INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES The Institute for development Studies is a multi-disciplinary as well as a multi-purpose organization` focusing on social economic issuesof development in Kenya and in the Kenya and in the rest of Africa. Its main functions are research, training of East African social scientists in collaboration with social science departments at the University of Nairobi, provision of facilities which enhance intellectual stimulus between local and visiting scholars from overseas and a variety of professional consultancy services to various ministries of the Kenya Government, regional and international development agencies, voluntary bodies and the general public in Kenya.
The research programme of the Institute is established by the Board of the Institute for Development Studies in close consultation with the various ministries of the Kenya government. It focuses on high priority problems of national development. The research findings are disseminated through a series of publications by the Institute in a number of forms: Working Papers provide a medium for initial discussion of research proposals at regular seminars held at the Institute to which all interested persons are free to attend. For completed research, Discussion Papers are published and these have a world wide circulation. Then lastly, Occasional Papers which represent findings of larger research projects as well as proceedings of conferences and workshops held under the auspices of the Institute. These publications, as well as details of on going research are contained in the Institute Research and Publications Brochure issued regularly.
The Institute undertakes training of Kenyan Social Scientists through the Junior Research Fellow (JRF) Programme. Junior Research Fellows are Kenyans who are appointed to carry out their doctoral dissertation research in association with the Institute while their post-graduate registration remains with overseas universities or with the teaching departments of the University of Nairobi. The research and training functions of the Institute are facilitated by regular series of seminars attended by members of the University, the government and the interested general public through workshops and conferences.
Academic members of the Institute are under obligation to teach up to three hours a week if they are so requested by departments related to their field of specialization. This ensures that the results of the Institute's research are incorporated into regular undergraduate and postgraduate teaching.
The Institute also serves as host institution to scholars from overseas engaged in research on Kenyan development problems. Scholars whose research fits into the overall research priorities of the Institute are given the status of Research Associates.
Through consultancy, membership of Working Parties and Commissions and Advisory services to a wide and increasing range of public and private bodies at the national, regional and International levels, the Institute endeavours to disseminate its research findings and utilises its exercise in the common effort to find solutions to problems of growth and development.
UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
Institute for Development Studies
Regulations and Syllabus for
Master of Arts in Development Studies
INTRODUCTION The Institute for Development Studies' master's programme addresses development issues using theories and methodological approaches of various academic disciplines. The courses, however, assume some formal study of practical experience in the social sciences. The curriculum takes advantage of the varied academic background and experience of IDS staff to offer a programme characterised by theoretical rigour, emphasis on research methodology, people orientation and an interdisciplinary issue-based approach.
The post-graduate programme in development studies will prepare students already grounded in the social sciences to deal creatively and effectively with development problems. All courses take a multi-disciplinary approach; all combine theory with practical application. The problems of development in Africa are stressed. Every course will include examples taken from the Kenyan situation.
2.0 REGULATIONS The Common Regulations for the Master's Degree in All Faculties of the University of Nairobi shall apply to the Master of Arts in Development Studies Programme.
3.0 ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS To be eligible for registration for the Master of Arts in Development Studies degree, one should be:
(a) a holder of at least an upper-second bachelor's degree from the University of Nairobi in any discipline.
(b) a holder of an equivalent degree or an equivalent qualification recognized by University of Nairobi Senate to be of comparable academic status.
4.0 COURSE STRUCTURE AND DURATION 4.1 The programme will consist of full-time study by coursework, examination, research project paper or thesis extending over two academic years.
4.2 In the first year (Part I) all students will be required to take and pass a total of eight courses 5 of which will be compulsory and 3 will be electives. Four compulsory courses will be common for all students while the fifth one will be the compulsory unit in the module selected.
4.3 Each student will be required to select one of the following five course modules:
1. Technology and Natural Resource Management
2. Development and Change in African Societies
3. Human Resource Development
4. International Development
5. Planning for Development
4.4 The student will be required to select three electives from any course module in order to fulfil the requirement of eight courses.
