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Mass Society in an Age of Progress 1871 – 1894



  • The Growth of Industrial Prosperity

    • In late nineteenth-century Europe, human progress was increasingly identified with ________ progress or greater ___________ of material goods.

  • The Second Industrial Revolution

    • After 1871, Europe’s First Industrial Revolution of Textiles, Railroads, Iron and Coal, gave way to the Second Industrial Revolution of _____, _________, ___________ and _________.

  • The Steel Industry

    • The first major change came with the substitution of _____ for Iron.

    • By 1890, both _______ and the United States had surpassed Great Britain as the leading producers of Steel.

    • Between 1860 and 1913, European steel production went from 125,000 tons to __________ tons

  • The Chemical Industry

    • Great Britain also fell behind in the production of soda necessary for the manufacture of alkalis used in the soap, textile and paper industries.

    • _______ was to emerge as the leader of the European chemical industries.

  • Electricity

    • Electricity became commercially practical in _____________ in the 1870s and by 1910 hydroelectric, coal and fossil fuel powered generating stations were becoming common in Europe.

    • Thomas ______ and Joseph ______ electric light bulbs brought cheap illumination to cities.

    • Alexander Graham ______ telephone (1876) and Guglielmo _________ radio (1910) revolutionized communication.

  • Electric Railways

    • By the 1880s ________ railways, streetcars and subways were replacing horse-drawn buses in major European cities.

  • Electric Factories

    • ___________ also began to replace steam engines in factories; this allowed countries without coal to begin to industrialize.

  • The Internal Combustion Engine

    • The first ________ __________ engine was developed in 1878.

    • The oil-fired engine was made in 1897 and by 1902 oil was replacing coal on large ocean liners.

    • A number of countries were also making the switch from coal to oil in their naval fleets.

  • Gottlieb Daimler

    • In 1886, Gotlieb _______ invented the first light weight internal combustion engine necessary for the development of the automobile.

    • In 1900 the world production of cars was 9000, with the ______ leading the way in auto manufacturing.

  • Henry Ford

    • Ford’s development of the ________ ____ factory and the mass production of the Model T made Ford motors the largest manufacturer of automobiles with over 735,000 a year by 1916.

  • Air Transportation

    • In 1900, the German ________ Company began the commercial air transportation industry with its lighter-than-air dirigibles.

    • In 1903, the ______ brothers made the first successful flight of a fixed-wing gas-powered airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

  • The Marketplace

    • National incomes _______ in Britain and Germany and prices for food and manufactured goods declined.

    • Thus, the development of markets in Europe after 1870 was characterized by wealthy _____ _________ who desired a growing number of consumer products.

  • The Department Stores

    • New marketing techniques led to the development of large __________ stores carrying a wide variety of consumer goods.

    • Le Bon-Marche and Galeries Lafayette in Paris

    • Harrod’s in London.

  • Decline of Free Trade

    • Increased competition for foreign markets led countries to rethink the idea of __________.

    • After 1870, most European countries returned to __________ _______.

    • Britain, Denmark and the Netherlands refused to follow the trend.

  • The Rise of Cartels

    • Like the development of Trusts in the U.S., large corporations in Europe began to work together to eliminate “________” competition.

  • Scientific Management

    • Corporations, especially in Germany, also began to build larger and larger manufacturing plants.

    • Plants became more __________ and assembly lines were introduced – thus cutting labor costs.

  • New Patterns in an Industrial Economy

  • The Great Depression

    • The period from 1873 to 1895 was also a period of ________ economic crises and recessions.

    • Agricultural prices dropped and like the U.S., Europe had major __________ in the 1870s and 1890s.

  • La Belle Époque

    • The period from 1895 to 1914 was a ______ ___ in European civilization – a period of great prosperity and economic development.

    • But not all parts of Europe shared in the high level of development.

  • German Ascendancy

    • _______ began to replace Britain as Europe's industrial leader by the early 20th century largely due to its development of new areas of manufacturing including chemicals and heavy electric machinery.

    • Britain’s cautious approach and doctrine of "sticking to what works" in industry caused it to fall behind.

