Prof. John H. Munro



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Prof. John H. Munro munro5@chass.utoronto.ca

Department of Economics john.munro@utoronto.ca

University of Toronto http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/
Revised: 6 September 2012
ECO 303Y1

Economic History of Modern Europe to 1914
Topic No. 4 [8]:

Labour and The Enclosures of the Industrial Revolution Era in England:

The Social Costs of Agricultural Modernization , ca. 1760 - 1830

READINGS: Within each of the following sections, all readings are listed in the chronological order of original publication, when that can be ascertained. The more important are indicated by asterisks *.
A. Enclosures and ‘Depopulation’: Expropriation, Dispossession, and the Labour Supply in the Past and Current Debate. See also Section E, below.
* 1. Karl Marx, Capital (English edition of 1887, translated and edited by Frederick Engels), Vol. I, Part viii: ‘The So-Called Primitive Accumulation’, in the following chapters:
a) Chapter 26: ‘The Secret of Primitive Accumulation’, pp. 713-16.
b) Chapter 27: ‘Expropriation of the Agricultural Population from the Land’, pp. 717-33.
c) Chapter 28: ‘Bloody Legislation Against the Expropriated, From the End of the 15th Century’, pp. 734-41.
d) Chapter 29: ‘Genesis of the Capitalist Farmer’, pp. 744-49.
2. G. Slater, The English Peasantry and the Enclosures of Common Fields (London, 1907). A classic.
** 3. J.L. and Barbara Hammond, The Village Labourer, 1760-1832 (London, 1911; reissued New York, Harper Torchbooks, 1970) with an important new introduction by Eric Hobsbawm.
See Chapters 1 - 4, and 10 - 11 (all short), but especially Chapter 4, ‘The Village After Enclosure’, pp. 73-81. This is perhaps the most eloquent expression of Fabian socialist interpretation of the agrarian changes during the Industrial Revolution era, indeed the classic socialist (if not truly Marxist) study of Enclosure. But, in view of so much subsequent research on this question since the 1911 publication, and in view of their obvious biases, read also Turner and Chambers or some other modern study as well.

