Assessments Technology. The Assessments Technology area develops design protocols, hardware, and software that enhance the ability of mission essential systems to survive a nuclear attack and to operate after a nuclear attack. It provides products and assistance to system program offices, the services, combatant commanders and the National Command Authority. It defines the engineering standards for hardening, develops testable design protocols, and develops effective nuclear threat mitigation technologies. To test system effectiveness, the program develops affordable and user-friendly technologies that predict and stimulate nuclear effects on military systems, particularly the impact of intense electromagnetic radiation that can destroy or severely degrade sensors and communications equipment. Because of the emergence of non-nuclear weapons that present a similar electromagnetic threat (high-power microwave or ultrawideband weapons), this area includes a parallel development effort to predict and mitigate their effects. This area develops tools that assess the vulnerabilities of mission essential infrastructure, nuclear missile interceptors, strategic radar systems, strategic command and control networks, computers, sensors, satellites, and other critical warfighting systems. It also provides cost-effective solutions for the nuclear hardening and testing of these systems and technical assistance for their implementation. Additionally, the Assessments Technology area develops the science and technology base for predictive nuclear effects assessments and maintains a core expertise in nuclear weapons testing methodologies.