Project #5 – V for Vendetta directions you will view, analyze, and critique the film, V for Vendetta

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N O T E B O O K #5

European State Consolidation

AP European History

Mr. Konecke



Project #5 – V for Vendetta
DIRECTIONS You will view, analyze, and critique the film, V for Vendetta. We will be watching the film in class. However, if you are absent for part or all of the film, it is your responsibility to watch the film on your own. As you complete sections 1-4, label them, and hand them in (stapled) in the correct order.
1. THE PLOT – 20 POINTS In one paragraph (at least 10 sentences), retell the plot of the film. Obviously, you will not be able to explain every detail, but you should provide sufficient details to demonstrate that you completely understand the main storyline of the movie.
2. HISTORICAL REALITY – 140 POINTS In seven detailed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences each), answer the following:

  • V tells Evey that people shouldn't be afraid of their governments, but rather that governments should be afraid of their people. Do you agree? Why or why not?

  • The totalitarian Britain depicted in the film clearly needs reform. Is violence a necessary tool for instigating change in such a society? What's the difference between a terrorist and a revolutionary?

  • Can we differentiate between situations justifying the use of violence and those where non-violent civil disobedience such as that advocated by Thoreau or MLK would be more effective?

  • Is V's quest for justice justified by any means? Why or why not? What are some alternative plans he could have enacted?

  • The film discusses how ideas can’t be killed with force. Do you agree?

  • What does this say about the general thrust of the U.S.’s efforts to fight the war on terror?

  • Do you agree with the political suppositions of the film? Are our democratic societies on the path to oppression and totalitarianism?

3. EVALUATION – 20 POINTS In one detailed paragraph (at least 10 sentences), evaluate the film by answering at least 3 of the following questions:

  • Which actors did a good job & which were inadequate?

  • Were there places where the story was vague, too slow, or too fast?

  • Were there any stereotypes present in the film? Explain.

  • Did the film hold your interest throughout? Why

  • Did you learn anything historical from the film? Explain.

  • What would have made the film better?

  • If you could rewrite the ending, how would you end the film? Explain.

4. STORY MAP – 20 POINTS As you watch the film, complete the attached Story Map Organizer. The following information must be completed accurately:

  • Major Characters

  • Minor Characters

  • Events Associated with the Rising Action

  • Climax of the Story

  • Events Associated with the Falling Action

  • Conflict & Resolution

  • Setting

  • The Director’s Theme


  1. The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

The Netherlands

  • Seven provinces that became United Provinces of the Netherlands became nation after revolting from Spain 1572

    • Prince William III of Orange

      • As part of this strategy, he agreed (when asked by Protestant English aristocrats) to take the English throne (with his wife Mary)

  • 1600s & 1700s, Netherlands differed from rest of Europe

    • Other countries tried to form strong central governments led by monarchs or parliaments

      • Central government – States General, which met in the Hague – had authority only by negotiating with provinces

      • Holland (wealthiest & most populous) dominated the States General

      • But when they faced serious military challenges, Dutch gave William III dominant leadership

      • When William died (1702) & wars with France ended (1714), Dutch went back to being a republic

    • Calvinist Reformed Church was official religion

    • But there were also many Protestants & Catholics who did not belong to this church

    • Country also became safe haven for Jews

Urban Prosperity

  • Other European countries in 1600s were amazed by economic prosperity of Netherlands

  • How did they do it:

    • 1.

      • In Netherlands, more people lived in cities than any other part of Europe

    • 2.

      • Key changes in farming made this urbanization possible

      • 1600s, Dutch drained & reclaimed land from sea – used it for highly profitable farming

      • Dutch shipping provided steady supply of cheap grain

        • So Dutch farmers could produce more profitable dairy products, beef, and cash crops

    • 3.

      • Dutch fisherman caught herring, supplying much of Europe’s dried fish

      • Also provided most of Europe with textiles

      • Dutch ships also bought goods from other areas & then resold them for profit

    • 4.

