Proxy Wars/Conflicts of the Cold War



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Proxy Wars/Conflicts of the Cold War

Origins WWII Ideologies Bi-polar (alliances) Arms Race Space Race Espionage up to 1990’s



1. Greek Civil War

  • 1946 – 1949 * Eastern European countries strive for democracy – succeed – civil disobedience

  • first proxy war; communism take-over of democratic government

  • victory – democracy

INSERT HERE < * India – supports democracy/USA; Pakistan – supports dictatorship/USSR

- concern w/ India - overpopulation



2. Malaysian Emergency

  • 1948 - 1960

  • protection of democratic investments and profits in Indonesia

  • victory - democracy

3. Arab-Israeli Conflict

  • 1948 - 1983/now * conflict between Palestinian Muslims/Israeli Jews over “homeland”

* Arabs must recognize state of Israel/must move out of territory

* goal of Muslims: creation of a single Arab state in Middle East



  • conflict over territorial, political and religious control

  • Muslim vs. Christian vs. Jewish

INSERT HERE < * Chinese Communism – Mao Zedong (founder of Chinese communism)

- Mao gained support of people w/ giving land and lies

- mentality of brainwashing: “people/democracy/republic”

* Southeast Asia caught in middle of cold War

* North/South Korea – same history, language, culture/different political and economic

4. Korean War


  • 1959 - 1953

  • first proxy war that had American and Communist forces involved

  • victory - none/stalemate

  • "police action" of containment

5. Suez Crisis

  • 1956 * Abdel Nasser – nationalize control of the Suez Canal/end European imperialism

  • ended European imperialism in the Middle East

  • severely affected world trade routes

  • victory – non-democratic imperialism

6. Cuban Revolution

  • 1959 * Latin American conflicts – inequality over $$$

  • Communist take-over of Cuban "democratic" government under Bautista

  • Change from democracy and capitalism to communism and command economy

  • victory - communist

7. Tibetan Uprising

8. Laotian Civil War

  • 1953 - 1973

  • struggle between communism and democracy for control of Laos

  • influential on the Vietnam War (Ho Chi Minh Trail)

  • victory - communism

9. Vietnam War

  • 1955 – 1975 * Ho Chi Minh – free Vietnam from foreign control

* After war, Vietnam (and other proxy battlegrounds) were poor and lacked support

10. Guatemalan Civil War

  • 1960 – 1996 * Latin America – continuous civil wars, “dirty wars”

  • largest Latin American Civil War

  • showed the brutality of guerilla warfare

11. Congo Crisis

  • 1960 – 1966 * African nationalism –

based on disgust of discrimination, inequalities, weakness of imperial control

* All African nations fought for independence

* African political instability – result of lack of common goals/cultural ties


  • African crisis to determine fate of African politics

  • covert (black) operations

  • uncertain future for Africa (politically, economically culturally)

Civil Rights Movement

Age of Sex, Drugs and Rock & Roll

Covert (Black) Operations world-wide

Berlin Wall (1961)

12. Bay of Pigs Invasion

  • 1961

  • American CIA-led invasion of Cuba to assassinate Castro

  • American support dropped at last minute; failed

  • victory - communist

13. Cuban Missile Crisis

  • 1962

  • placement of ballistic missiles in Cuba by the Soviets

  • world on edge of nuclear holocaust

  • victory - democracy

Woodstock

Munich Olympic Terrorism * 1st showing of extremist Islamic terrorism - anywhere

14. Angolan Civil War

  • 1975 – 2002 * United Nations – Africa voice of developing nations

* ethnic group differences promote civil war (“warlords” and “greed”)

  • longest, largest, most destructive proxy war

  • considered critical to outcome of Cold War

  • political, ethnic and regional destruction

15. Somail Civil War

  • Late 1970's/Early 1980's...expanded early 1990's

  • political, ethnic, religious and economic destruction

  • humanitarian disaster

  • clan competition through warlords

  • competition over...resources = power

16. Soviet-Afghan War

  • 1979 - 1989

  • Soviet Red Army vs. Islamic (freedom fighters) Mujahedeen resistance

  • Soviet "Vietnam"

  • victory - Mujahedeen leading to downfall of Soviet Union

  • Mujahedeen transforms into Al Qaida and birth of modern-day terrorism

Computer Age

Oil Crisis World-wide * All nations rely on oil – no oil/economic problems

* USA – protect oil reserves world-wide



Disco

INSERT HERE < * Iranian Revolution – Iran becomes leader of Arab world



17. Iran Hostage Crisis

  • 1979 – 1981 * 1st showing of extremist Islamic terrorism toward USA

  • USA vs. Iran

  • Iranian Revolution (led by Ayatollah)

  • escalating tensions between USA and Islamic World (focused in Iran)

1980 Gold Medal USA Hockey Team

18. Iran-Iraq War

  • 1980 – 1988 * Persian Gulf Wars – border issues, oil resources, water resources

  • Political/cultural/religious/social

  • Iraq replaces Iran as leader of Islamic World

  • contributed to chaos of Middle East situations

Rap music

.....bands like Boston and Van Halen......

"Big Hair Bands"

19. Invasion of Grenada

  • 1983

  • Communist revolutionary government overthrown by US military; replaced with democratic government

  • Victory - democracy

20. Salvadoran Civil War

  • 1980-1992

  • Savage fighting between democratic US-backed government and communist guerilla-backed militias

  • Victory – democratic (?)

Gangster Rap

Grunge music

End of Cold War –



  • 1989 – 1991 collapse of Soviet Union because of failures of communism/command economy

  • Berlin Wall falls, reunification of Germany

  • Eastern Europe – civil disobedience, “ethnic cleansing”

  • European Union – compete economically with superpowers

  • Japan becomes interdependent – large trade deficit, Pacific Rim – large world population

  • South and Latin America – conflicts resulting from economic and environmental issues (ex. rainforest destruction)

  • Control of global world markets arises from multi-national corporation interests

Global War on Terror

Uncertainty for the Future…

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