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Weeks XX – XXIII: Era 8: “The 20th Century.” QUESTION: What are the causes and consequences of global warfare in the first half of the 20th century?
STANDARD 2: The causes and global consequences of World War I.

2A: Demonstrate understanding of the multiple causes of World War I by:

  • Analyzing the relative importance of economic and political rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, militarism, and imperialism as underlying causes of the war. [Analyze multiple causation]

  • Analyzing the degree to which class and other social conflicts in Europe contributed to the outbreak of war. [Analyze multiple causation]

  • Evaluating ways in which popular faith in science, technology, and material progress affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states. [Formulate historical questions]

2B: Demonstrate understanding of the global scope and human costs of the war by:

  • Analyzing the role of nationalism and propaganda in mobilizing civilian populations in support of “total war.” [Examine the influence of ideas]

  • Explaining ways in which colonial peoples contributed to the war effort of both the Allies and the Central Powers by providing military forces and supplies. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

2C: Demonstrate understanding of the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution of 1917 by:

  • Explaining the causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and analyzing why the revolutionary government progressed from moderate to radical. [Analyze multiple causation]

  • Explaining Leninist political ideology and how the Bolsheviks adapted Marxist ideas to conditions peculiar to Russia. [Interrogate historical data]

STANDARD 3: The search for peace and stability in the 1920s and 1930s.

3A: Demonstrate understanding of postwar efforts to achieve lasting peace and social and economic recovery by:

  • Analyzing the objectives and achievements of women’s movements in the context of World War I and its aftermath. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

3B: Demonstrate understanding of economic, social, and political transformations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America in the 1920s and 1930s period by:

  • Explaining how the mandate system altered patterns of European colonial rule in Africa and the Middle East. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

  • Explaining aims and policies of European colonial regimes in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia, and assessing the impact of colonial policies on indigenous societies and economies. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Analyzing how the World War I settlement contributed to the rise of both Pan-Arabism and nationalist struggles for independence in the Middle East. [Formulate historical questions]

  • Analyzing the struggle between the Guomindang and the Communist Party for dominance in China in the context of political fragmentation, economic transformation, and Japanese and European imperialism. [Interrogate historical data]

  • Analyzing how militarism and fascism succeeded in derailing parliamentary democracy in Japan. [Interrogate historical data]

3C: Demonstrate understanding of how new departures in science and the arts altered human views of nature, the cosmos, and the psyche between 1900 and 1940 by:

  • Evaluating the impact of World War I and its aftermath on literature, art, and intellectual life in Europe. [Draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources]

  • Evaluating the meaning and social impact of innovative movements in art, architecture, and literature such as Cubism, Surrealism, Expressionism, Futurism, and Socialist Realism. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Evaluating the impact of innovative movements in Western art and literature on other regions of the world and the influence of African and Asian art forms on Europe. [Consider multiple perspectives]

  • Analyzing how the new media --- newspapers, magazines, commercial advertising, film, and radio --- contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

3D: Demonstrate understanding of the causes and global consequences of the Great Depression by:

  • Assessing the human costs of the depression, and comparing its impact on economy and society in such industrialized countries as Britain, France, Germany, the US, the USSR, and Japan. [Compare and contrast differing values, behaviors, and institutions]

  • Analyzing ways in which the depression affected colonial peoples of Africa and Asia and how it contributed to the growth of nationalist movements. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Analyzing how the depression contributed to the growth of socialist and communist movements and how it affected capitalist economic theory and practice in leading industrial powers in Western countries. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

STANDARD 4: Causes and global consequences of World War II.

4A: Demonstrate understanding of the multiple causes of World War II by:

  • Explaining the ideologies of fascism and Nazism, and analyzing how fascist regimes succeeded in seizing power in Italy, Germany and Spain. [Analyze multiple causation]

  • Explaining the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s. [Evaluate major debates among historians]

  • Analyzing the consequences of Britain, France, the US, and other Western democracies’ failure to oppose fascist aggression. [Evaluate major debates among historians]

  • Analyzing the motives and consequences of the Soviet nonaggression pacts with Germany and Japan. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

4B: Demonstrate understanding of the global scope and human costs of the war by:

  • Analyzing how and why the Nazi regime perpetrated a “war against the Jews,” and describing the devastation suffered by Jews and other groups in the Nazi Holocaust. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Assessing the consequences of World War II as a total war. [Formulate historical questions]

Day 98: Lecture on gendered images in the early 20th century. Use sources such as George Mosse, images of nationalist monuments and statuary (ex: Battle of Nations monument in Leipzig) and popular culture. How were new images of manhood and womanhood invented in the period of the First and Second World Wars?