4. Karl Polyani, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Times (London, 1944), Chapters 3-7.


5. M.W. Beresford, ‘The Commissioners of Enclosure’, Economic History Review, 1st ser. 16 (1946), 130-40. Reprinted in:
a) W.E. Minchinton, ed., Essays in Agrarian History, Vol. II (1968), 89-102;
b) Maurice Beresford, Time and Place: Collected Essays (London, 1984), pp. 123 - 33.
** 6. J.D. Chambers, ‘Enclosure and the Labour Supply in the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 5 (1953), 319-43. Reprinted in:
a) D.V. Glass and D.E.C. Eversley, eds., Population in History: Essays in Historical Demography (London, 1965), pp. 308 - 26.
b) E.L. Jones, ed., Agriculture and Economic Growth in England, 1650-1815 (London, 1967), pp. 94-127.
c) Sima Lieberman, ed., Europe and the Industrial Revolution (New York, 1972), pp. 347 - 76.
This study remains the modern classic conservative or anti-Marxist view of the Enclosure Movements; but read at least one of the socialist/Marxist interpretations of Enclosure before you come to any firm conclusions.
7. V. M. Lavrovsky, ‘The Expropriation of the English Peasantry in the Eighteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 9 (1956), 271 - 82. Analysis by a Soviet Marxist historian.
8. J. Saville, Rural Depopulation in England and Wales, 1851 - 1951 (London, 1957).
* 9. George Mingay, ‘The Agricultural Revolution in English History: A Reconsideration’, Agricultural History, 26 (1963), 123-33. Reprinted in:
a) W. E. Minchinton, ed., Essays in Agrarian History, Vol. II (1968), pp. 9-28; and also
b) Charles K. Warner, ed., Agrarian Conditions in Modern European History (New York, 1966), pp. 60-78. (In shortened form)
10. E.L. Jones, ‘The Agricultural Labour Market in England, 1793-1872’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 17 (1964), 322-38.
11. Arthur Redford, Labour Migration in England, 1800 - 1850, 2nd edn. (London, 1964).
12. Peter Laslett, The World We Have Lost (London, 1965), Chapters 3-5.
* 13. E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (London, 1965) Chapter 7: ‘The Field Labourers’, pp. 233-58.
14. J.D. Marshall, The Old Poor Law, 1795-1834, Studies in Economic History series (London, 1968). Short pamphlet.
** 15. George Mingay, Enclosure and the Small Farmer in the Age of the Industrial Revolution, Studies in Economic History series (London, 1968), pp. 9-32.
He contends that the chief period during which the ‘small farmer’ (as owner-occupier) was squeezed out, the period during which their numbers dwindled most rapidly, was the century prior to the Industrial Revolution. But that is an issue different from the dispossession of tenant-farmers (i.e. peasants) operating within an open-field regime of farming. See also his critique of the Hammonds in Mingay (1963).
* 16. E.J. Hobsbawm and George Rudé, Captain Swing (London, 1969), especially Part I, pp. 23-96.
This is a social history of the famous English agricultural uprising of 1830, ‘The Last Labourers' Revolt.’ See also section C, below.
17. E.J.T. Collins, ‘Harvest Technology and the Labour Supply in Britain, 1790 - 1870’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 22 (1969).
18. E.J.T. Collins, ‘Labour Supply and Demand in European Agriculture, 1800 - 1880’, in E.L. Jones and S.J. Woolf, eds., Agrarian Change and Economic Development (London, 1969).
19. L.J. White, ‘Enclosures and Population Movements in England, 1700 - 1830’, Explorations in Entrepreneurial History, 2nd ser. 6 (1969).
20. Valerie Morgan, ‘Agricultural Wage Rates in Late Eighteenth-Century Scotland’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 24 (1971).
* 21. B.D. Black and R.P. Thomas, ‘The Enclosure Movement and the Supply of Labour During the Industrial Revolution’, Journal of European Economic History, 3 (1974), 401-23.
22. William Lazonick, ‘Karl Marx and Enclosures in England’, Review of Radical Political Economics, 3 (1974), 1-32.
23. Jon S. Cohen and Martin Weitzman, ‘A Mathematical Model of Enclosure’, in J. and W. Los, ed., Mathematical Models of Economics (Warsaw, 1974), pp. 419-31. Advanced micro theory and maths recommended for reading this essay, largely if not entirely focused on the Tudor-Stuart enclosures.