    • Another key reason for Germany supplanting England as the industrial leader of Europe was the British unwillingness to support and encourage formal _________ and __________ _________.

  • The European Core

    • By 1900, Europe was divided into two ______________: the northwestern nations of Germany, Britain, Belgium, France, The Netherlands, western Austria-Hungary and northern Italy constituted the advanced industrialized core of Europe.

  • The Agricultural Perimeter

    • The rest of Europe to the north, south, west and east was still predominantly ____________ and did not enjoy the same high standards of living as the core industrial areas.

  • Women and Work: New Job Opportunities

    • Working class organizations reinforced the belief that women belonged in the ____ bearing and nurturing children.

  • Sweat Work

    • Women that needed to have a source of income were forced to work in the lowest paying jobs such as “________” or “____” work in the textile industry.

  • New Job Opportunities

    • After 1870, new job opportunities opened up for women in the service and white-collar sectors.

    • _____ were hired as sales clerks, typists, secretaries, telephone operators and in health and education.

    • Limited opportunities for _________ limited women’s abilities to advance and compete with men.

    • Women began to fill the lower paying service sector jobs in the new economy.

  • Rise of Prostitution

    • Many women that moved to the cities were unable to find work or lost jobs in the factories and often turned to ____________.

    • Prostitution was often licensed and Britain passed a Contagious Diseases Act to quarantine women with STDs.

  • Organizing the Working Classes

    • The desire for improvement of working and living conditions for workers led socialists and industrial workers to begin to organize into ______ and _________ _______.

  • The Social Democratic Party

    • One of the largest and most effective labor class parties was the Social Democratic Party (SPD), organized in Germany by two ________.

    • The German SPD won seats in the Reichstag and worked to enact ______ legislation to better the conditions of the lower classes.

    • By 1912 the SPD will be the _______ single political party in Germany.

  • French Socialism

    • Jean ______ was the leading Socialist in France and helped to organize the various socialist elements into a unified political party.

    • It was never as successful as the German party.

  • The Second International

    • Socialists formed the ______ _____________ in 1889 and established _____st as an annual international labor day to be marked by demonstrations and strikes.

  • Revisionism and Nationalism

    • Many socialists were pure Marxists who believed in the imminent collapse of the social order, but some followed the less radical belief known as ___________.

  • Revisionism

    • Eduard _________, a prominent revisionist in the SPD , challenged Marxist orthodoxy in his book Evolutionary Socialism.

    • Bernstein advocated working through __________ politics to create socialism.

  • Nationalism

    • Marx and Engles had declared that the working class had __________, but by the turn of the century Nationalist sentiments were growing stronger and many Socialist leaders will support the war efforts of their countries in World War I.

  • The Rise of Trade Unions

    • _____________ in Great Britain were successful in organizing many workers into unions and union membership topped 3 million by 1914.

    • Prior to World War I the trade union movement on the continent varied from state to state, but was generally most productive when allied with socialist parties.

  • The Anarchist Alternative

    • Many radicals were unhappy with the move towards moderation among labor and socialists.

    • Many countries in Europe, especially in _______ Europe, did not share in the democratic benefits that allowed for evolutionary socialism.

    • Many of these people began to gravitate toward _________.

    • Anarchism was not initially a violent movement.

  • Anarchism

    • Anarchists believed that people were inherently_____ and that they had been corrupted the state and society.

    • True freedom could only be achieved by destroying all existing ______ ____________.

    • Anarchists in the peripheral countries of Southern and Eastern Europe began to advocate ________ and assassination to accomplish the goal.

  • Michael _______

    • The Russian radical advocated training small cadres of violent revolutionaries to disrupt society and bring about its collapse.

  • Victims of Anarchy

    • By the turn of the century anarchist will assassinate a number of world leaders.

      • Tsar Alexander II of Russia.

      • French president Marie François Sadi Carnot.

      • King Umberto I of Italy

      • President McKinley of the US

  • Lady Dynamite, let’s dance quickly,
    Let’s dance and sing and dynamite everything!

-French Anarchist Song of the 1880s.

The Emergence of Mass Society



  • Population Growth

    • Between 1850 and 1910, European population increased by ___________ from 270 million to over 460 million people.