      • Overseas trade in East Asia (spices) also brought in huge amounts of money –

        • Soon overtook Portugal as major trader in East Asia – and prevented England from doing so for years

      • Over time, Dutch came to produce the spices themselves instead of buying them

Economic Decline

    • After death of William III 1702, provinces did not want another strong stadtholder

      • Unified political leadership was gone

      • Fishing industry declined & Dutch lost technological superiority in shipbuilding

    • Domestic industries slowed down as well

      • Disunity of provinces sped up this decline

  • Only thing that kept Dutch relevant was their financial dominance

2. Two Models of European Political Development

Parliamentary Monarchy & Political Absolutism

    • Rest of Europe dominated by two different kinds of monarchy (needed because of international military conflicts)

    • Both resulted from historical events that shaped each nation

    • Political forces that created these models resulted from military concerns

    • Traditional sources of income could not pay for these wars

    • So monarchs needed new sources of funding

    • Only monarchs who built a secure financial base (that didn’t depend on nobles or parliaments) achieved absolute rule

  • Thus absolutism was born in France while parliamentary monarchy was born in England

    • These systems were not inevitable

      • Early 1600s, English monarchy was strong –

      • Parliament only met when Elizabeth wanted money

      • Monarchy was fairly weak whereas nobles had significant military forces at their disposal

  • These conditions would change dramatically in both areas by end of 1600s

Directions: Read the following four examples. After you read each example, go to your blank chart and fill it out. For example, read #1, and answer all four questions on your chart for concept example #1. Once you are done go on to #2 and repeat the same steps until you are finished with example #4. Worth 32 points.


Like King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella before him, King Phillip II of Spain centralized royal power, making all parts of the government responsible to him. He had complete authority over the government and the lives of the people during his reign from 1556 to 1598. He believed that his authority to rule came directly from God. As a result he saw himself as the guardian of the Catholic Church and made it his personal responsibility to defend the Catholic Reformation. He used his control of the Spanish army and navy to impose the Inquisition against Protestants and heretics. Without representation, the small middle class was heavily taxed by Phillip to fund his wars and build the Armada.


“L’etat, c’est moi,” “I am the state,” said King Louis XIV of France. Louis believed that he was the only one responsible for governing France when he ruled from 1643 to 1715. A tutor to his son once said, “As God’s representative on Earth, the king was entitled to unquestioning obedience. Louis reigned from the most magnificent building in Europe, the palace of Versailles. Full of the finest paintings, statues, chandeliers and mirrors, and surrounded by millions of flowers and plants, Versailles was the perfect symbol of Louis’ wealth and power. During his 72 year reign the Estates General, the legislative body of France, never met once. Without opposition he revoked the Edict of Nantes and taxed his people in order to wage costly wars against the Dutch and English.


After a journey to Western Europe, Peter the Great decided to modernize Russia. To impose his will he became the most autocratic of Europe’s monarchs, believing that his right to rule as Tsar came from God. He centralized his power and brought all Russians under his control, including the Russian Orthodox Church. Peter forced the most powerful nobles, known as boyars, to serve in either the military or state government. Peasants and serfs were required to become soldiers or work on roads, canals, and other government projects. He improved the technology, education and the military of Russia, but in the process tortured and executed thousands of

people who challenged his power from 1682 to 1725.


According to the 1665 Kongeloven (King’s Law), The monarch of Norway “shall from this day forward be revered and considered the most perfect and supreme person on the Earth by all his subjects, standing above all human laws and having no judge above his person, neither in spiritual nor temporal [secular] matters, except God alone.” After abolishing the legislative branch known as the Rigsraadet, the king was the only person in charge of the country’s affairs. Frederick III ignored the advice of his nobles, and controlled the government and military on his own.

Concept Examples

Who Rules the Country?

What power do they have?

Where does their power come from?

Are there any checks and balances?





Directions: Read the following four examples below and decide whether or not they are examples of the concept we are studying. Make sure to use the critical attributes and definition of the concept to test the examples. Next to each paragraph write a “yes” if it is an example, and “no” if it is not. If your answer is “no,” write why it is not an example of the concept. Worth 8 points.


In 1689 King William and Queen Mary became the monarchs of England. Before they were crowned, they accepted the English Bill of Rights which required the monarchy to work with Parliament to govern the country. The monarchs were required to regularly call on Parliament to meet and lost their power to suspend laws. The responsibility of coordinating the countries finances and power to tax were given to the lower house of Parliament, known as the House of Commons.


According to the Mandate from Heaven, the right to rule China is granted by Heaven. The Chinese believed that since there was only one Heaven, there could be only one ruler. Chinese emperors that were part of the Han dynasty referred to themselves as Sons of Heaven, and commanded respect from all their subjects. Chinese law dictated that the emperor’s position could not be challenged by anyone. Emperors handpicked governors and officials in order to centralize their authority and spread their power. Each emperor served as head of state and commander of the army. They chose whether or not to listen to advisors, but had no legislative body to monitor imperial power or prevent abuse.


