Prof. John H. Munro

E. Agrarian Social History

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E. Agrarian Social History
II: Agricultural Labourers, Rural Poverty, and the Poor Law in the 18th and 19th centuries. See also Section A, above.
* 1. F.M. Eden, The State of the Poor (London, 1797).
2. W.A. Hasbach, A History of English Agricultural Labourer (London, 1908).
** 3. J.L. and Barbara Hammond, The Village Labourer, 1760-1832 (London, 1911). Reissued New York, Harper Torchbooks, 1970, with an important new introduction by Eric Hobsbawm. New edition edited by George E. Mingay, London, 1978.
4. Sidney and Beatrice Webb, English Poor Law History, Part I: The Old Poor Law (London, 1927).
5. Sidney and Beatrice Webb, English Poor Law History, Part II: The Last Hundred Years (London, 1929).

6. H.L. Beales, ‘The New Poor Law’, History, 15 (1931), reprinted in E.M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, Vol. III (London, 1962), pp. 279-87.

7. N. Gash, ‘Rural Unemployment, 1815 - 34’, Economic History Review, 1st ser., 6 (1935).
8. George E. Fussell, The English Rural Labourer (London, 1949).
9. D. Roberts, ‘How Cruel was the Victorian Poor Law?’ Historical Journal, 6 (1963). See below Henriques (1968).
10. Mark Blaug, ‘The Myth of the Old Poor Law and the Making of the New’, Journal of Economic History, 23 (1963).
11. Mark Blaug, ‘The Poor Law Report Re-Examined’, Journal of Economic History, 24 (1964).
12. E.J. Hobsbawm, Labouring Men (London, 1964).
* 13. E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (London, 1965) Chapter 7: ‘The Field Labourers’, pp. 233-58.
14. J.J. and A.L. Bagley, The English Poor Law (London, 1966).
15. M. E. Rose, ‘The Allowance System under the New Poor Law’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 19 (1966).
16. D. C. Barnett, ‘Allotments and the Problem of Rural Poverty’, in E.L. Jones and G. E. Mingay, eds., Land, Labour, and Population in the Industrial Revolution: Essays Presented to J.D. Chambers (1967).
17. U. Henriques, ‘How Cruel was the Victorian Poor Law?’ Historical Journal, 11 (1968). See above, Roberts (1963).
18. J.D. Marshall, The Old Poor Law, 1795-1834, Studies in Economic History Series (London, 1968).
* 19. E.J. Hobsbawm and George Rudé, Captain Swing (London, 1969; new edn., Harmondsworth, 1973), especially Part I, pp. 23-96.
20. J.P. Huzel, ‘Malthus, the Poor Law, and Population in Early Nineteenth Century England’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 22 (1969).
21. J.S. Taylor, ‘The Mythology of the Old Poor Law’, The Journal of Economic History, 29 (1969).
22. J.R. Poynter, Society and Pauperism: English Ideas on Poor Relief, 1795 - 1834 (London, 1969).

23. M.E. Rose, The Relief of Poverty, 1834-1914, Studies in Economic History Series, (London, 1970).

24. Valerie Morgan, ‘Agricultural Wage Rates in Late Eighteenth-Century Scotland’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 24 (1971).
25. B. Inglis, Poverty and the Industrial Revolution, 2nd edn. (London, 1972).
26. Donald N. McCloskey, ‘New Perspectives on the Old Poor Law’, Explorations in Economic History, 10 (1973).
27. J.P.D. Dunbabin, ed., Rural Discontent in Nineteenth-Century Britain (London, 1974).
28. D. A. Baugh, ‘The Cost of Poor Relief in South-East England, 1790 - 1834’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 28 (1975).
29. G.S.L. Tucker, ‘The Old Poor Law Revisited’, Explorations in Economic History, 12 (1975).
30. J.S. Taylor, ‘The Impact of Pauper Settlement, 1691 - 1834’, Past & Present, no. 73 (1976).
31. D. Fraser, ed., The New Poor Law in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1976).
32. J.M. Martin, ‘Marriage and Economic Stress in the Felden of Warwickshire during the Eighteenth Century’, Population Studies, 31 (1977).
33. A. Brundage, The Making of the New Poor Law: the Politics of Inquiry, Enactment, and Implementation, 1832-39 (London, 1978).
34. James P. Huzel, ‘The Demographic Impact of the Old Poor Law: More Reflexions on Malthus’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 33 (1980), 367-381.
35. P. Horn, The Rural World, 1780 - 1850: Social Change in the English Countryside (London, 1980).