    • Between 1850 and 1880, the chief cause was a ______ birthrate.

    • By 1880 the increase will primarily be due to a __________ death rate.

  • Other Factors

    • An Improved Diet

    • Improved __________ and __________

  • Migration

    • People from the non-industrialized ____________ periphery of southern and Eastern Europe migrated to the industrial cities and to the United States.

    • Around _______ people left Europe every year.

  • Transforming the Urban Environment

  • The Growth of Cities

    • 1800 – Urban population was 40% in Britain, 25% in France and Germany and only 10% in Eastern Europe.

    • By 1914 – urban population increased to 80% in _______, 60% in Germany, 45% in France and 30% in Eastern Europe.

  • Reasons for Growth

    • By far the greatest cause of growth was sheer ________ necessity.

    • Poverty and unemployment in the countryside and factory ____ in the cities.

    • Better health and living conditions, as well as the allure of city life.

  • Improving Living Conditions

    • Urban reformers such as Edwin ________ in Britain and Rudolf Virchow and Solomon Neumann in Germany began to call for __________ reforms to clean up the filthy and unhealthy cities.

    • “from the toilet to the river in half an hour.”

  • Sanitation

    • _____ lines and ______ were installed to bring in fresh water and remove sewage.

    • The Public Health Act of 1875 in Great Britain required all new buildings to have ______ ________.

    • Many cities began to chemically treat sewage, but many continued to discharge the sewage into local rivers and lakes, which soon became highly ________.



  • Housing

    • V.A. Huber – called for good housing as a way to bring about ___________ and moral health.

    • _______ ____ – believed in giving aid and guidance to the poor and building them descent homes.

    • Lord Levelhume – created a model community called ____ ________ for his workers outside Liverpool, England.

  • 1890 – British Housing Act

    • Allowed local communities to collect taxes to build low rent housing for the _______ classes.

    • Although similar measures will be passed in other countries, these reforms will do little to alleviate the housing problems of the poor.

  • Redesigning the Cities

    • Old defensive walls were torn down and ____________ and parks were built.

    • The Gare d’Orsay

    • Opera Garnier

    • Vienna

  • The Social Structure of Mass Society

    • While the standard of living of most Europeans increased after 1871, there was still and enormous ___ between the rich and the poor.

    • The _______ 20% of the population received between 50 and 60 percent of the national income.

    • The upper and middle classes had 3/5ths of the wealth while the _____ 80% shared the remaining 2/5ths.

  • The Elite: Wealth and Status

    • The landed aristocracy and the most successful __________ and _________ merged to form a new elite.

    • The ____________ class gained a greater share of the wealth and increasingly controlled the greatest fortunes.

  • The Middle Classes

    • Below the upper middle class was the growing class of middle management _____________ and engineers.

    • Beneath this group were new groups of ____________ workers that were the product of the Second Industrial Revolution.

  • Middle Class Values

    • The middle class preached a set of values that stressed _________, _________ and traditional Christian morality.

    • They were obsessed with progress, _________ and the “right” way of doing things.

  • The Lower Classes

    • The lower classes constituted about ___ of the population.

    • In Eastern Europe this group was predominantly ________.

    • Western Europe had a much larger _____ working class, with Great Britain having only 10% of the population working in agriculture.

  • Class Divisions

    • The lower classes were divided into skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers.

    • By far the largest segment of European society by the end of the nineteenth century were the _________ day-laborers, domestic workers and peasant landholders.

  • The “Woman Question”: The Role of Women

  • The Woman Question

    • This was the term used to debate the role of women in society.

    • In the nineteenth century women were still _______ inferior, economically _________ and their position was defined by family and household roles.

  • The Impact of the Industrial Revolution

    • Changes in the workforce, with men becoming the _______ wage earners, led to an increase in gender specific occupations.

    • This made it increasingly harder for women to earn a living wage and be ___________.

  • The Cult of Domesticity

    • Middle class values emphasized the importance of a woman’s place in the ____.

    • Elizabeth Poole _______ encouraged women to accept their roles as wives and homemakers.