* 24. Jon Cohen and Martin Weitzman, ‘A Marxian Model of Enclosures’, Journal of Development Economics, 1 (1975), 287-336.
This is largely, though not entirely, on the earlier Tudor-Stuart Enclosures; but their model can be applicable to the Industrial Revolution era as well.1
** 25. Jon S. Cohen and Martin L. Weitzman, ‘Enclosure and Depopulation: A Marxian Analysis’, in William Parker and E. L. Jones, eds., European Peasants and Their Markets (Princeton, 1975), pp. 161-76.
26. Gordon Philpot, ‘Enclosure and Population Growth in Eighteenth Century England’, Explorations in Economic History, 12 (Jan. 1975), 29-46.
* 27. Stefano Fenoaltea, ‘On a Marxian Model of Enclosure’, Journal of Development Economics, 3 (1976), 195-8. A critique of the Cohen and Weitzman essays above, followed by Jon Cohen and Martin Weitzman, ‘Reply to Fenoaltea’, pp. 199-200.
* 28. Michael Turner, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and Population Change in England, 1750 - 1830’, and Gordon Philpot, ‘Reply’, Explorations in Economic History, 13 (Oct. 1976), 463-72.
29. E. J. T. Collins, ‘Migrant Labour in British Agriculture in the Nineteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 29 (1976), 38-60.
** 30. N. F. R. Crafts, ‘Enclosure and the Labor Supply Revisited’, Explorations in Economic History, 15 (Apr. 1978), 172 - 83.
31. R. A. Butlin, ‘The Enclosure of Open Fields and Extinction of Common Rights in England, c. 1600 - 1750: A Review’, in H.S.A. Fox and R. A. Butlin, eds., Change in the Countryside: Essays on Rural England, 1500 - 1900 (London, 1979).
** 32. D. B. Grigg, Population Growth and Agrarian Change: An Historical Perspective (Cambridge, 1980), chapter 13, ‘Breaking Out: England in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.’
* 33. N.F.R. Crafts, ‘Income Elasticities of Demand and the Release of Labour by Agriculture during the British Industrial Revolution’, Journal of European Economic History, 9 (1980), 153-68.
* 34. Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Vol. I: 1700-1860 (Cambridge, 1981):
(a) E.L. Jones, ‘Agriculture, 1700-80’, pp. 66-86.
(b) Glen Hueckel, ‘Agriculture during Industrialization’, pp. 182-203.
(c) N.L. Tranter, ‘The Labour Supply, 1780-1860’, pp. 204-26.
(d) M.E. Rose, ‘Social Change and the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 253-75.
35. Osamu Saito, ‘Labour Supply Behaviour of the Poor in the English Industrial Revolution’, Journal of European Economic History, 10 (1981), 633-52.
36. W. G. Armstrong, ‘The Influence of Demographic Factors on the Position of the Agricultural Labourer in England and Wales, c. 1750 - 1914’, Agricultural History Review, 29 (1981).
37. K. D. M. Snell, ‘Agricultural Seasonal Unemployment, the Standard of Living, and Women's Work in the South and East: 1690-1860’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 34 (1981), 407-37.
38. Ann Kussmaul, ‘The Ambiguous Mobility of Farm Servants’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 34 (1981), 222-35.
39. Ann Kussmaul, Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 1981).
* 40. Robert Allen, ‘The Efficiency and Distributional Consequences of Eighteenth Century Enclosures’, The Economic Journal, 92 (Dec. 1982), 937 - 53.
** 41. Michael Turner, Enclosures in Britain, 1750 - 1830, Studies in Economic History Series (London, 1984), especially section 5, pp. 64-83.
* 42. E. A. Wrigley, ‘Men on the Land and Men in the Countryside: Employment in Agriculture in Early Nineteenth-Century England’, in L. Bonfield et al, eds., The World We Have Gained (Oxford, 1985).
43. David Levine, ‘Industrialization and the Proletarian Family in England’, Past and Present, no. 107 (May 1985), 204-26.
44. George Boyer, ‘An Economic Model of the English Poor Law circa 1780-1834’, Explorations in Economic History, 22 (Apr. 1985), 129-67.
* 45. George Boyer, ‘The Old Poor Law and the Agricultural Labor Market in Southern England: An Empirical Analysis’, The Journal of Economic History, 46 (Mar. 1986), 113-36.
46. George Boyer, ‘The Poor Law, Migration, and Economic Growth’, The Journal of Economic History, 46 (1986), 419-40.
47. E. J. T. Collins, ‘The Rationality of ‘Surplus’ Agricultural Labour: Mechanization in English Agriculture in the Nineteenth Century’, Agricultural History Review, 35 (1987), 36-46.