36. Osamu Saito, ‘Labour Supply Behaviour of the Poor in the English Industrial Revolution’, Journal of European Economic History, 10 (1981), 633-52.

37. W. G. Armstrong, ‘The Influence of Demographic Factors on the Position of the Agricultural Labourer in England and Wales, c. 1750 - 1914’, Agricultural History Review, 29 (1981).
38. K. D. M. Snell, ‘Agricultural Seasonal Unemployment, the Standard of Living, and Women's Work in the South and East: 1690-1860’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 34 (1981), 407-37.
39. Ann Kussmaul, ‘The Ambiguous Mobility of Farm Servants’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 34 (1981), 222-35.
40. Ann Kussmaul, Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 1981).
41. K. Williams, From Pauperism to Poverty (London, 1981).
42. Peter Dunkley, The Crisis of the Old Poor Law in England, 1795 - 1834: An Interpretative Essay (New York, 1982).
43. Anne Digby, The Poor Law in Nineteenth-Century England and Wales (London, 1982).
44. Andrew Charlesworth, ed., An Atlas of Rural Protest in Britain, 1548 - 1900 (London, 1983).
45. K. D. M. Snell, Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England, 1660 - 1900 (Cambridge, 1985).
46. George Boyer, ‘An Economic Model of the English Poor Law, ca. 1780-1834’, Explorations in Economic History, 22 (April 1985), 129-67.
* 47. George Boyer, ‘The Old Poor Law and the Agricultural Labor Market in Southern England: An Empirical Analysis’, The Journal of Economic History, 46 (Mar. 1986), 113-36.
48. George Boyer, ‘The Poor Law, Migration, and Economic Growth’, The Journal of Economic History, 46 (1986), 419-40.
49. E. J. T. Collins, ‘The Rationality of `Surplus' Agricultural Labour: Mechanization in English Agriculture in the Nineteenth Century’, Agricultural History Review, 35 (1987), 36-46.
50. Alan Kidd, ‘Historians or Polemicists: How the Webbs Wrote Their History of the English Poor Laws’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 40 (August 1987), 400-17.
51. Mary MacKinnon, ‘English Poor Law Policy and the Crusade Against Outrelief’, Journal of Economic History, 47 (Sept. 1987), 603-25.
* 52. George E. Mingay, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. VI: 1750 - 1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989):
(a) W. A. Armstrong, ‘Labour I: Rural Population Growth, Systems of Employment, and Incomes’, pp. 641 - 728.
(b) W. A. Armstrong and J. P. Huzel, ‘Labour II: Food, Shelter and Self-Help, the Poor Law, and the Position of the Labourer in Rural Society’, pp. 729 - 835.
c) J.H. Porter, ‘The Development of Rural Society’, pp. 836-937.
53. J.M. Neeson, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and the Disappearance of the English Peasantry, Revisited’, in George W. Grantham and Carol Leonard, eds., Agrarian Organization in the Century of Industrialization, Supplement no. 5 of Research in Economic History, Paul Uselding general editor (London: JAI Press, 1989).
54. Jane Humphries, ‘Enclosures, Common Rights, and Women: The Proletarianization of Families in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, Journal of Economic History, 50 (March 1990), 1 - 16.
55. Alan Armstrong, Farmworkers: A Social and Economic History, 1770 - 1980 (London: Batsford Books, 1990).
56. Reay Barry, The Last Rising of the Agricultural Labourers: Rural Life and Protest in Nineteenth-Century England, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
57. Mick Reed and Roger Wells, eds., Class, Conflict, and Protest in the English Countryside, 1700 - 1880 (London: Cass, 1990).
58. George E. Mingay, A Social History of the English Countryside (London: Routledge, 1990).
59. George R. Boyer, An Economic History of the Poor Law, 1750 - 1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