    • More women chose to _____ and illegitimacy rates decrease.

  • Birth Control

    • __________ dropped significantly and the size of families decreased at this time.

    • The change in attitudes about the number of children led to an increase in the use of ______________ and the founding of “family planning” centers.

    • Birth control was more likely to be used by the _____ than the lower classes.

  • The Middle Class Family

    • An abundance of cheap labor allowed many middle class families to hire domestic servants.

    • This freed the wife to devote more time to _________ and domestic leisure.




    • In reality most families could __________ servants and women were forced to work hard to maintain the appearance of upper middle class lifestyle.

  • Leisure Time

    • Middle class families fostered an ideal of ____________.

    • ________ and holidays were celebrated as family events.

    • The Victorians created the Christmas traditions of the Christmas tree, caroling and exchanging gifts.

  • Child Rearing

    • Children were encouraged to be children; and games, toys and children’s stories were created to _________ and _______ them.

  • Importance of Education

    • The middle class stressed the importance of __________ knowledge that would help prepare their children for their future roles.

    • Boys were often sent to ________ schools and were expected to involve themselves in ______ in order to “toughen them up.”

  • The Boy Scouts

    • Robert ____________ founded the Boy Scouts in 1908.

  • The Working-Class Family

    • Women were expected to ____ in the lower class families.

    • Daughters ______ until married and then often had to take in piecework to make ends meet.

    • Childhood was over by the age of ten and children were apprenticed or employed.

  • Changes in Family Patterns

    • By the end of the century, the standard of living for the working classes began to ________ and husbands increasingly became the sole wage earner.

    • This allowed working class families to follow the ____________ patterns and values of increased purchasing of consumer products; smaller family size, reduced work hours, more devotion to children and a greater emphasis on education.

  • Education and Leisure in an Age of Mass Society

  • Primary Education for All

    • By 1900, most European educational systems were ____ and __________ at least at the primary level.

  • Reasons for Free Education

    • Liberals believed in education as means of personal and social ___________.

    • Secular education was also seen as a way to lessen the influence of the ________ Church.

    • Conservatives believed education helped create a more disciplined pool of ________ recruits.

    • Industrialists wanted a _______________ workforce with the ability to fill the new white-collar positions.

    • For a More Intelligent Electorate

      • The chief motivation was _________, to produce more informed voters in expanding electorates and to heighten patriotism producing more integrated nations.

    • The increase in education led to an increasing demand for ________.

    • Most teachers were women and “______” schools were created to train women in education.

    • Education also led to an increase in literacy and an explosion in popular literature such as “____________” newspapers and pulp fiction.

  • Mass Leisure

    • Many ___________ leisure activities began to disappear.

    • Holidays were _________ to match work schedules.

    • _____ Halls and Music Halls became popular by the turn of the century.

  • Tourism

    • Thomas ____ founded the modern tourist industry by creating package tours of the Continent.

  • Professional Sports

    • Sports became organized and ____________ teams developed in Football (soccer), Cricket and Rugby.

  • The National Staten 1871 –1914

  • Reform in Britain

    • The growth of democracy was advanced by the increase of suffrage passed in the Reform Act of ____.

  • William Gladstone

    • Democracy was expanded further during the second ministry of William Gladstone (1880 – 1885)

  • Reform Act of 1884

    • The Reform Act of ____ gave the vote to all men that regularly paid rents or taxes.

    • This gave the franchise to the previously excluded ____________ workers.

  • The Redistribution Act

    • The ______________ Act of 1885 eliminated all of the old county and borough boundaries and made parliamentary districts with equal populations and one representative each.

  • Salaries for Parliamentary Ministers

    • By 1911, members of the House of Commons were ____ an annual salary, thus allowing people other than the wealthy to run for Parliament.

  • Gradual Reform

    • _______ political reform without revolution had become the norm in Great Britain.

  • The Irish Question

    • Gradual reform failed to solve the problem of _______.

  • The Act of Union

    • Ireland had long been subject to the rule of England and the Parliaments of Ireland and Great Britain were united by the ____________ of 1801.

  • Irish Nationalism

    • Like other subject nationalities in Europe the Irish had developed a sense of ________ self-consciousness.