4.5 The Second Year Part (II):
(i) Students proceeding to Second Year (Part II) will either opt for a research project paper or a thesis.
(ii) Students opting for a research project paper will take in the first semester, four courses related to the area of research participate in a field - based research project, and in the second semester write and present a research project report for examination.
Students opting for a thesis will devote the entire second year to research, thesis preparation, and presentation for examination.
5.0 COURSE OUTLINE (a) Core Courses (Required for all students)
CDS 501 Development Management
- Theory 60 hours
CDS 502 Development Management
- Practice 60 hours
CDS 503 Research Foundations 60 hours
CDS 504 Research Technologies and
Computer Application 60 hours
Module 1: Technology and Natural Resource Management
CDS 601 Natural Resources and Environmental Management (Required for students in module 1) 60 hours
CDS 602 Energy Policy and Planning and
Development 60 hours
CDS 603 Science, Technology and Policy 60 hours
CDS 604 Political Economy of Industrialization 60 hours
C 512 International Economics (Economics) 60 hours
CGV 611 Advanced International Relations
(Government) 60 hours
Module 5: Planning for Development
CDS 641 Development Strategies and Planning 60 hours
(Required for students in module 5)
CDS 642 Computer Applications for Development Planning 60 hours
CDS 643 Agricultural Planning and Food Security 60 hours
CDS 644 Industrial Planning 60 hours
CDS 645 Human Resource Planning 60 hours
Land Development/(M.A. in Housing
Admin.) 60 hours
6.0 EXAMINATION REGULATIONS (a) All candidates shall be required to pass all eight courses within the first year.
(b) The final examination for each course shall consist of a two-hour paper at the end of the semester in which it is taught.
(c) The Passmark for each course examined shall be 50 per cent.
(d) The mark for the final university examinations shall contribute 70 per cent of the final overall mark while 30 per cent will be contributed by course work assessment.
(e) A candidate who fails in one or two paper with a mark from 40 to 49 per cent inclusive shall be allowed to sit a supplementary examination in the failed paper(s) within three months after the end of the second semester.
(f) A candidate who fails in three or more papers, or who obtains less than 40 per cent in any paper or who fails in a supplementary examination shall be discontinued.
(g) Candidates opting for a research project paper shall be required to sit an examination at the end of the first semester of the second year consisting of four two-hour papers related to the four additional courses they have taken in that semester and pass in the said four courses.
(h) Candidates opting for a research project paper must submit the completed project reports to their faculty supervisor one month before the end of the second semester.
(i) The research project paper shall be equivalent to four course units for purposes of assessing a student's overall performance.
(j) A candidate who in the second year fails in the research project paper with a mark from 40 to 49 per cent inclusive will be required to revise and resubmit the paper within three months.
(k) A candidate who either obtains less than 40 per cent or fails in the revised research project paper shall be discontinued.
(l) A candidate who in the second year fails in one or two papers with a mark from 40 - 49 cent inclusive shall be allowed to sit a supplementary examination in the failed papers within three months.
(m) Thesis examination will follow the Common Regulations for the Master's Degree in All Faculties of the University of Nairobi.
THE MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES 7.0 COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 7.1 CORE COURSE The core of the programme consists of four courses taken by every student. Courses 501 and 502, Development Management, provide the theoretical underpinning for all course modules. Courses 503 and 504, Research Methods and Techniques, give students the technical skills required to gather, present and analyze data on development problems.
CDS 501: Development Management
Theory 60 hours - 1st Semester The concept and goals of development, Economic, political-economy, Sociological approaches to development. Development models: growth, distribution and diffusion, dual economy, underdevelopment. Current issues and concerns in development: gender, environment, culture, human resources, roles of government and private sector in resource mobilization. Development strategies: big push, balanced and unbalanced growth, employment, trade, agriculture, industrialization, basic needs, sustainable development. Barriers to development. Development planning and management.