60. Alun Howkins, Reshaping Rural England: A Social History, 1850 - 1925 (London: Harper, 1991).
61. Humphrey R. Southall, ‘The Tramping Artisan Revisits: Labour Mobility and Economic Distress in Early Victorian England’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 44 (May 1991), 272 - 96.
62. Robert C. Allen, Enclosure and the Yeoman: the Agricultural Development of the South Midlands, 1450 -1850 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).
63. T. L. Richardson, ‘The Agricultural Labourers' Standard of Living in Lincolnshire, 1790 - 1840: Social Protest and Public Order’, Agricultural History Review, 41:1 (1993), 1 - 18.
64. Peter M. Solar, ‘Poor Relief and English Economic Development before the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 48:1 (February 1995), 1-22.
65. Gregory Clark, Michael Huberman, and Peter H. Lindert, ‘A British Food Puzzle, 1770 - 1850’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 48:2 (May 1995), 215-37.
66. Michael Turner, After the Famine: Irish Agriculture, 1850 - 1914 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
67. Jeremy Burchardt, ‘Rural Social Relations, 1830-50: Opposition to Allotments for Labourers’, Agricultural History Review, 45:2 (1997), 165-75.
68. John E. Archer, “The Nineteenth-Century Allotment: Half an Acre and a Row,” The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 50:1 (February 1997), 21-36.
69. Pamela Sharpe, ‘The Female Labour Market in English Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution: Expansion or Contraction?’, Agricultural History Review, 57:2 (1999), 161-81.
70. A.J. Gritt, ‘The Census and the Servant: A Reassesment of the Decline and Distribution of Farm Service in Early Nineteenth-Century England’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 53:1 (February 2000),84-106.
71. Sara Birtles, ‘Common Land, Poor Relief and Enclosure: The Use of Manorial Resources in Fulfilling Parish Obligations, 1601-1834', Past & Present, no. 165 (November 1999), 74-106.
72. Donald Woodward, ‘Early Modern Servants in Husbandry Revisited’, Agricultural History Review, 48:ii (2000), 141-50.
73. John Broad, ‘Housing the Rural Poor in Southern England, 1650 - 1850’, Agricultural History Review, 48:ii (2000), 151-70.
74. H.R. French, ‘Urban Agriculture, Commons and Commoners in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: the Case of Sudbury, Suffolk’, Agricultural History Review, 48:ii (2000), 171-99.
75. Nicola Verdon, ‘The Employment of Women and Children in Agriculture: a Reassessment of Agricultural Gangs in Nineteenth-Century Norfolk’, Agricultural History Review, 49:i (2001), 41-55.
* 76. Nicola Verdon, ‘The Rural Labour Market in the Early Nineteenth Century: Women’s and Children’s Employment, Family Income, and the 1834 Poor Law Report’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 55:2 (May 2002), 299-323.
77. Tom Williamson, The Transformation of Rural England: Farming and the Landscape, 1700 - 1870 (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002).
78. Byung Khun Song, ‘Parish Typology and the Operation of the Poor Laws in Early Nineteenth-Century Oxfordshire’, Agricultural History Review, 50:ii (2002), 203-24.
79. Anthony Brundage, The English Poor Laws, 1700-1930 (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave, 2002).
80. Nicola Verdon, ‘ “Subjects Deserving of the Highest Praise”: Farmers’ Wives and the Farm Economy in England, c. 1700 - 1850', Agricultural History Review, 51:i (2003), 23-39.
81. Samantha Williams, ‘Malthus, Marriage and Poor Law Allowances Revisited: A Bedfordshire Case Study, 1770 - 1834', Agricultural History Review, 52:i (2004), 56-82.
* 82. Esteban A. Niccolini, ‘Mortality, Interest Rates, Investment, and Agricultural Production in 18th-Century England’, Explorations in Economic History, 41:2 (April 2004), 130-55.