    • The Irish detested their absentee _________ and Anglican overseers

  • The Fenians

    • A secret revolutionary society organized 1858 in Ireland and the U.S. to achieve Irish independence from England by force.

    • The Fenians used _________ to attract attention to the problems of the Irish.

    • Parliament initially reacted with force.

  • The First Reform Bill

    • In 1870, Gladstone helped pass a limited ___________ bill, but Irish farmers continued to be evicted and violence escalated in the 1870s.

  • Irish Revolt

    • Parliament reacts with even more force and many Fenian leaders are jailed.

    • In 1882, many of the Fenians are released from prison after agreeing to stop boycotting landowners, cooperate with the Liberal Party, and stop inciting Irishmen to revolt.

    • Four days later, Fenians murder the new chief secretary for Ireland in broad daylight in Dublin’s Phoenix Park, this leads the British to suspend trial by jury and give the police unbridled power to search and arrest on suspicion.

    • A new campaign of terrorism includes dynamiting of public buildings in England

  • Irish Home Rule

  • An Irish home rule bill was introduced in Parliament by _________

    • It provided for a separate Irish legislature but retained control of matters relating to the army and navy, trade and navigation, and the crown in the British Parliament.

  • Conservative Backlash

    • Conservatives attacked the measure, Joseph Chamberlain resigns from the Gladstone cabinet and leads a secession from the Liberal party.

    • The bill is defeated and the Gladstone ministry ends when a general election gives victory to the _____________.

    • A second Home Rule Bill will pass Commons in 1893 was defeated by the House of Lords.

  • The Ulster Problem

    • A third Home Rule Bill passed (1914) by Commons led to threats of civil war from __________ Ulster, and the House of Lords excluded Ulster from its provisions.

    • The bill never took effect because continuing agitation led to recognition of the Irish Free State with dominion status in 1921

  • The Third Republic In France

    • The defeat of France by Prussia in 1870 brought about the end of Louis Napoleon’s Second Empire.

    • The Republicans established a provisional republican government but ________ and the German occupying army forced a new election.

    • The Republicans were overwhelmingly defeated by the ___________ who established a new government at Versailles.

  • The Paris Commune

    • The radical republicans refused to recognize the new government and on March 26, 1871, formed an independent republican government in Paris called the _______.

  • Manning the Barricades

    • The National Assembly responded by sending in the ____ to defeat the revolutionaries.

    • Violent street fighting ensued.

    • Both men and women, having fought off the German siege for months, now manned the barricades against their own countrymen.

  • Louise Michel

    • Women like Louise Michel, a schoolteacher, helped form women’s fighting brigades and helped defend the Butte of Montmarte.

  • The Fall of the Commune

    • By the end of May, the government troops _______ the Commune and massacred over________of the defenders.

    • Another 10,000 (many of them Socialists) were shipped overseas to the French penal colony of New Caledonia.

    • The failure of the Commune and the brutality of the suppression of the revolt led to a legacy of class hatred in French politics.

  • The New French Republic

    • ___________ failed to agree on who should be king and in 1875 a compromise constitution was established creating a bicameral legislature and a presidency.

    • This new constitution was passed as a temporary measure but would last for 65 years and future elections would strengthen _________.

    • Monarchists, Catholics and military officers will continue to be enemies of the new republic.

  • The Boulangerist Movement

  • The appointment of Gen. Georges Boulanger, 38, as minister of war stimulates French revanchist sentiment.

    • A veteran of the 1870 siege of Metz in the Franco-Prussian War, Boulanger has been pushed into prominence by Georges Clemenceau, 44, a member of the Chamber of Deputies.

    • Boulanger was seen as “the strong man on horseback” who would be the savior of French honor.

    • In 1889, Boulanger was relieved of his command after he twice went to Paris without leave.

    • He is removed from the army on the recommendation of a council of inquiry composed of five other generals.




    • And even though he is wounded in an embarrassing duel the popular __________ hero is elected to the Chamber of Deputies.

    • Later that year Boulanger threatens to overturn the Third Republic in a ___________, but a warrant is issued for his arrest and he flees the country April 1.

