In late nineteenth-century Europe, human progress was increasingly identified with ________ progress or greater ___________ of material goods.
The Second Industrial Revolution
After 1871, Europe’s First Industrial Revolution of Textiles, Railroads, Iron and Coal, gave way to the Second Industrial Revolution of _____, _________, ___________ and _________.
The Steel Industry
The first major change came with the substitution of _____ for Iron.
By 1890, both _______ and the United States had surpassed Great Britain as the leading producers of Steel.
Between 1860 and 1913, European steel production went from 125,000 tons to __________ tons
The Chemical Industry
Great Britain also fell behind in the production of soda necessary for the manufacture of alkalis used in the soap, textile and paper industries.
_______ was to emerge as the leader of the European chemical industries.
Electricity became commercially practical in _____________ in the 1870s and by 1910 hydroelectric, coal and fossil fuel powered generating stations were becoming common in Europe.
Thomas ______ and Joseph ______ electric light bulbs brought cheap illumination to cities.
Alexander Graham ______ telephone (1876) and Guglielmo _________ radio (1910) revolutionized communication.
By the 1880s ________ railways, streetcars and subways were replacing horse-drawn buses in major European cities.
___________ also began to replace steam engines in factories; this allowed countries without coal to begin to industrialize.
The Internal Combustion Engine
The first __________________ engine was developed in 1878.
The oil-fired engine was made in 1897 and by 1902 oil was replacing coal on large ocean liners.
A number of countries were also making the switch from coal to oil in their naval fleets.
In 1886, Gotlieb _______ invented the first light weight internal combustion engine necessary for the development of the automobile.
In 1900 the world production of cars was 9000, with the ______ leading the way in auto manufacturing.
Ford’s development of the ____________ factory and the mass production of the Model T made Ford motors the largest manufacturer of automobiles with over 735,000 a year by 1916.
In 1900, the German ________ Company began the commercial air transportation industry with its lighter-than-air dirigibles.
In 1903, the ______ brothers made the first successful flight of a fixed-wing gas-powered airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
National incomes _______ in Britain and Germany and prices for food and manufactured goods declined.
Thus, the development of markets in Europe after 1870 was characterized by wealthy ______________ who desired a growing number of consumer products.
The Department Stores
New marketing techniques led to the development of large __________ stores carrying a wide variety of consumer goods.
Le Bon-Marche and Galeries Lafayette in Paris
Harrod’s in London.
Decline of Free Trade
Increased competition for foreign markets led countries to rethink the idea of __________.
After 1870, most European countries returned to _________________.
Britain, Denmark and the Netherlands refused to follow the trend.
The Rise of Cartels
Like the development of Trusts in the U.S., large corporations in Europe began to work together to eliminate “________” competition.
Corporations, especially in Germany, also began to build larger and larger manufacturing plants.
Plants became more __________ and assembly lines were introduced – thus cutting labor costs.
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
The Great Depression
The period from 1873 to 1895 was also a period of ________ economic crises and recessions.
Agricultural prices dropped and like the U.S., Europe had major __________ in the 1870s and 1890s.
La Belle Époque
The period from 1895 to 1914 was a _________ in European civilization – a period of great prosperity and economic development.
But not all parts of Europe shared in the high level of development.
_______ began to replace Britain as Europe's industrial leader by the early 20th century largely due to its development of new areas of manufacturing including chemicals and heavy electric machinery.
Britain’s cautious approach and doctrine of "sticking to what works" in industry caused it to fall behind.
Another key reason for Germany supplanting England as the industrial leader of Europe was the British unwillingness to support and encourage formal _________ and ___________________.
The European Core
By 1900, Europe was divided into two ______________: the northwestern nations of Germany, Britain, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, western Austria-Hungary and northern Italy constituted the advanced industrialized core of Europe.
The Agricultural Perimeter
The rest of Europe to the north, south, west and east was still predominantly ____________ and did not enjoy the same high standards of living as the core industrial areas.
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
Working class organizations reinforced the belief that women belonged in the ____ bearing and nurturing children.
Women that needed to have a source of income were forced to work in the lowest paying jobs such as “________” or “____” work in the textile industry.
New Job Opportunities
After 1870, new job opportunities opened up for women in the service and white-collar sectors.
_____ were hired as sales clerks, typists, secretaries, telephone operators and in health and education.
Limited opportunities for _________ limited women’s abilities to advance and compete with men.
Women began to fill the lower paying service sector jobs in the new economy.
Rise of Prostitution
Many women that moved to the cities were unable to find work or lost jobs in the factories and often turned to ____________.
Prostitution was often licensed and Britain passed a Contagious Diseases Act to quarantine women with STDs.
Organizing the Working Classes
The desire for improvement of working and living conditions for workers led socialists and industrial workers to begin to organize into ______ and ________________.
The Social Democratic Party
One of the largest and most effective labor class parties was the Social Democratic Party (SPD), organized in Germany by two ________.