CDS 502: Development Management -
Practice 60 hours - 2nd Semester Project preparation, analysis, evaluation, and monitoring. Project conceptualization and planning: technical, institutional-organizational, social, economic, environmental, and financial aspects. Project implementation: project development, project proposal, budgeting, staffing, sitting, strategies for implementation. Project evaluation and monitoring: cost-benefit analysis, qualitative evaluation, monitoring and assessment.
CDS 503: Research Foundations 60 hours - 1st Semester Conceptual and methodological foundation for research. Research design theory, hypothesis, data requirements. Planning for analysis of subgroups by gender, location, sector. Model formulation. Introduction to computers and their applications in research. Methods of data collection: surveys, participant observation, case studies. Questionnaire design. Interview techniques. Ethics of social science research. Methods of data analysis. Research report writing and presentation.
CDS 504: Research Methods and Computer
Applications 60 hours - 2nd Semester Sampling theory and techniques. Models and applications: probabilistic, deterministic. Model estimation and testing. Computer applications: simple programming, packaged statistical programs (e.g. SPSS), other useful programs (e.g. lotus, Dbase). Linear programming. Dynamic programming. Individual research proposal preparation; simulation; network analysis; and applications of matrices.
7.2 ELECTIVE COURSES MODULE 1: TECHNOLOGY AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The objective of this course module is to enable students to acquire knowledge on the interplays between science, technology, natural resources as well as environment, on the one hand and development dynamics on the other.
CDS 601: Natural Resource and Environmental
Management 60 hours
(Required for those concentrating in Technology and Natural Resource Management).
Theories of natural resource management. Environment and development. Legal, regulatory and institutional framework for environmental management. Production, exploitation and conservation. Identification of key resources. Environmental implications of natural resources. Natural resource characteristics of land. Land use policy for development. Tenure, taxation, access, rent. Incentive/structures for production. Land waste lands. Policies for arid/semi-arid and waste lands. Environmental education.
CDS 602: Energy Policy and Planning and Development 60 hours National energy policies, planning and strategies. Institutional setting. Basic characteristics and structures of energy supply systems. Basic characteristics and structures of energy demand systems. Implications of energy system structure for production, pricing, costing, distribution and utilization of energy resources in Kenya. comparatives analysis of energy systems and technologies.
CDS 603: Science, Technology, and Policy 60 hours Technological transfer and diffusion for development. Innovations and adoptions. Socio-economic and cultural factors in technological transfer and adoption. Sources of innovations and adoption process. Choice of alternative technologies. Indigenous technologies. Traditional technologies. Impact on different groups in society. Policy and institutions for science and technology in development. Appraisal of national policy. Critical evaluations of institutions dealing with science and technology. NCST (1977) Appraisal of Institutions set-up. Patents and copyrights. Approaches in research and development. Historical dimensions of research and development. Institutional setting for research and development. Applications of research and development.
CDS 604: Political Economy of Industrialization 60 hours Industry and development: neoclassical, structuralist and radical analyses. Theories of industrialization: import substitution, export-led, small-scale enterprise/informal sector, growth-centre theories. Politics of industrialization: choice of strategy, industrial location, state involvement/intervention. Basic conditions for industrialization: raw materials, human resources, entrepreneurship, physical and financial infrastructure, demand. Industrial structure: markets, products, barriers to entry, cost structures, vertical integration, conglomerates. Industrial behaviour: pricing, product strategy, research and innovation, advertising, legal tactics.
CDS 605: Comparative Industrial Strategies 60 hours Theories of industry and development. Historical perspectives. Global environment. Resource base, cultural imperatives, socioeconomic dimensions. Experiences and current strategies of selected countries: industrialized, newly industrializing, less developed (including African LDCs).
Land Use Determinants
Urban and Regional Planning 60 hours
MODULE 2: DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE IN AFRICAN SOCIETIES
Students of Development and Change in African Societies study specifically rural and urban development issues, but the main emphasis of the course module is on the linkages and discontinuities between rural and urban economies and social structures.
CDS 611 Rural Societies and Change 60 Hours
(REQUIRED for those concentrating in Development and Change in African Societies.)
