Prof. John H. Munro



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Table 1.
The effects of changing relative areas of grass (livestock-pasture) and arable (grain crops) on the output of a 100-acre farm: in bushels per acre (with livestock output equivalents)
Assumption: Farm Operating on a Three-Field System with 2/3 in Crops and 1/3 Fallow (Uncultivated, Land at Rest) each Year



Grass

Area in Acres

Grain Area in Acres

Fallow Area (at Rest):

Acres

Manure

Tons per Acre Arable

Grain Yield:

Bu. per

Acre

Total Grain Output Bu.

Stock Output in Equiv Bu.*

TOTAL OUT-PUT IN

BU.


100

0.0

0.0









1,000

1,000

80

13.3

6.7

>10.0

27.5

366

800

1,166

77

15.3

7.7

10.0

27.5

421

770

1,191

60

26.7

13.3

4.5

16.5

441

600

1,041

40

40.0

20.0

2.0

11.5

460

400

860

20

53.3

26.7

0.7

8.9

474

200

674

0

66.7

33.3

0.0

7.5

500

0

500

* Assumption: That the output of livestock products is equivalent to 10 bushels of grain per acre.




Source: Robert Shiel, ‘Improving Soil Fertility in the Pre-Fertiliser Era’, in Bruce M. S. Campbell and Mark Overton, eds., Land, Labour, and Livestock: Historical Studies in European Agricultural Productivity (Manchester and New York, 1991), p. 71.

Table 2.
Baltic and English grain export trades

average annual exports in quarters (of 8 bushels)*
1600-49 to 1700-49



PERIOD


BALTIC**

ENGLAND

TOTAL

1600-59

719,250

?

?

1650-99

585,900

26,250

612,150

1700-49

325,500

453,600

779,100

* 1 Quarter = 8 bushels = 64 gallons of grain = 480 lb. (1 bu. = 60 lb.; 6 x 80 = 480 lb.)


* about 80% on the seaborne Baltic grain exports, on average, was carried in Dutch ships (a higher proportion in the earlier than in the later periods).

Table 3.
Average annual English grain exports

in quarters (of 8 bushels), 1700-09 to 1760-64



DECADE

GRAIN EXPORTS

IN QUARTERS

1700-09

283,000

1710-19

369,000

1720-29

426,000

1730-39

531,000

1740-49

661,000

1750-59

655,000

1760-64

746,000


Table 4.

Model of a three-course crop rotation system: arable lands




Year

FIELDS: A

FIELDS: B

FIELDS: C

I

FALL

(Winter)


Wheat and/or Rye

SPRING

(Summer)


Oats, Barley

Legumes (Peas and Beans)




FALLOW

Resting Uncultivated


(Double Ploughed)

Livestock graze on natural grasses



II

SPRING


FALLOW

FALL

III

FALLOW


FALL

SPRING


Table 5.

Convertible husbandry (‘up and down’ farming)



SECTION I: PASTURE LANDS FOR GRAZING LIVESTOCK

1) These lands, comprising about half of the farm holdings, are ‘laid down to grass’ for about five years, for pasturing livestock (sheep and/or cattle), allowing these lands to regain their fertility and store up large stocks of nitrogen. If the livestock are also ‘stall-fed’ -- i.e. from fodder crops outside the pasture -- their manure will add net amounts of nitrogen compounds to the soil


2) After five or so years, these pasture lands are ‘ploughed up for arable’, to follow the five-course crop system indicated below for Section II (the other half of the farm holdings). After another five years, these lands, now arable, are again ‘laid down to grass’ to serve as pasture lands for the following five years.



SECTION II: THE ARABLE FIELDS (with no fallow): comprising the other half.
ARABLE FIELD A: WINTER GRAINS: Wheat and/or Rye grains

ARABLE FIELD B: THE NEW LEGUMES: Clover, Alfalfa (Lucerne), and Sainfoin grasses (high nitrogen-fixing properties), as animal fodder crops

ARABLE FIELD C: PULSES: Beans and Peas (low in nitrogen-fixing properties, for human consumption)

ARABLE FIELD D: SUMMER GRAINS: Barley (for beer) and Oats (to feed both humans and horses)

ARABLE FIELD E: OTHER NEW CROPS: Coleseed and Rapeseed (for both industrial oils and animal fodder); or Turnips (chiefly for animal fodder)

New’ Crops Grown Under Multiple Crop Rotations in Convertible Husbandry (or in ‘Norfolk Farming’): not new, but much more widely diffused in the 17th & 18th centuries.