Day 99: Complete the Internet Activities: Alliances for Ch. 34, found at: Then, work through a series of World War I propaganda posters to analyze the relative success of the propaganda campaigns conducted by major world powers to influence their colonial possessions and neutral nations to support the war effort. How successful were the Allied propaganda campaigns in mobilizing support for the war against the Central Powers and vice versa? (From National History Standards examples of student achievement)
Day 100: Study the music and lyrics of some of the nationalist songs that were used during World War I. Ask students to write their own nationalist song. Why was nationalism one of the factors that historians cite as leading to World War I? How is it still a force in global conflicts?
Day 101: View the PBS film from The Peoples’ Century series called “Killing Fields 1916.” (See or using photos and paintings of battlefields, hold a discussion on the nature of the war and the connection between technological development and war. If the film is not available, use “Remembering War: 1914-1945” for Days 101 & 102, the first part of which covers WW I “Trench Warfare” and “Colonial Soldiers in a European War” found in HOT Lessons in US and World History (see bibliography).
Day 102: Library/computer lab: From what you learned in the film, and using other historical evidence, write a series of letters or diary entries from the perspective of a colonial soldier in this war. Identify which country you have been drafted to fight for and what your experiences and feelings about it are. Assign: reading and notes, Ch. 35, B&Z.
Day 103: Lecture on Women in the Russian Revolution (see Goldman, Women, the State, and Revolution). Complete a comparison following the lecture, of the status of women in the US and women in the USSR in 1918-28 with respect to personal freedoms, place in the workforce and access to education.
Day 104: Using Wiesner’s documentary analysis, Ch. 10, “Nationalism, Motherhood, and Women’s Rights in Brazil, Egypt, and Japan (1890s-1930s)” complete small group jigsaw and questions for consideration.
Day 105: Study the map on p. 973. Ask students to research the post-WWI history of one of the countries in the former Ottoman Empire that was a mandate after World War I. Have students collect a few news stories from that same country today. How do the decisions of the victors of WWI relate to current problems? Assign: reading and notes, Ch. 35 (B&Z).
Day 106: Using Bertolt Brecht’s Berlin: A Scrapbook of the Twenties (see bibliography), lecture on the socio-economic consequences of World War I for citizens in Germany. Complete an in-class study of German artists’ work, using online and library sources.
Day 107: View the film, “Degenerate Art.” Hand out questions for discussion. What were the fascist ideals of womanhood and manhood? How and why were these images important to the new dictatorships? How did these models of womanhood and manhood differ from those of the Expressionist artists? Why were Expressionist artists’ works seen as a threat to the new dictators? Assign: reading and notes for Ch. 36, B&Z.
Day 108: Using Chapter 11 (Wiesner), “Lands of Desire: Department Stores, Advertising, and the New Consumerism (1910s-1930s),” complete an in-class analysis of the documents; select questions for a discussion.
Day 109 & 110: Ask students to use their textbook sources, including Mao Zedong’s “Be Concerned with the Well Being of the Masses,” found at: to organize a debate on issues from the perspective of the Guomindang and Chinese Communist Party before groups reflecting the interests of Chinese landlords, peasants, urban workers, and business people, and attempt to persuade them to support your cause. Break up the class into 4 groups to compile the support for the 4 specific audiences.
Day 111: Using the document, “Imperialism of Decadence,” found at: and works by Mexican muralists, Diego Rivera & Jose Clemente Orozco, explain the experience of neocolonialism in Latin America in the early 20th century. Use Nicaragua as a case study for student research in the library.
Day 112: Ask students to present what they have learned about Nicaragua from 1900-1990. After the presentations, handout several articles about current leaders in Venezuela, Bolivia, and Cuba. How do their views compare and contrast with those of early 20th century leaders in Latin America? How have things either changed over time or stayed the same?
Day 113: Using Gandhi’s Letter to Nehru found at: and excerpts from the film “Gandhi,” ask students to hold a discussion on the global transformations occurring in Europe’s colonies in the 1920s and 1930s. Assign: Ch. 37 (B&Z).
Day 114: Using Chapter 26 (Stearns), complete the document analysis for “Italian Fascism, German Nazism, and Argentine Peronism.”
Days 115, 116 & 117: Computer Lab: Complete selected lessons from Wisconsin World War II Lesson Plans at: Lessons may include chronology and geography of the world war, women involved in war at the China-Burma-India Theater, an examination of the debate over dropping the atomic bomb on Japan, among many others. Assign: reading and notes for Ch. 38 (B&Z).
Day 118: Complete the Internet Activity: Holocaust found at: Hold a discussion on the question, “As historians, what can we learn…?” If time permits a longer study of genocide, use activities found in “Genocide” from HOT Lessons in US and World History (see bibliography), which cover the Armenian Genocide up through Bosnia and Rwanda.
Day 119: Multiple Choice Test and Essay Question from B&Z online Essay Questions.
Weeks XXIV-XXVI: Era 8: “The Twentieth Century.” QUESTION: Can we live in peace with each other and in harmony with the earth?
STANDARD 5: How new international power relations took shape in the cotext of the Cold War and how colonial empires broke up.