Rural social structures and infrastructure: development points, rural markets and market centres, transport, energy supplies. rural institutions: cooperatives, women's groups. Rural economic activities: agriculture (agribusinesses, large and small farms), non-agricultural enterprises. Agriculture: resource base, agricultural services, geography, role of science and technology, research and development, role of KARI, policies, planning, and evaluation. Rural income distribution, social stratification, and quality of life: nutrition, education, housing, healthy care. Women in the rural economy. Food security. Rural employment.
CDS 612: Issues in Urban Development 60 Hours
Urban economy: manufacturing, trade, services in formal and informal sectors. Urban services: housing, transport, health, education. Land tenure and land use. Urban agriculture: size of land, encroachment of urban areas on potential lands, crops. Investment in urban economy. Employment. Gender issues. Rural social structure/cultural issues. Urban income distribution and quality of life. Growth of cities. Government policy, administration, control of urban development, urban regional planning.
CDS 613: Rural-Urban Linkages 60 Hours
Historical perspectives: cities in Africa, patterns of migration, colonial policies. Urbanization: social, cultural, economic, and environmental implications. Links between rural and urban areas: commercial institutional, transport, financial, social, divided families, circular/oscillating migration. Policy implications of rural-urban linkages. Informal sector: rural and urban; manufacturing, trade, services.
CDS 614 Entrepreneurship and Development 60 Hours
The political economy of entrepreneurship: differing theoretical perspectives. Roots of entrepreneurship: economic, cultural, social considerations. Settings for entrepreneurship: private and public sectors; large, small, and micro enterprises. Entrepreneurship in comparative perspective. Policies and prospects.
CDS 615 Economics of African Agriculture 60 Hours
Characteristics of African agriculture. Role of agriculture in economic development. Population and food supplies. International constraints on agriculture. International agricultural trade.
Migration and Urbanization (PSRI/P407) 60 Hours Social-economic Indicators (Urban and Regional Planning/B505) 60 Hours Social Change and Development with
Special Reference to East Africa
Sociology (M.A. Course) 60 hours MODULE 3: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Students concentrating in Human Resource Development examine issues affecting the quality of life in Africa. Courses stress the links between human resources and achievement of development goals.
CDS 621: Issues in Human Resource Development 60 Hours (REQUIRED for students concentrating in Human Resource Development.)
Planning for human resource development. Access to resources: issues of class, gender, ethnicity. Education and training. Entrepreneurship. Nutrition. Health. Population. Culture. Migration and urbanization. Coping with crisis: war, natural disasters, political instability, economic scarcity.
CDS 622: Health and Development 60 Hours Health as a determinant of the quality of human resources. Culture and health: perceptions, cultural adaptations, environmental perceptions, adaptability. Science, technology, and development of health-care services. Coexistence of indigenous and western medicine: choice, social stratification and access to health services. Gender issues. Sociology of health delivery services. Health policy institutions. Management of health programmes. Politics of health care. Investment in the health industry. Cost sharing in health. Economics of health delivery systems. Distribution of health facilities and supplies, including drugs.
CDS 623: Population and Development 60 Hours The relationship of population size and rate of growth to development: theory and empirical studies. Economic, social, and political implications of rapid population growth. Population policy and programmes within a comparative framework: the major policy responses to population-related issues and problems. Formulation, implementation, and evaluation of population policies of selected African countries with emphasis on links between population and development. Family planning targeting, programme evaluation, and impact assessment techniques. Conceptual and methodological approaches in the development and dissemination of population issues, including programmes for in- and out-of-school youth and adults, programme planners and educators. Population education programmes.
CDS 624: Education and Development 60 Hours Historical perspectives on education. Structural aspects of education. Culture and education. Education as determinant of quality of human resources. Educational systems and curricula. Economics of education: individual and social investment, costs, demand. Structures and systems of education. Access to and distribution of educational resources: inequities by region, gender, social class. Science and technology and development of education. Education, technical training, and entrepreneurship.