* 48. George E. Mingay, The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. VI: 1750 - 1850 (Cambridge University Press, 1989):
a) W. A. Armstrong, ‘Labour I: Rural Population Growth, Systems of Employment, and Incomes’, pp. 641 - 728,
b) W. A. Armstrong and J. P. Huzel, ‘Labour II: Food, Shelter and Self-Help, the Poor Law, and the Position of the Labourer in Rural Society’, pp. 729 - 835.
* 49. George W. Grantham and Carol Leonard, eds., Agrarian Organization in the Century of Industrialization, Supplement no. 5 of Research in Economic History, Paul Uselding general editor (London: JAI Press, 1989), Part I: Enclosures, Tenure, and Organization of Capital in Britain and Europe. Section i: Enclosure and Agricultural Productivity in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century England:
a) George Grantham, ‘General Introduction.’
b) George Mingay, ‘Agricultural Productivity and Agricultural Society in Eighteenth-Century England.’
c) Michael Turner, ‘Benefits But at Cost: the Debates About Parliamentary Enclosure.’
d) Robert Allen, ‘Enclosure and Agricultural Productivity, 1750 - 1850.’
e) J.M. Neeson, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and the Disappearance of the English Peasantry, Revisited.’
50. Jane Humphries, ‘Enclosures, Common Rights, and Women: The Proletarianization of Families in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, Journal of Economic History, 50 (March 1990), 1 - 16.
51. John R. Walton, ‘On Estimating the Extent of Parliamentary Enclosure’, The Agricultural History Review, 38 (1990), 79-82.
52. Reay Barry, The Last Rising of the Agricultural Labourers: Rural Life and Protest in Nineteenth-Century England, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
53. B. A. Holderness and Michael Turner, eds., Land, Labour, and Agriculture, 1720 - 1920: Essays for Gordon Mingay (London: The Hambledon Press, 1991).
* 54. Gregory Clark, ‘Agriculture and the Industrial Revolution, 1700 - 1850’,in Joel Mokyr, ed., The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Pespective (Boulder, San Francisco, and Oxford: Westview Press, 1993), pp. 227 - 266.
55. J. M. Neeson, Common Right, Enclosure and Social Change in England, 1700 - 1820, Past and Present Publications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
56. Robert Allan, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution’, in Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds., The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, 3 vols., 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), Volume 1: 1700 - 1860, pp. 96-122.
57. Alun Howkins, ‘Peasants, Servants, and Labourers: the Marginal Workforce in British Agriculture, c. 1870 - 1914’, Agricultural History Review, 42:i (1994), 49-62.
58. Richard Anthony, ‘Farm Servant vs Agricultural Labourer, 1870 - 1914: A Commentary on Howkins’,Agricultural History Review, no. 43:1 (1995), 61-64.
59. Alun Howkins, ‘Farm Servant vs Agricultural Labourer, 1870-1914: A Reply to Richard Anthony’, Agricultural History Review, no. 43:i (1995), 65-66.
60. John Chapman and Sylvia Seeliger, ‘Formal Agreements and the Enclosure Process: The Evidence from Hampshire’, Agricultural History Review, 43:i (1995), 35-46.
61. Boaz Moselle, ‘Allotments, Enclosure, and Proletarianization in Early Nineteenth-Century Southern England’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 48:3 (August 1995), 482-500.
62. Edward Higgs, ‘Occupational Censuses and the Agricultural Workforce in Victorian England and Wales’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 48:4 (Nov. 1995), 700-16.
* 63. Joyce Burnette, ‘Testing for Occupational Crowding in Eighteenth-Century British Agriculture’, Explorations in Economic History, 33:3 (July 1996), 319-45.
64. Stephen Caunce, ‘Farm Servants and the Development of Capitalism in English Agriculture’, Agricultural History Review, 45:1 (1997), 49-60.
65. Kenneth L. Sokoloff and David Dollar, “Agricultural Seasonality and the Organization of Manufacturing in Early Industrial Economies: The Contrasts Between England and the United States,” Journal of Economic History, 57:2 (June 1997), 288-321.
