-Existential Model: Nature of Treatment

  • Through the encounter with an accepting individual, the person learns to ignore previous learning to become more genuine.

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