Saudi Arabia contains one of the last remaining monarchies in the world today. Monarchs are chosen by members of the royal family and approved by Muslim legal scholars in accordance to the Qur’an and Shari’ah (Islamic law). State issues are decided by King Abdullah, along with the Council of Ministers and Consultative Council. With no elections or political parties, it is up to the king to appoint and dismiss members of both councils. At any time the king can choose to dissolve both government bodies. The Council of Ministers is responsible for internal, external, financial, economic, educational, and defense policies, but the king maintains final authority over all state affairs.


In 1922 Benito Mussolini became Prime Minister of Italy. Within several years Mussolini eliminated all conventional and constitutional restraints on his power. In 1928 he outlawed political parties and abolished parliamentary elections. Through his complete control of the military and a massive campaign of propaganda, Mussolini was able to subjugate the minds of the Italian people and create a fascist state. He eventually became dictator of Italy and gained complete control of the Italian government.

3. Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

  • 1603, James VI of Scotland (son of Mary Stuart) succeeded Elizabeth I as king of England –

    • Inherited royal debt & divided church

    • James was strong believer in divine right of kings

The King Needs Money

  • Without Parliament, James would need other sources of income

    • He started new custom duties –

      • They simply argued and negotiated throughout James’s reign

Religious Problems

  • Since Elizabeth, Puritans wanted to get rid of religious ceremonies & replace hierarchical episcopal system of church government (bishops in charge appointed by kings) with more representative leadership

    • 1604, James disappointed Puritans – he would maintain (and enhance) episcopal system

        • 1620, Puritan separatists founded Plymouth Colony on Cape Cod in North America

        • Later in 1620s, other Puritans founded Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Court of James I

    • He had favorites – duke of Buckingham most of all (rumored to be king’s lover)

      • Buckingham controlled royal patronage – openly sold titles to highest bidders (angered nobles)

James’s Foreign Policy

  • James’s foreign policy cast doubt on his Protestant loyalty

      • War was expensive – but English people saw peace as sign of James being pro-Catholic

    • So did his hesitation to send troops to help Protestant Germans at start of Thirty Years’ War

    • His failed attempt to arrange marriage between his son Charles and Spanish princess (and then Charles’s marriage to Catholic daughter of Henry IV) further increased religious concern

Directions: Below are the facts of the Gunpowder Plot followed by the Protestant and Catholic views of what happened. Read both carefully and then argue for one side or the other. Make sure to explain your answer. 15 points.
The Facts
On the night of November 4th 1605, a man, Guido Fawkes, was discovered in a cellar beneath the Houses of Parliament.

He was standing guard over several barrels of gunpowder. The intention was to blow up the Houses of Parliament on November 5th. Guido Fawkes was an explosives expert who had served in the Spanish army. Fawkes was one of a Catholic group who wanted to see the King replaced with a Catholic monarch.

The members of the group were - Robert Catesby, Guido (Guy) Fawkes, Thomas Winter, John Wright and Thomas Percy

The group recruited others who were sympathetic to their cause. One of the recruits was Francis Tresham whose brother in law Thomas Monteagle was a Member of Parliament. Tresham was worried about his brother-in-law’s safety and sent him a letter warning him not to go to parliament. Tresham alerted the authorities.

Fawkes was arrested and after being tortured he revealed the names of the other conspirators. Guido Fawkes made a signed confession. Catesby and Percy were killed resisting arrest. The others were tried for treason, found guilty and executed.
The Protestant View - The Catholic Conspirators were Guilty
Robert Catesby, Guido (Guy) Fawkes, Thomas Winter, John Wright and Thomas Percy were known to be Catholics.

Guido Fawkes was a Dutch explosives expert. He was not English so he must have come to England specially to set the explosives. Francis Tresham was only thinking of his brother-in-law’s safety when he sent the letter. Gunpowder was not normally kept in the cellars under the Houses of Parliament. It was obviously put there by the conspirators.

Guido Fawkes revealed the names of the conspirators. Guido Fawkes made a signed confession.
The Catholic view - The Conspirators were framed by the Protestants
James I’s chief minister, Robert Cecil was a Protestant who hated Catholics. Francis Tresham may have been a spy working for Cecil. All available supplies of gunpowder were kept in the Tower of London, only very important people could gain access to it and the conspirators could not have smuggled 20 barrels into the country secretly. Tresham’s brother-in-law received the warning letter at night. The only night of 1605 that he was at home. Could he have been waiting for it? The cellar was rented to the conspirators by a close friend of Robert Cecil.
The signature on Guy Fawkes' confession did not match his normal signature. Francis Tresham was not executed.

