Psyc 353 adult psychopathology brian Price, Ph. D


Neurotransmitter imbalances



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Neurotransmitter imbalances

  • Synapse

  • Neurotransmitter

  • Hormonal imbalances


  • Structural imbalances
  • Hypothalamus

  • Pituitary gland


  • Chromosomal Abnormalities



The Relationship of Genotypes and Phenotypes

  • A person’s total genetic endowment

  • Phenotype

  • The observed structural and functional characteristics


  • Methods for Studying Genetic Influences



  • The pedigree (family history) method

  • The twin method

  • The adoption method



Learning Model
Learning Model: Assumption



Learning Model: Abnormality


  • can be either individual deficit or environment; mostly environment

  • defined in terms of unacceptable by individual or agent, type, frequency, and duration


Learning Model: Characteristics


  • focus upon situational by environmental factors

  • less culturally bound

  • use of behavioral assessment methods

  • assessment is continual, criterion-referenced, and idiographic


Learning Model: Nature of Treatment


  • use of various behavioral interventions

  • Joseph Wolpe


Cognitive Model
Cognitive Model: Assumption


  • all behavior is learned, but mediated through thinking

  • imitation learning, attributions, and attributional styles

  • behavior is a result of interaction between environment and individual

  • mostly individual


Cognitive Model: Abnormality


  • Dysfunctional thought patterns result in abnormal emotional and/or behavioral patterns


Cognitive Model: Characteristics


  • focus upon person by environmental factors

  • less culturally bound

  • use of self assessment methods

  • assessment is continual, criterion-referenced, and idiographic


Cognitive Model: Nature of Treatment


  • Ellis’s Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Treatment

  • Beck’s Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Social System/Deviance Model


Social System/Deviance Model: Assumptions


  • multiple expectancies or roles affect behavior

  • persons possess both competencies and deficits as expressed in different settings/roles


Social System/Deviance Model: Abnormality


  • systems-specific; behavior violates (or deviates against) set of expectancies within system


Social System/Deviance Model: Characteristics


  • deficit and asset model

  • social system bound

  • role bound

  • cultural and racial issues limited to individuals (roles)

  • Sociometric and self-report measures


Social System/Deviance Model: Treatment



Humanistic-Existential Model
Humanistic-Existential Model: Assumptions


  • All living organisms are endowed with a growth potential which may or may not be encouraged in face of environmental encounters

Humanistic-Existential Model: Abnormality




  • People are considered as being abnormal when they are incongruent or inconsistent from either their true or real self.


Humanistic-Existential Model: Characteristics


  • The democratic ideal. “belief in the worth and dignity of the individual”. This attitude essentially focuses upon the behavior rather than criticizing the client.

  • The fundamental predominance of the subjective.

  • A tendency toward growth and actualization. This is the perspective that all organisms are innately endowed with abilities to express themselves or grow.

  • The essential trustworthiness of persons.

  • The Value of an Authentic Human Encounter in the Present.


Humanistic-Existential Model: Nature of Treatment


  • Through the encounter with an accepting individual, the person learns to ignore previous learning to become more genuine.





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