CDS 625: Nutrition and Development 60 Hours Basic nutrition. Malnutrition: causes, effects on individuals, implications for development. Famine: causes and effects, early warning signs, prevention. Assessment of nutritional status of communities with emphasis on children and vulnerable adults. Nutrition interventions: mother-and-child programmes, nutrition education, agricultural planning. Nutrition policy.
Women in Development IAS60 Hours Population Economics (Economics) 60 Hours. MODULE 4: INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The objective of this course module is to enable students to acquire knowledge on areas of international development with the purpose of enhancing their ability to relate the key issues in this area to African development.
CDS 631: Issues in International Development 60 Hours (REQUIRED for those concentrating in International Development.) The international political economy. Debt and the world financial system. Technology transfer. Refugees and migration. Regional economic planning and cooperation. Role of global institutions: transnational corporations, non-governmental organizations. Politics of alternative development strategies. International control over the environment. International negotiations.
CDS 632: Global Institutions and Development 60 Hours Nature of global institutions. Variety of global institutions: transnational corporations, churches, private voluntary organizations, international governmental bodies and agencies. National development in a global context. Interactions of global institutions with governments and local organizations.
CDS 633: Politics of Alternative Development
Strategies 60 Hours Bi-lateral and multi-lateral aid programmes. Development assistance programmes of industrialized and newly industrializing countries. Effect of choice of strategy on internal distribution of development. Effect of choice of strategy on political stability. Negotiations for assistance programmes.
CDS 634: Development and Regional Integration 60 Hours
Theories of regional cooperation. Models of regional integration. Potential impact of regional integration: economic, political, social, cultural. Examples of regional integration from Europe, Asia, Africa. Negotiating regional cooperation.
CDS 635: Political Economy of International
Commodity Markets 60 Hours Resource base. Characteristics of productive sector of agriculture, mineral, and energy commodities important to developing economies. Characteristics, structure, and organization of international commodity markets. International commodity markets and industrial product markets: linkages and/or integration. International commodity markets and the international economic order. Trade agreements. Commodity markets and regional markets: linkages and/or integration. Negotiations.
International Economics (Economics/512) 60 Hours
Advanced International Relations 60 Hours (Government/CGV 611) 60 Hours
MODULE 5: PLANNING FOR DEVELOPMENT Students concentrating in Planning for Development are encouraged to apply theories and techniques of planning to concrete development problems. Courses examine the relevance of planning models and strategies to key sectors of African economy and society.
CDS 641: Development Strategies and Planning 60 Hours
(REQUIRED for students concentrating in Planning for Development.) Concept of planning. Politics of alternative development strategies. The case for and against planning. Types of development planning. Planning techniques and models. Applications of planning: national development plans, rural development planning, urban planning, planning for national infrastructure.
CDS 642: Computer Applications to Development
Planning 60 Hours Review of state of art of computer applications to planning in Kenya. Feedback systems. Models of the economy: resource base, economic flows. Elements of flowcharting. Using the computer for modelling. Interpreting and assessing results of computerized modelling.
CDS 643: Agricultural Planning and Food Security 60 Hours Policy issues in African agriculture. Incentives and strategies for African agriculture. Structural adjustment and African agriculture. Food security: issues and strategies.
CDS 644: Industrial Planning 60 Hours Models of industrialization in LDCs. Concepts of international economic order. Issues in industrialization: growth and efficiency, equity and welfare, national independence, environmental impact, culture. Trade theory and policies. Financial policies. Labour market theory and technology. Fiscal policies. Ownership of industrial enterprises. Linkages and externalities. Infrastructure and location. Industrialization and agricultural development.
CDS 645: Human Resources Planning 60 Hours
(Course 617 Issues in Human Resource Development would be useful background for students enrolling in this course.) Issues in human resource development: equity and welfare, gender, culture, ethnicity and/or geographic equity, migration and urbanization, resource scarcity. Strategies for human resource development. The educational system. Manpower training and promotion of entrepreneurship. Nutrition policies and programmes. Health promotion policies and the health care system. Population policies and programmes.
Land Development/(M.A. in Housing Admin.) 60 Hours