Charles I

  • Parliament favored war with Spain – but would not finance it properly (b/c did not trust monarchy)

      • He levied new taxes & duties (attempting to collect discontinued taxes & forcing loans on property owners (& imprisoning those who refused to pay)

      • All these actions (as well as quartering troops in private homes) challenged local authority of nobles and landowners

  • Parliament met in 1628 –

    • Required there to be no more forced loans or taxes without consent of Parliament, no freeman should be imprisoned without due cause, and troops shall not be quartered in private homes

      • Charles agreed

Years of Personal Rule

  • To save money, Charles made peace with France 1629 & Spain 1630

  • Charles had to find a way to rule without asking Parliament for money

    • His chief advisor – Thomas Wentworth – had a plan

      • Also used every legal fund-raising tactic he could think of (enforcing old laws & extending taxes to new areas)

  • Charles would have kept ruling without Parliament, but his religious policies started war with Scotland

    • Charles wanted religious conformity in England & Scotland (at least)

  • 1637, Charles and Archbishop William Laud tried to impose English episcopal system and prayer book (like Anglican Book of Common Prayer) on Scotland

    • Parliament refused to give him money unless Charles made up for his political & religious failures

    • Charles immediately dissolved Parliament again –

      • When Scots defeated English army at Battle of Newburn, Charles called them back

The Long Parliament and Civil War

  • Landowners & merchants in Parliament hated Charles’s financial plans and his power

  • Puritans in Parliament hated his religious policies (and his Catholic wife)

    • House of Commons impeached Wentworth & Laud (& had them executed)

    • Abolished courts that supported royal policy & prohibited new taxes without their consent

  • But Parliament was divided over religion

    • Moderate Puritans (Presbyterians) and extreme Puritans (Independents) wanted to get rid of bishops and Book of Common Prayer

    • But religious conservatives wanted to keep Church of England in its current form

    • Enemies of Charles argued king could not be trusted with an army – so Parliament should be in charge of it

  • 1642, Charles invaded Parliament to arrest his opponents (they escaped)

    • King then left London to raise an army

    • House of Commons then passed Militia Ordinance

  • Next 4 years, civil war dominated England

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

  • Two factors led to Parliament’s victory

    • 1. Alliance with Scotland 1643 – gave Parliament representative (Presbyterian) system of church government

    • 2.

  • Cromwell and his “godly men” would tolerate established church (but only if it allowed Protestant dissenters to worship outside it)

    • Defeated militarily by 1645, Charles tried for next several years to take advantage of fighting in Parliament

    • Cromwell & his army prevented him from doing so

      • Charles was then executed 1649

    • 1649-1660, England became a Puritan republic (but Cromwell dominated it)

    • Cromwell’s army brutally conquered Scotland & Ireland (Protestant army carried out many atrocities against Irish Catholics)

  • But Cromwell was not a good political leader

    • 1653, House of Commons wanted to disband his 50,000-man army

    • Instead, Cromwell disbanded Parliament

  • Cromwell’s military dictatorship became just as hated as Charles’s rule

    • People hated his Puritan prohibitions of drinking, theatergoing, & dancing

  • Cromwell died 1658

    • English were ready for return of Anglican Church & monarchy

Directions: Read some background information about Oliver Cromwell and then answer the comprehension questions that follow. Worth 28 points.

Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon, England on April 25, 1599. His parents were Robert and Elizabeth. At the age of 17, he entered Sidney Sussex College in Cambridge. However, Oliver left without receiving a degree after his father suddenly passed away.

He owned land and farmed. In 1620, Oliver married Elizabeth Bourchier . They had nine children. Around the year 1638, Oliver had a conversion to the Christian faith which changed his life forever.
Oliver was elected Member of the Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628. But after a year in Parliament, King Charles I got rid of Parliament and ruled without it for the next eleven years. However, a rebellion by the Scottish caused King Charles I to recall Parliament in 1640. Again, Oliver was elected to Parliament. Disagreements brought an armed clash between Parliament and King Charles I.
Though Oliver had real no military training, he formed a cavalry and fought at the Battle of Edgehill in October 1642. Demonstrating courage and strength, Oliver led his troops to various victories, which helped him gain popularity amongst the troops and people.
In 1647, members of Parliament fought over whether or not they should have a king ruling over them. Oliver desired a balanced set of powers instead of letting one man rule over an entire nation. Failure to reach an agreement between Parliament and the King brought upon the Second English War in 1648. Oliver went to battle again, successfully leading his troops to more victories.
A demand for a trial and an execution of King Charles I took place. Oliver believed this was the only way that the civil wars raging England would stop. Eventually, a death warrant was signed and King Charles I was executed on January 30, 1649.
After the execution of the King, a new government was established called the Commonwealth of England. Rather than have one man, the King, rule over the nation, the Commonwealth of England was a republic with a balance of power.