* 66. Gregory Clark and Ysbrand Van der Werf, ‘Work in Progress? The Industrious Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 58:3 (September 1998), 830-43. Concerns the productivity of agricultural labour over the centuries up to the Industrial-Agricultural Revolution era.
67. Byung Khun Song, ‘Landed Interest, Local Government, and the Labour Market in England, 1750 - 1850’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 51:3 (August 1998), 465-88.
68. Joyce Burnette, “Labourers at the Oakes: Changes in the Demand for Female Day-Laborers at a Farm Near Sheffield during the Agricultural Revolution,” Journal of Economic History, 59:1 (March 1999): 41-67.
* 69. Pamela Sharpe, ‘The Female Labour Market in English Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution: Expansion or Contraction?’, Agricultural History Review, 47:2 (1999), 161-81.
* 70. Donald Woodward, ‘Early Modern Servants in Husbandry Revisited’, Agricultural History Review, 48:ii (2000), 141-50.
71. Ross Wordie, ed., Enclosure in Berkshire, 1485 - 1885, Berkshire Record Society no. 5 (Berkshire, 2000).
72. A.J. Gritt, ‘The Census and the Servant: A Reassesment of the Decline and Distribution of Farm Service in Early Nineteenth-Century England’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 53:1 (February 2000),84-106.
* 73. Nicola Verdon, ‘The Employment of Women and Children in Agriculture: a Reassessment of Agricultural Gangs in Nineteenth-Century Norfolk’, Agricultural History Review, 49:i (2001), 41-55.
** 74. Leigh Shaw-Taylor, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and the Emergence of an English Agricultural Proletariat’, Journal of Economic History, 61:3 (September 2001), 640-62.
75. Mark Freeman, ‘The Agricultural Labourer and the “Hodge” Stereotype, c.1850 - 1914', Agricultural History Review, 49:ii (2001), 172-86.
76. John Chapman and Sylvia Seelinger, Enclosure, Environment and Landscape in Southern England (Tempus Publishing, 2001). On enclosures in Dorset, Hampshire, Sussex and Wiltshire, from 1700.
* 77. A. H. Gritt, ‘The Survival of “Service” in the English Agricultural Labour Force: Lessons from Lancashire, c. 1650 - 1851’, Agricultural History Review, 50:1 (2002), 25-50.
* 78. Nicola Verdon, ‘The Rural Labour Market in the Early Nineteenth Century: Women’s and Children’s Employment, Family Income, and the 1834 Poor Law Report’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 55:2 (May 2002), 299-323.
79. Elaine S. Tan, ‘ “The Bull is Half the Herd”: Property Rights and Enclosures in England, 1750 - 1850', Explorations in Economic History, 39:4 (October 2002), 470-89.
80. David R. Stead, ‘The Mobility of English Tenant Farmers, c. 1700 - 1850', Agricultural History Review, 51:ii (2003), 173-189.
* 81. Peter Laslett, The World We Have Lost: Further Explored , 4th edn. (London: Routledge, 2004).
82. Michael Holland, ed., Swing Unmasked: the Agricultural Riots of 1830 to 1832 and their Wider Implications (Milton Keynes: FACHRS Publications, 2005).
* 83. Joyce Burnette, ‘How Skilled were English Agricultural Labourers in the Early Nineteenth Century?’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 59:4 (November 2006),688-716.
84. Nigel Goose, ‘Farm Service, Seasonal Unemployment and Casual Labour in Mid Nineteenth-Century England’, Agricultural History Review, 54:ii (2006), 274-303.
85. Jan Lucassen, ed., Global Labour History: A State of the Art (Bern: Peter Lang, 2006).
* 86. Gregory Clark, ‘The Long March of History: Farm Wages, Population, and Economic Growth: England, 1209-1869’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 60:1 (February 2007), 97-135.
87. Joyce Burnette, ‘Married with Children: the Family Status of Female Day-Labourers at Two South-Western Farms’, Agricultural History Review, 55:i (2007), 75.94. Concerns the 19th century,
* 88. Margaret Lyel, ‘Regional Agricultural Wage Variations in Early Nineteenth-Century England’, Agricultural History Review, 55:i (2007), 95-106.
89. Alun Howkins and Nicola Verdon, ‘Adaptable and Sustainable? Male Farm Service and the Agricultural Labour Force in Midland and Southern England, c. 1850 - 1925’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 61:2 (May 2008), 467-95.