5A: Demonstrate understanding of why global power shifts took place and the Cold War developed in the aftermath of World War II by:

  • Analyzing how political and military conditions prevailing at the end of the war led to the Cold War and how the US and the USSR competed for power and influence in Europe in the postwar period. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Analyzing the significance of international crises such as the Berlin blockade, the Korean War, the Hungarian revolt, and the Cuban missile crisis on international politics. [Formulate historical questions]

  • Analyzing causes and consequences of US and Soviet competition for influence or dominance in such countries as Egypt, Iran, Chile, Vietnam, Nicaragua, Afghanistan, and Ethiopia. [Analyze multiple causation]

5B: Demonstrate understanding of how African, Asian, and Caribbean peoples achieved independence from European colonial rule by:

  • Assessing the impact of Indian nationalism on other movements in Africa and Asia, and analyzing why the subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Analyzing the impact of World War II and postwar global politics on the rise of mass nationalist movements in colonial Africa and Southeast Asia. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Analyzing connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and the emergence of Western-educated elites. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Explaining how international conditions affected the creation of Israel, and analyzing why persistent conflict developed between Israel and both Arab Palestinians and neighboring states. [Interrogate historical data]

STANDARD 6: Promises and paradoxes of the second half of the 20th century.
6A: Demonstrate understanding of how population explosion and environmental change have altered conditions of life around the world by:

  • Describing the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, and assessing the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

6C: Demonstrate understanding of how liberal democracy, private enterprise, and human rights movements have reshaped political and social life by:

  • Assessing the progress of human and civil rights around the world since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue]

  • Analyzing changes in the lives of women in both industrialized and developing countries since World War II and assessing the extent to which women have progressed toward social equality and economic opportunity. [Analyze cause & effect relationships]

  • Explaining the dismantling of the apartheid system in South Africa and the winning of political rights by the black majority. [Explain historical continuity and change]

6D: Demonstrate understanding of major sources of tension and conflict in the contemporary world and efforts that have been made to address them by:

  • Analyzing the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

  • Analyzing why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

  • Assessing the impact of population pressure, poverty, and environmental degradation on the breakdown of state authority in various countries in the 1980s and 1990s. [Analyze multiple causation]

  • Assessing the progress that has been made since the 1970s in resolving conflict between Israel and neighboring states. [Analyze multiple causation]

Day 120: Complete the Internet Activity #1 for Ch. 38, B&Z, (Iron Curtain Speech and Truman Doctrine) documents that set the tone for the Cold War. ( Then, study the documents surrounding the Cuban Missile Crisis found at: Respond to the questions. Assign: reading and notes, Ch. 38 & 39 (B&Z).