Oliver continued to lead on the battlefield he led invasions in Ireland and Scotland. After returning from war, Oliver was named Lord Protector in 1653. In his new position, Oliver took on the task of helping his country rebuild and reestablish itself after years of war. He worked for the reform of morals and religious toleration. After battling several health ailments, Oliver died on September 3, 1658.

1. In what country was Oliver born? __________________________________________________

2. What college did he attend? ______________________________________________________

3. Why did he leave college early? ____________________________________________________

4. How many children did Oliver have with his wife Elizabeth? _____________________________

5. What happened to Oliver in 1638? _________________________________________________

6. Who was King of England when Oliver was in Parliament? _______________________________

7. What happened between the King and Parliament? ____________________________________

8. Why did Oliver oppose the King? ___________________________________________________

9. In what year was the Second English War? ___________________________________________

10. What eventually happened to the King of England? ____________________________________

11. What two countries did Oliver invade? ______________________________________________

12. What was the new government of England called? ____________________________________

13. What position was Oliver given? ___________________________________________________

14. In what year did Oliver die? _______________________________________________________

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

    • Charming & a skilled politician, Charles set new tone after 11 years of Puritanism

      • England went back to hereditary monarch, Parliament of Lords & Commons (met only when king called them), & Anglican Church

      • King secretly was sympathetic to Catholics, however, and supported religious toleration

  • 1670, Treaty of Dover aligned England & France against Dutch (main commercial competitor)

    • In secret part of treaty, Charles agreed to announce his conversion to Catholicism when time was right (never happened)

    • To unite English people against war with Dutch (and to impress Louis XIV), Charles issued Declaration of Indulgence

      • After he did, Parliament passed the Test Act

        • Parliament aimed this law at king’s brother James, duke of York (heir to throne & a Catholic)

  • 1678, Titus Oates swore in court that Charles’s Catholic wife was plotting with Jesuits to kill king so James could take over – Popish Plot

    • In panic that ensued, several innocent people were executed

    • Opposition members of Parliament – Whigs

  • Suspicious of Parliament, Charles II raised customs duties (and asked Louis XIV) to raise more money

    • When he died in 1685, Charles II left James with a Parliament filled with royal friends

The Glorious Revolution

    • Parliament refused, so he dissolved it & appointed Catholics to high-ranking positions in his court & the military

    • 1687, he issued another Declaration of Indulgence

    • 1688, James imprisoned 7 Anglican bishops (refused to accept his order suspending laws against Catholics)

  • English hoped Mary (James’s oldest, Protestant daughter) would be next ruler

  • But then James’s Catholic wife gave birth to a son – Catholic male heir to throne

    • Parliament asked William of Orange to invade England to save Protestantism & the parliamentary system

      • James fled to France

      • 1689, Parliament proclaimed William III and Mary II the new monarchs –

        • In return, William & Mary recognized a Bill of Rights

        • From now on, English monarchs had to rule only with consent of Parliament

        • Also prohibited Catholics from taking throne

    • But people outside the Church of England did not have full political rights

  • Act of Settlement

    • But only if Anne (2nd daughter of James II & the heir) died without issue

    • When Anne died 1714, Elector of Hanover became King George I of Great Britain (England & Scotland combined in 1707 with the Act of Union)

The Age of Walpole

  • Immediately, George I’s throne was challenged

    • James Edward Stuart, Catholic son of James II, landed in Scotland 1715

  • Regardless, government remained chaotic & weak until Sir Robert Walpole took control

    • How did he come to power?

      • Royal support, ability to handle the House of Commons, & his control of government patronage

      • Britain’s foreign trade spread from New England to India

      • Because his government did not interfere with local rulers, they were willing to collect and pay taxes to support powerful military (especially navy)

  • Power of British monarchs & Parliament had limits

    • They could not ignore the people – who had every right to protest when they wanted

      • These ideas would be transferred to Britain’s North American colonies

4. Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

The French Monarchy

  • Early 1600s, French monarchy faced challenges from wealthy nobles and angry Protestants

    • But it gradually gained firm control over country

    • The groundwork for Louis XIV’s absolutism was laid by two powerful ministers –

      • They tried to impose direct royal administration on France

  • Rebellions convinced Louis XIV that heavy-handed policies could endanger monarchy

    • Louis, from then on, had total control (but he used his power subtly)

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