Clover, Alfalfa (Lucerne), Sainfoin, Coleseed, Rapeseed, Flax, Buckwheat, Hops, Turnips
Nitrogen Fixing Properties of Various Legumes in kg per hectare (2.47 acres)
Beans and Peas (Pulses) 30 kg per hectare

Clover 100 kg per hectare

Sainfoin 170 kg per hectare

Alfalfa (Lucerne) 225 kg per hectare



Table 6.
British wheat prices: decennial averages of prices and price-relatives (indices) of wheat at Eton college, in shillings per quarter, from 1600 to 1819
Mean of 1700 - 09 = 100


DECADE

PRICE

INDEX

1700-09 = 100




1600-09

30.80

91.8

1610-19

34.20

101.9

1620-29

35.05

104.5

1630-39

44.74

133.4

1640-49

49.74

147.6

1650-59

40.29

120.1

1660-69

41.19

122.8

1670-79

39.44

117.6

1680-89

31.37

93.5

1690-99

44.92

133.9

1700-09

33.55

100.0

1710-19

37.22

110.9

1720-29

33.92

101.1

1730-39

29.09

86.7

1740-49

28.27

84.3

1750-59

34.39

102.5

1760-69

37.90

113.0

1770-79

44.43

132.4

1780-89

45.97

137.0

1790-99

58.70

175.0

1800-09

80.73

240.6

1810-19

89.03

265.4

* 1 quarter of wheat = 8 bushels = 64 gallons.


Source: Price data supplied by Lord William Beveridge and published in B. R. Mitchell and Phyllis Deane, eds., Abstract of British Historical Statistics (London, 1962), calculated from tables in pp. 48-87.

Table 7.
Outputs of principal agricultural commodities, 1700 - 1850
in Millions of Units (Bushels and Pounds)



COMMODITIES

Units

1700

1750

1800

1850

% Rise



Grains and pulses

bushel

65

88

131

181

178.46

Meat

lb.

370

665

888

1356

266.48

Wool

lb.

40

60

90

120

200.00

Cheese

lb.

61

84

1122

157

157.38

Volume in 1815 Prices (£ million)



















Grains/potatoes

£mill

19

25

37

56

194.74

Livestock products


£mill

21

34

512

79

276.19

TOTAL

£mill

40

59

88

135

237.50


Source: Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700 - 1860, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 1994), Table 5.1, p. 102.

Table 8.


Utilization of English and Welsh lands, 1700 - 1850
in millions of acres


LAND TYPE

in 1700

in 1800

in 1850

Percentage Change


Arable

11.00

11.60

14.60

32.72

Pasture/Meadow

10.00

17.50

16.00

14.40

Woodlands

3.00

1.60

1.50

-50.00

Wastelands/forests

13.00

6.50

3.00

-76.92

TOTAL

38.00

38.50

37.30

-1.84

TOTAL AGRICULTURAL

34.00

35.60

33.60

-1.18
















INDEX OF LAND INPUT

1.00

1.35

1.37

37.00


Source: Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700 - 1860, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 1994), Table 5.2, p. 104.

Table 9.


Employment in English/Welsh agriculture, 1700 - 1851, in thousands


Category

1700

1800

1851

% Change



Men

595

628

971

63.19

Women

505

426

409

-19.00

Boys

433

351

144

-66.74

TOTAL

1533

1405

1524

0.59
















WEIGHTED INDEX OF LABOUR INPUT

100

95

116

16.00


Source: Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700 - 1860, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 1994), Table 5.3, P. 107.

Table 10.


Capital invested in English & Welsh agriculture
in millions of pounds sterling of 1851-60 values



INVESTORS

1700

%

1750

%

1800

%

1850

%

%

Diff-erence

1850/1700

LANDLORDS

Structures

Roads, Fences,

Enclosures

112

61

114

58

143

59

232

66

107%

TENANTS

Implements

Farm Horses

Other Livestock

102041




82053




101871




142285








TENANTS:

Sub-total

71

39

81

42

99

41

121

34

70%

TOTAL INVESTED

183

100

195

100

242

100

353

100

93%



Source: Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700 - 1860, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 1994), Table 5.4, p. 109.
Table 11.
Utilization of the arable lands: crops and fallow, 1700 - 1850
in millions of acres



Crops

1700

1750

1800

1850

% Change


Wheat

1.4

1.8

2.5

3.6

157.1

Rye

0.9

0.5

0.3

0.1

-88.9

Barley

1.9

1.4

1.3

1.5

-21.1

Oats

1.2

2.0

2.0

2.0

66.7

Beans/Peas

1.3

1.0

1.2

1.0

-23.1

Turnips

0.4

1.0

1.3

2.0

400.0

Potatoes

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

300.0

Clover

0.5

1.0

1.2

2.2

340.0

Fallow

3.3

2.5

1.5

1.8

-45.5



















TOTAL

11.0

11.4

11.6

14.6

32.7


Source: Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700 - 1860, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 1994), Table 5.6, p. 112.

Table 12.


Crop yields in bushels per acre, 1700 to 1850

CROPS

1700

1750

1800

1850

% Change


Wheat

16.0

18.0

21.5

28.0

78.1

Rye

17.0

18.0

26.0

28.0

64.7

Barley

23.0

25.0

30.0

36.5

58.9

Oats

24.0

28.0

35.0

40.0

66.7

Beans/Peas

20.0

28.0

28.0

30.0

50.0


Source: Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700 - 1860, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 1994), Table 5.7, p. 112.