    • Boulanger will commit suicide in 1891.

    • The Boulanger Crisis in France had the end result of rallying French citizens to the cause of the ________

  • Spain at the Turn of the Century

    • Spain was given a new constitution in 1875 by King Alfonso XII.

    • The new parliament was dominated by _______ landowners and industrialists.

    • This small group of the propertied class was divided into the Liberals and Conservatives, but both followed roughly the same policies.

  • The Spanish-American War

    • Spain was quickly defeated by the United States in 1898 and lost the territories of the Philippines and Cuba.

    • The humiliating loss of the once great empire increased the discontent with the status quo.

  • The Generation of 1898

    • A group of young intellectuals called for political _______ in 1898.

    • Both the Liberals and Conservatives will attempt to increase ________ to win favor.

    • When an insurrection broke out in Barcelona in 1909, the army _______ the rebellion, making clear that conservative elements were still in power.

  • Italy at the Turn of the Century

  • By 1870, Italy suffered from the ________ of being a first rate power.

  • The sectional differences between the agricultural _____ and the industrial _____ led to a lack of unity.

  • Chronic turmoil between workers and industrialists undermined the social fabric.

  • Widespread corruption in government and the ever-changing _________ of political parties paralyzed the state.

  • Universal manhood suffrage was granted in 1912, but it did little to correct the growing problems.

  • Italy became the first European power to lose to an African state when Ethiopia won the Battle of _____.

    • Both Spain and Italy remained ___________ European powers less transformed by the economic and cultural innovations of the age.

  • Central and Eastern Europe

    • The central European states of Germany and Austria had the trappings of parliamentary governments but in reality the forces of _________ were still strong.

  • Germany

    • The new government of unified Germany had a bicameral legislature, with the upper house (_________) representing the individual states such as Bavaria and Prussia.

  • The Reichstag

    • The lower house was elected by universal manhood suffrage but still did not have ___________ responsibility.

    • The ministers were responsible to the ______ alone.

    • The Emperor had control over foreign policy, internal administration and the military.

  • The Prussian Military

    • The ____ of the Empire of Germany upheld the tradition of the Prussian military and saw itself as the defender of the Empire and the Kaiser.

  • Otto von Bismarck

    • Bismarck became the empire's first __________, and ruled thereafter as virtual dictator.

    • His system of ________ and alignments made him the acknowledged leader of Europe.




    • He worked with the ________ to expand suffrage and bring about democratic reform.

    • He also joined in the Liberals attacks on the power of the Jesuits and the ________ Church.

  • Kulturkampf

    • Between 1871-1883, Bismarck joined with the liberals to attack the Roman Catholic Church for control over ______ and ecclesiastical appointments and civil marriage.

  • Attacks on the Socialists

    • When Bismarck’s attacks on the Catholics proved counterproductive he shifted policies and began to persecute the __________.

    • Socialist successes in the Reichstag elections of 1878 alarmed Bismarck who feared their antinationalist and _______________ ideas.

    • Bismarck got the Reichstag to pass anti-Socialist legislation and then attempted to undermine the Socialist support by passing ______ legislation.

    • Despite having the most ___________ social programs in the world, Bismarck’s policies failed to halt the rise of the Social Democrats.

  • Dropping the Pilot

    • When Bismarck attempted to enact even more __________ measures against the Socialists the new Kaiser William II fired his Grandfather’s old Chancellor.

  • Austria-Hungary

    • In 1867 Austria-Hungary was theoretically a constitutional government; in reality it was an _________

    • Under the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary the nationality problem remained unresolved and led to strong German nationalist movements.

    • Prime minister Count Edward von _____ attempted to “muddle through” by allowing some concessions to non-German groups only served to alienate the German speaking Austrians.

    • Taffe was removed in 1893 and Austria allowed universal male suffrage, but conditions in the Empire continued to deteriorate.

  • Russia

    • Following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, his successor Alexander III instituted “exceptional measures” of ___________ against liberals and socialists.

  • Nicholas II

    • Upon the death of his the new Tsar vowed to maintain the power of __________ rule in Russia.

    • He would live to regret that vow.


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