* 83. Joyce Burnette, ‘The Wages and Employment of Female Day-Labourers in English Agriculture, 1740 - 1850’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 57:4 (November 2004), 664-90.
84. Penelope Lane, Neil Raven, and K. D. M. Snell, eds., Women, Work, and Wages in England, 1600-1850 (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2004).
* 85. Peter Laslett, The World We Have Lost: Further Explored , 4th edn. (London: Routledge, 2004).
86. Michael Holland, ed., Swing Unmasked: the Agricultural Riots of 1830 to 1832 and their Wider Implications (Milton Keynes: FACHRS Publications, 2005).
87. Samantha Williams, ‘Poor Relief, Labourers’ Households and Living Standards in Rural England, c. 1770 - 1834: a Bedfordshire Case Study’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 58:3 (August 2005), 485-519.
88. Donna J. Ulyatt, ‘Female Agricultural Labour on the Dixon Estates, Lincolnshire, 1810-17’, Agricultural History Review, 54:i (2006), 79-92.
89. June A. Sheppard, ‘Agricultural Workers in Mid Nineteenth-Century Brighton’, Agricultural History Review, 54:i (2006), 93-104.
* 90. Joyce Burnette, ‘How Skilled were English Agricultural Labourers in the Early Nineteenth Century?’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 59:4 (November 2006),688-716.
91. Nigel Goose, ‘Farm Service, Seasonal Unemployment and Casual Labour in Mid Nineteenth-Century England’, Agricultural History Review, 54:ii (2006), 274-303.
92. Jan Lucassen, ed., Global Labour History: A State of the Art (Bern: Peter Lang, 2006).
* 93. Gregory Clark, ‘The Long March of History: Farm Wages, Population, and Economic Growth: England, 1209-1869’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 60:1 (February 2007), 97-135.
94. Joyce Burnette, ‘Married with Children: the Family Status of Female Day-Labourers at Two South-Western Farms’, Agricultural History Review, 55:i (2007), 75.94. Concerns the 19th century,
95. Margaret Lyel, ‘Regional Agricultural Wage Variations in Early Nineteenth-Century England’, Agricultural History Review, 55:i (2007), 95-106.
96. Christopher Dyer, ed., The Self-Contained Village? The Social History of Rural Communities, 1250 - 1900, Explorations in Local and Regional History vol. 2 (University of Hertfordshire Press, 2007).
97. Larry Patriquin, Agrarian Capitalism and Poor Relief in England, 1500 - 1860: Rethinking the Origins of the Welfare State (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
98. Elisabeth Griffiths and Mark Overton, Farming to Halves: the Hidden History of Sharefarming in England, from Medieval to Modern Times (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).
99. Carolyn Steedman, Labours Lost: Domestic Service and the Making of Modern England (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
100. John Bothstedt, The Politics of Provisions: Food Riots, Moral Economy, and Market Transition in England, c. 1550 - 1850 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010).
101. Bas J. P. van Bavel and Richard W. Hoyle, eds., Rural Economy and Society in North-western Europe, vol. I: Social Relations: Property and Power (Turnout: Brepols, 2010): in particular:
a) Christopher Dyer and Richard Hoyle, ‘Britain, 1000 - 1750’, pp. 51-80.

b) Paul Brassley, Richard Hoyle, and Michael Turner, ‘Britain, 1750 - 2000’, pp. 81-110.

102. Carl J. Griffin, ‘Parish Farms and the Poor Law: a Response to Unemployment in Rural Southern England, c. 1815-35’, Agricultural History Review, 59:ii (2011), 176-98.
103. Joyce Burnette, ‘Child Day-Labourers in Agriculture: Evidence from Farm Accounts, 1740 - 1850’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 65:3 (August 2012), 1077-99.

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