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Gladiators of World War 11: Fighting Units of the Second World War

THE ANZACS


PROGRAMME LENGTH


1 hour
SCREENING DETAILS

Monday 21 March at 9.30am EST/ NZ


This program as its name suggests is a eulogistic overview of the contribution of Australian and New Zealand soldiers to the Allied victory in WW2. The title gives some idea of the perspective and general tenor of the narration.
The narration is accompanied throughout by archival footage. There are some short bios of individuals and a number of brief contributions by combatants. There is an attempt to place the events of WW2 in the context of the ANZAC tradition from WW1.
The program will be useful as an introduction to Australians in WW2. It would also lend itself to an examination of the origins and continuing propagation of the ANZAC legend.

Dr Denis Mootz


DATA CAPTURE.


Stop the video programs at the end of each section.

Allow students to share and discuss answers to the questions below.




Introduction.

What does the title of this series suggest about its perspective?

Note the comments about the men and women of the British Empire. Implications?

Why was the response from Australia and New Zealand disproportionate?

What reputation did the soldiers from Australia and New Zealand gain? Why?







Part 1.
Note the response in Australia and New Zealand in 1914.

Note the origin of the nickname ANZACs.

Note the comments on Gallipoli and its impact on Australia and New Zealand. Implications?

Note where else the ANZACs fought in WW1. Result? Implications?

Note the response in Australia and New Zealand in 1939.

Note the comment on “natural” soldiers. Implications?

What was the ANZAC attitude to traditional military discipline?

When did the first Australian Division sail? Destination?

What was the likely target for the ANZACs in Egypt?

Note details of the New Zealand commander General Freyberg VC.

Why were the New Zealanders divided?

Why did the ANZACs call themselves “diggers”?

Note the total contribution from New Zealand. Implication?

Note the total contribution from Australia. Implication?

When did the Middle East become an active theatre of the war?

Note the progress of the war in Libya and Egypt.

When and where did the ANZACs become involved? Result?

Note details of the battle for control of Badia. Result?

Note details of the battle for Tobruk. Result?

Note events in Cyrenaica. Result? Significance?

Why was the “euphoria” of victory short lived? Result?

Where and why was the ANZAC 6th Division redeployed? Who replaced them?

Note developments in the Balkans? Result?

Why were some ANZACs sent to Crete?

Note Freyberg’s defence plans? Result?

What was the crucial element in the German offensive? Result?

Note the actions of Charles Upham.

When did the ANZACs face the Germans again in Africa?

Note details of the defence of Tobruk. Result?

Note the action of John Edmondson VC.

Why did the Australians call themselves “rats of Tobruk”?

Why was this action significant to the Allied war effort?

Why did the scope of fighting widen in summer 1941? Result?

Which ANZACs were involved?

Note the other forces involved.
Who were the enemy in this campaign? Result?

Note the case of Roden Cutler VC.








Part 2.
Note the continuing situation at Tobruk.

Why was the Australian government concerned? Result?

Note the details of “Operation Crusader”. Result?

Why were the New Zealanders forced to withdraw?

Why did Rommel have to withdraw? Result?

Note events of 7 December 1941. Result? Significance?

Note the Japanese advance across the Pacific. Result?

Note events in Malaya and Singapore. Result?

Note the case of General Henry Gordon Bennett.

Note details of the bombing of Darwin. Result? Significance?

How did the British respond to requests for ANZACs to return for home defence? Result?

When did USA troops begin to arrive in Australia?

Note events in Java. Result?

Note events in New Guinea.

How did the Australian government respond to the threat of invasion? Result?

Note details of USA General Douglas Macarthur.

Who commanded land forces?

What was the Japanese objective in New Guinea?

Why was their plan delayed? Result?

How did the USA know the Japanese plan? Result?


Note the Japanese response.

What troops opposed the Japanese on the Kokoda track at this stage? Result?

Note the comments on the terrain. Implications? Result?





Part 3.
Note the contribution of the Papuans.

Note the final extent of the Japanese advance.

Note events at Milne Bay. Result?

Why were the Japanese forced to “fall back”? Result?

Why were the Japanese described as “fanatical”? Implications/

Note events at Buna. Result?

When were the Japanese cleared from Papua?
Note the casualty toll.

Note events at Guadalcanal. Result?

Note details of June 1943 “Operation Cartwheel”. Result?

Note of the role of the New Zealand 3rd Division in the Pacific.

Note events in Egypt in early 1942. Result?

Note the British defence at El Alamein.

Note the role of the New Zealanders at El Alamein.

Note the case of Charles Upham.

Note details of General Bernard Montgomery.

Note the contribution of the ANZACs in the Battle of El Alamein.


Where were the Australians sent in February 1943?

Note the roles of the New Zealanders in Libya and Tunisia. Result?