The German SPD won seats in the Reichstag and worked to enact ______ legislation to better the conditions of the lower classes.
By 1912 the SPD will be the _______ single political party in Germany.
Jean ______ was the leading Socialist in France and helped to organize the various socialist elements into a unified political party.
It was never as successful as the German party.
The Second International
Socialists formed the ___________________ in 1889 and established _____st as an annual international labor day to be marked by demonstrations and strikes.
Revisionism and Nationalism
Many socialists were pure Marxists who believed in the imminent collapse of the social order, but some followed the less radical belief known as ___________.
Eduard _________, a prominent revisionist in the SPD , challenged Marxist orthodoxy in his book Evolutionary Socialism.
Bernstein advocated working through __________ politics to create socialism.
Marx and Engles had declared that the working class had __________, but by the turn of the century Nationalist sentiments were growing stronger and many Socialist leaders will support the war efforts of their countries in World War I.
The Rise of Trade Unions
_____________ in Great Britain were successful in organizing many workers into unions and union membership topped 3 million by 1914.
Prior to World War I the trade union movement on the continent varied from state to state, but was generally most productive when allied with socialist parties.
The Anarchist Alternative
Many radicals were unhappy with the move towards moderation among labor and socialists.
Many countries in Europe, especially in _______ Europe, did not share in the democratic benefits that allowed for evolutionary socialism.
Many of these people began to gravitate toward _________.
Anarchism was not initially a violent movement.
Anarchists believed that people were inherently_____ and that they had been corrupted the state and society.
True freedom could only be achieved by destroying all existing __________________.
Anarchists in the peripheral countries of Southern and Eastern Europe began to advocate ________ and assassination to accomplish the goal.
The Russian radical advocated training small cadres of violent revolutionaries to disrupt society and bring about its collapse.
Victims of Anarchy
By the turn of the century anarchist will assassinate a number of world leaders.
Although similar measures will be passed in other countries, these reforms will do little to alleviate the housing problems of the poor.
Redesigning the Cities
Old defensive walls were torn down and ____________ and parks were built.
The Gare d’Orsay
The Social Structure of Mass Society
While the standard of living of most Europeans increased after 1871, there was still and enormous ___ between the rich and the poor.
The _______ 20% of the population received between 50 and 60 percent of the national income.
The upper and middle classes had 3/5ths of the wealth while the _____ 80% shared the remaining 2/5ths.
The Elite: Wealth and Status
The landed aristocracy and the most successful __________ and _________ merged to form a new elite.
The ____________ class gained a greater share of the wealth and increasingly controlled the greatest fortunes.
The Middle Classes
Below the upper middle class was the growing class of middle management _____________ and engineers.
Beneath this group were new groups of ____________ workers that were the product of the Second Industrial Revolution.
Middle Class Values
The middle class preached a set of values that stressed _________, _________ and traditional Christian morality.
They were obsessed with progress, _________ and the “right” way of doing things.
The Lower Classes
The lower classes constituted about ___ of the population.
In Eastern Europe this group was predominantly ________.
Western Europe had a much larger _____ working class, with Great Britain having only 10% of the population working in agriculture.
The lower classes were divided into skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers.
By far the largest segment of European society by the end of the nineteenth century were the _________ day-laborers, domestic workers and peasant landholders.
The “Woman Question”: The Role of Women
The Woman Question
This was the term used to debate the role of women in society.
In the nineteenth century women were still _______ inferior, economically _________ and their position was defined by family and household roles.
The Impact of the Industrial Revolution
Changes in the workforce, with men becoming the _______ wage earners, led to an increase in gender specific occupations.
This made it increasingly harder for women to earn a living wage and be ___________.
The Cult of Domesticity
Middle class values emphasized the importance of a woman’s place in the ____.
Elizabeth Poole _______ encouraged women to accept their roles as wives and homemakers.
More women chose to _____ and illegitimacy rates decrease.
__________ dropped significantly and the size of families decreased at this time.
The change in attitudes about the number of children led to an increase in the use of ______________ and the founding of “family planning” centers.
Birth control was more likely to be used by the _____ than the lower classes.
The Middle Class Family
An abundance of cheap labor allowed many middle class families to hire domestic servants.
This freed the wife to devote more time to _________ and domestic leisure.
In reality most families could __________ servants and women were forced to work hard to maintain the appearance of upper middle class lifestyle.
Middle class families fostered an ideal of ____________.
________ and holidays were celebrated as family events.
The Victorians created the Christmas traditions of the Christmas tree, caroling and exchanging gifts.
Children were encouraged to be children; and games, toys and children’s stories were created to _________ and _______ them.
Importance of Education
The middle class stressed the importance of __________ knowledge that would help prepare their children for their future roles.
Boys were often sent to ________ schools and were expected to involve themselves in ______ in order to “toughen them up.”
The Boy Scouts
Robert ____________ founded the Boy Scouts in 1908.
The Working-Class Family
Women were expected to ____ in the lower class families.