Table 13.


English agricultural output and productivity
1700 = 100






1300

1600

1700

1750

1800

1850

OUTPUT



















Population Method




80

100

121

159

272

Volume Method







100

127

191

285

Demand Method







100

143

172

244

AREA



















Arable Area







100




128

170

Sown Arable







100




135

199

Meadow and Pasture







100




147

103

Total Area







100




138

132

LAND PRODUCTIVITY



















By population







100




115

207

By Volume







100




138

216

Crop Productivity*

3.05













6.73

Livestock Productivity*

1.04













6.56

Wheat Yields #

79

72

100

123

136

180

Cereal Yields +

115

92

100

135

158

250

LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY



















By Population




77

100

126

141

197

By Volume of Output







100

134

170

206

* Estimates of Gregory Clark (1993) in terms of bushels of wheat.

# Hampshire, Herefordshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk; but 1300 for Norfolk, Hampshire only.

+ For Norfolk and Suffolk only


Source: Mark Overton, ‘Re-establishing the English Agricultural Revolution’, Agricultural History Review, 44:1 (1996), 6.

Table 14.
Grain and pulse yields per acre in england,
c. 1450 to ca. 1800: in bushels per acre



CROPS

OPEN

ca. 1450

OPEN

ca. 1800

ENCLOSED

ca. 1800

Per cent

Gain by

Enclosure


WHEAT


10.7

18.6

22.1

18.8%

BARLEY


16.8

26.3

32.1

22.1%

OATS


11.7

30.0

38.5

28.3%

BEANS/PEAS


10.0

20.4

22.9

12.3%



Source:
Robert C. Allen, ‘The Growth of Labor Productivity in Early Modern English Agriculture’, Explorations in Economic History, 25 (April 1988), 117-46.

Table 15.
English labour productivity in grain farming, 1600 - 1800


Category of

Productivity

1600

Open

1700

Open

1800

Open

1800

Enclosed


Output per Acre

in lb.


2.55

3.49

3.49

3.92

Number of Workers

per Acre


1.24

1.17

0.91

0.91

Output per Worker

in lb.


2.05

2.97

3.83

4.3

Index of Labour

Productivity
1600 = 1.00


1

1.45

1.87

2.1


Source:
Robert C. Allen, ‘The Growth of Labor Productivity in Early Modern English Agriculture’, Explorations in Economic History, 25 (April 1988), 117-46.
Table 16
English agriculture in 1801: crop yields in 116 open-field and enclosed- field parishes
Mean Yields in Bushels per Acre Over 116 English Parishes


CROP

OPEN FIELD YIELD

in bushels




ENCLOSED FIELD YIELD

in bushels



PERCENTAGE DIFFERENCE

WHEAT

18.2

23

26.40%

BARLEY

25.2

30.6

21.40%

OATS

27.8

34.9

25.50%



Table 17.
Regional differences in English agricultural productivity: percentage advantage in productivity for selected crops of enclosed fields over open fields, in 1801


CROP

SOUTH

EAST

NORTH



WEST

WHEAT

45%

30%

21%


24%

BARLEY

1%

40%

16%


21%

OATS

8%

65%

2%


37%


Sources:
Michael Turner, ‘Agricultural Productivity in England in the Eighteenth Century: Evidence from Crop Yields’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 35 (1982), 389-510.
Michael Turner, ‘English Open Fields and Enclosures: Retardation or Productivity Improvements?’ Journal of Economic History, 46 (Sept. 1986), 669 - 92.

Table 18.
English Labour Productivity in Grain Farming, 1600 - 1800


Category of

Productivity

1600

Open


1700

Open


1800

Open


1800

Enclosed




Output per Acre

in lb.

2.55

3.49

3.49

3.92

Number of Workers

per Acre

1.24

1.17

0.91

0.91

Output per Worker

in lb.

2.05

2.97

3.83

4.30


Index of Labour

Productivity

1600 = 1.00

1.00

1.45

1.87

2.10



Source:
Robert C. Allen, ‘The Growth of Labor Productivity in Early Modern English Agriculture’, Explorations in Economic History, 25 (April 1988), 117-46.




THE RICARDO MODEL OF ECONOMIC RENT

IN GRAIN PRODUCTION


Prices and Costs (Y axis)




Economic Rent












































































































































































PRODUCTION COSTS: PER BUSHEL OF GRAIN



































UNITS OF LAND ADDED TO PRODUCTION (X axis)

1  Note: their attack on some old, traditional views linking the Tudor enclosures with the cloth trade boom of the later 15th and 16th centuries is seriously undermined by two critical faults: an unrepresentative series of wool prices (for the bishopric of Durham, unrelated to the areas enclosed in the Midlands) and by a faulty econometric model.





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