Part 4.
Note details of the 28th Maori battalion in the Second Battle of El Alamein.

Note the role of the New Zealanders in Italy from May 1944. Result?

Note the deployment of Australian s in the Pacific campaign from1944.

What was the final ANZAC action of WW2? Result?

What role did ANZACs play in the occupation of Japan post WW2?

Note the conditions endured by the ANZAC POWs.

Note the final comment on “contribution”. Implications?

Note the final casualty counts.

Note the final comment on “gladiators”.



EXTENSIONS.
Useful, interesting, challenging, materials can be found at the websites below.

These will supplement and complement the History presented in the video program.

Both the data collected here and above should be used in the notemaking exercise that follows.


World War 2: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/world-war-ii-overview

http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ww2/

http://world-war-2.info/summary/

http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ww2_summary_01.shtml

http://www.watchknowlearn.org/Category.aspx?CategoryID=4213

http://rslnsw.org.au/commemoration/heritage/the-second-world-war

ANZACs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_and_New_Zealand_Army_Corps



http://anzaccentenary.vic.gov.au/history/australias-contribution-wwi/

http://thenewdaily.com.au/news/2015/04/24/australia-world-war-one-timeline/

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/first-world-war-timeline

Australia & New Zealand in WW2: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/second-world-war/timeline



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Australia_during_World_War_II

http://www.secondworldwarhistory.com/australia-ww2-events-timeline.asp

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_New_Zealand_during_World_War_II

http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/in-defence-of-aussies-at-war-20130523-2k42a.html

North Africa: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_North_African_Campaign_battles



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_African_Campaign

http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/australia-wwii/abroad-wwii/rats-tobruk

http://hubpages.com/education/World-War-II-Australian-Campaign-in-North-Africa

http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-north-africa-campaign.htm

http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-ww2/north-africa

http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/WWIINorthAfrica/

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007301

http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/beyond/index.html

Middle East: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_East_Theatre_of_World_War_II



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syria–Lebanon_Campaign

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France

http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=98

http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/damascus/

Greece and Crete: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Greece



https://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/greek_campaign/

http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/greatrisk/

http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/australia-wwii/abroad-wwii/battle-crete

War in the Pacific:



http://john.curtin.edu.au/legacyex/foreign.html

http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/japadvance/index.html

http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/asfaras/index.html

New Guinea campaign: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Guinea_campaign



https://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2013/09/09/remembering-war-new-guinea/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokoda_Track_campaign

http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/asfaras/kokoda.html

http://kokoda.commemoration.gov.au

https://www.awm.gov.au/military-event/E291/

Italian campaign: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2nd_New_Zealand_Division



http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-italian-campaign

NOTEMAKING.
This is the collation stage of the activity.

Encourage students to compose the suggested summaries and to organise the field of information and begin to explore its context.

This activity could be done in teams, groups, or by individuals, or as a class with teacher direction.





  1. Draw up a timeline / chronological chart of the events described and discussed in this program.




  1. Note details of the origins of the ANZAC name and tradition.




  1. Note details of the parts of the world in which ANZACs served from 1939 -1945.




  1. Note details of the contribution of ANZACs to the campaigns in North Africa.




  1. Note details of the contribution of ANZACs to the campaigns in Syria and Lebanon.




  1. Note details of the contribution of ANZACs to the campaigns in Greece and Crete.




  1. Note details of the part played by the ANZACs in the war in the Pacific.




  1. Note details of the part played by the ANZACs in the New Guinea campaign.




  1. Note details of the part played by the ANZACs in the final defeat of Germany in Europe.




  1. Note details of the reputation that was earned by ANZAC soldiers in WW2.




ISSUES & INQUIRY.
Address and discuss the key issues and questions that have been raised by the video at this stage.

Some are suggested below. Students will probably raise others.






  1. What was the significance of the siege of Tobruk?




  1. What was the significance of the Allied victories at El Alamein?




  1. How did the war in the Pacific affect Australia’s foreign policy?





PROBLEMS of EVIDENCE.
It is necessary always to address questions of reliability and validity of the perspectives, evidence and sources presented in the documentary and other sources. These need to be considered, tested and researched. Some are suggested below. Students will probably raise others.






  1. In what sense was the reputation of the ANZACs in WW2 a mixture of positives and negatives?




  1. Why did Macarthur relegate the ANZACs to a minor role in his recapture of the western Pacific?






REPORTING.
Use the key issues and inquiry questions as topics for debate, essay writing, reports, historical recount and explanation.






  1. Write a REPORT (with a labelled map) on the ANZACs in WW2.




  1. Prepare notes (both sides) for a DEBATE of the proposition that


The ANZAC reputation both positive and negative was well deserved.


  1. In what sense did the ANZACs of WW2 continue and enhance the ANZAC “legend”?




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