Daughters ______ until married and then often had to take in piecework to make ends meet.
Childhood was over by the age of ten and children were apprenticed or employed.
Changes in Family Patterns
By the end of the century, the standard of living for the working classes began to ________ and husbands increasingly became the sole wage earner.
This allowed working class families to follow the ____________ patterns and values of increased purchasing of consumer products; smaller family size, reduced work hours, more devotion to children and a greater emphasis on education.
Education and Leisure in an Age of Mass Society
Primary Education for All
By 1900, most European educational systems were ____ and __________ at least at the primary level.
Reasons for Free Education
Liberals believed in education as means of personal and social ___________.
Secular education was also seen as a way to lessen the influence of the ________ Church.
Conservatives believed education helped create a more disciplined pool of ________ recruits.
Industrialists wanted a _______________ workforce with the ability to fill the new white-collar positions.
For a More Intelligent Electorate
The chief motivation was _________, to produce more informed voters in expanding electorates and to heighten patriotism producing more integrated nations.
The increase in education led to an increasing demand for ________.
Most teachers were women and “______” schools were created to train women in education.
Education also led to an increase in literacy and an explosion in popular literature such as “____________” newspapers and pulp fiction.
Many ___________ leisure activities began to disappear.
Holidays were _________ to match work schedules.
_____ Halls and Music Halls became popular by the turn of the century.
Thomas ____ founded the modern tourist industry by creating package tours of the Continent.
Sports became organized and ____________ teams developed in Football (soccer), Cricket and Rugby.
The National Staten 1871 –1914
Reform in Britain
The growth of democracy was advanced by the increase of suffrage passed in the Reform Act of ____.
Democracy was expanded further during the second ministry of William Gladstone (1880 – 1885)
Reform Act of 1884
The Reform Act of ____ gave the vote to all men that regularly paid rents or taxes.
This gave the franchise to the previously excluded ____________ workers.
The Redistribution Act
The ______________ Act of 1885 eliminated all of the old county and borough boundaries and made parliamentary districts with equal populations and one representative each.
Salaries for Parliamentary Ministers
By 1911, members of the House of Commons were ____ an annual salary, thus allowing people other than the wealthy to run for Parliament.
_______ political reform without revolution had become the norm in Great Britain.
The Irish Question
Gradual reform failed to solve the problem of _______.
The Act of Union
Ireland had long been subject to the rule of England and the Parliaments of Ireland and Great Britain were united by the ____________ of 1801.
Like other subject nationalities in Europe the Irish had developed a sense of ________ self-consciousness.
The Irish detested their absentee _________ and Anglican overseers
A secret revolutionary society organized 1858 in Ireland and the U.S. to achieve Irish independence from England by force.
The Fenians used _________ to attract attention to the problems of the Irish.
Parliament initially reacted with force.
The First Reform Bill
In 1870, Gladstone helped pass a limited ___________ bill, but Irish farmers continued to be evicted and violence escalated in the 1870s.
Parliament reacts with even more force and many Fenian leaders are jailed.
In 1882, many of the Fenians are released from prison after agreeing to stop boycotting landowners, cooperate with the Liberal Party, and stop inciting Irishmen to revolt.
Four days later, Fenians murder the new chief secretary for Ireland in broad daylight in Dublin’s Phoenix Park, this leads the British to suspend trial by jury and give the police unbridled power to search and arrest on suspicion.
A new campaign of terrorism includes dynamiting of public buildings in England
Irish Home Rule
An Irish home rule bill was introduced in Parliament by _________
It provided for a separate Irish legislature but retained control of matters relating to the army and navy, trade and navigation, and the crown in the British Parliament.
Conservatives attacked the measure, Joseph Chamberlain resigns from the Gladstone cabinet and leads a secession from the Liberal party.
The bill is defeated and the Gladstone ministry ends when a general election gives victory to the _____________.
A second Home Rule Bill will pass Commons in 1893 was defeated by the House of Lords.
The Ulster Problem
A third Home Rule Bill passed (1914) by Commons led to threats of civil war from __________ Ulster, and the House of Lords excluded Ulster from its provisions.
The bill never took effect because continuing agitation led to recognition of the Irish Free State with dominion status in 1921
The Third Republic In France
The defeat of France by Prussia in 1870 brought about the end of Louis Napoleon’s Second Empire.
The Republicans established a provisional republican government but ________ and the German occupying army forced a new election.
The Republicans were overwhelmingly defeated by the ___________ who established a new government at Versailles.
The Paris Commune
The radical republicans refused to recognize the new government and on March 26, 1871, formed an independent republican government in Paris called the _______.
Manning the Barricades
The National Assembly responded by sending in the ____ to defeat the revolutionaries.
Violent street fighting ensued.
Both men and women, having fought off the German siege for months, now manned the barricades against their own countrymen.
Women like Louise Michel, a schoolteacher, helped form women’s fighting brigades and helped defend the Butte of Montmarte.