Day 121: Return to the B&Z online Interactive Map of the Cold War, Ch. 38, found at: Submit the answers to your questions to the teacher and hold a discussion.
Day 122: Comparative maps assignment of 1910 Africa, Middle East and Asia with 1990s (See Interactive Map Quiz for Ch. 39 found at: What do all the changes suggest for economic, social and political stability in a global age? Then, using the World History Unfolding source (see bibliography), complete the DBQ called, “The End of Empire,” covering African, Indian, and European revolts against colonial rule in the postwar period.
Day 123: Turn to Stearns’ Ch. 28, “Issues of Cultural Identity: Africa and Latin America,” and building upon what was learned from the DBQ work yesterday, select questions for students to discuss, following their analysis of the documents provided.

Day 124: How did the postwar global changes affect the lives of women in the so-called Third World? Analyze documentary evidence and current news articles, using Stearns’ Ch. 29, “Women in the Third World.”

Day 125: What is the meaning of “third world” and “non-aligned” nations? Study the speech made by President Sukarno in 1955 found at: Then, compare and contrast it with current speeches (2006) made by non-aligned world leaders such as President Chavez of Venezuela or President Ahmadinejad of Iran. What do they have in common with President Sukarno? What has changed over time?
Day 126: Review the creation of Israel pp. 1104-1105, B&Z. Using library and internet sources, study the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Then, read the United Nations Resolution #242 found at: and hold a discussion on its meaning for the outcome of that war. What happened as a result of this Resolution? Assign: Reading and notes, Ch. 40 (B&Z)
Day 127: Lecture on the rise and fall of apartheid. Study the documents found at Internet Activity: South Africa: and complete the questions.
Day 128: Introduce and show the film, “Sarafina.”
Day 129: Using Stearns’ Ch. 30 “Reacting to the Population Explosion,” complete a classroom jigsaw of the documents given, asking each group to choose one discussion question that they will address after summarizing their document.
Day 130: Lecture and discussion based on “The Perils of Abundance: Food, Health, and Morality in American History” and “The ‘McDonalidzation’ of Culture,” found in Food: A Culinary History.
Day 131: Ask students to define “terrorism.” Then, using library and internet sources, ask students to list acts of terrorism that occurred during the past 25 years. Ask students to select one event and learn more about it. Then, share information with the large group. Discuss: What methods can and should nations use to protect their citizens from acts of terrorism? Is international cooperation necessary to stop terrorism? (From examples of student achievement in the National Standards)
Day 132, 133 and 134: Begin with the Interactive Map Quiz for Ch. 40 found at: Then, set up the “Problem” and “Background” for Ch. 15 (Wiesner), “Religious Fundamentalism in the Modern World: Faith, Identity, and Contemporary Politics (1970s-present).” Over the last three days of the course, study the documents found in this chapter. Debate within the class the questions provided.
Day 135: Multiple Choice and essay exam (see essay quiz choices for chapter 40 at:


Bentley, Jerry and Herb Ziegler, eds. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past 3rd

ed. (McGraw-Hill: Boston) 2006.

AP recommended textbook. Very readable narrative style and thorough. Needs more maps, but has some good online interactive maps and some excellent links to primary sources. Interactive work for students is usually very good.

Bobko, Jane, ed. Vision: The Life and Music of Hildegard von Bingen (Penguin: New York) 1995.

Just as the title explains, Hildegard’s music and life are the subject of this book. Translations of her verse and numerous color images from medieval manuscripts complete the book.

Braudel, Fermand. Capitalism and Material Life 1400-1800 (Harper Colophon: New York) 1975.

Food and drink, household goods, and the spread of technology are the subject matter of this book. There are excellent images and charts to enhance explanations of daily life in Europe during this period.

Brecht, Bertolt. Galileo (Eric Bentley) 1966.

This play, written in 1940, by German author Bertolt Brecht, imagines the dialog that took place between religious authorities in Rome and Florence and the great scientist Galileo. The dialog probes deeper questions for the reader to consider about the power of knowledge, moral actions, and the enduring satisfaction of ignorance.

Burke, Peter. Eyewitnessing: the Uses of Images as Historical Evidence (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University

Press) 2001.

Burke makes an argument for the importance of using visuals in teaching history and that they should be used as “extensions of the social contexts in which they were produced.”

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