B. Debates about The Causes, Nature, and Forms of English Enclosures, 1750-1830: ‘Capturing the Economic Rent’, Responses to Relative Price Changes, and ‘Improving Landlords’
1. E.M. Leonard, ‘The Inclosure of the Common Fields in the Seventeenth Century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, new series, 19 (1905). Reprinted in E.M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, Vol. II (London, 1962), pp. 227-256. Another classic study worth reading.
2. E.C.K. Gonner, Common Land and Inclosure, (London, 1921; reissued 1966). A very old, but classic study, reissued with an interesting introduction on enclosure by George Mingay in the reissue.

3. W.H.R. Curtler, The Enclosure and Redistribution of Our Land (Oxford, 1922). Another classic; still a useful survey.


4. V.M. Lavrovsky, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure in the County of Suffolk, 1797-1814’, Economic History Review, 1st ser. 7 (1937).
5. J.D. Chambers, ‘Enclosure and the Small Landowner’, Economic History Review, 1st ser. 10 (1940).
6. W. E. Tate, ‘Opposition to Parliamentary Enclosure in Eighteenth Century England’, Agricultural History, 19 (1945).
7. M.W. Beresford, ‘The Commissioners of Enclosure’, Economic History Review, 1st ser. 16 (1946), 130-40. Reprinted in:
a) Walter E. Minchinton, ed., Essays in Agrarian History, 2 vols. (Newton Abbott, 1968), Vol. II, pp. 89-102;
b) Maurice Beresford, Time and Place: Collected Essays (London, 1984), pp. 123 - 33.
8. W.E. Tate, ‘The Cost of Parliamentary Enclosure in England, with Special Reference to the County of Oxford’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 5 (1952-3).
9. H.G. Hunt, ‘The Chronology of Parliamentary Enclosure in Leicestershire’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 10 (1957-8).
10. H.G. Hunt, ‘Landownership and Enclosure, 1750-1830’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 11 (1958-9).
* 11. G.E. Mingay, ‘The Agricultural Revolution in English History: A Reconsideration’, Agricultural History, 26 (1963), 123-33. Reprinted in W.E. Minchinton, ed., Essays in Agrarian History, Vol. II (1968), pp. 9-28.
12. R.A.C. Parker, Enclosures in the Eighteenth Century, (London, 1963).
13. J.M. Martin, ‘The Cost of Parliamentary Enclosure in Warwickshire’, University of Birmingham Historical Journal, 9 (1964). Reprinted in E.L. Jones, ed., Agriculture and Economic Growth in England, 1650-1815, Debates in Economic History series (London: Methuen, 1967), pp. 128-51.
14. Brian Loughbrough, ‘An Account of a Yorkshire Enclosure: Staxton, 1803’, Agricultural History Review, 13 (1965).
* 15. J. D. Chambers and George E. Mingay, The Agricultural Revolution, 1750-1880 (London, 1966), Chapter 4, ‘Enclosure’, pp. 77-105.
16. J. M. Martin, ‘Landownership and the Land Tax Returns’, Agricultural History Review, 14 (1966).
17. J. M. Martin, ‘The Parliamentary Enclosure Movement and Rural Society in Warwickshire’, Agricultural History Review, 15 (1967).
18. W. E. Tate, The English Village Community and the Enclosure Movement (London, 1967).
* 19. E.L. Jones, ed., Agriculture and Economic Growth in England, 1650-1815, Debates in Economic History series (London: Methuen, 1967), pp.
* a) E.L. Jones, ‘Introduction’, pp. 1-48.
b) Lord Ernle, ‘Obstacles to Progress’, pp. 49-65. [Reprinted from his The Land and its People (London: Hutchinson, 1925), chapter III.]
c) Peter Mathias, ‘Agriculture and the Brewing and Distilling Industries in the Eighteenth Century’, pp. 80-93. [Reprinted from Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 5 (1952). ]
d) J.D. Chambers, ‘Enclosure and the Labour Supply in the Industrial Revolution’, pp. 94-127. [Reprinted from Economic History Review, 2nd ser. V (1953), 319-43.]
e) J.M. Martin, ‘The Cost of Parliamentary Enclosure in Warwickshire’, pp. 128-51. [Reprinted from University of Birmingham Historical Journal, 9 (1964).]
f) E.L. Jones, ‘Agriculture and Economic Growth in England, 1660-1750: Agricultural Change’, pp. 152-71. [Reprinted from Journal of Economic History, 25 (1965), 1-18.]
g) A.H. John, ‘Agricultural Productivity and Economic Growth in England, 1700 - 1760’, pp. 172-93. With a postscript (pp. 189-93) added for this volume. [Reprinted Journal of Economic History, 25 (1965), 19-34.]
* 20. George E. Mingay, Enclosure and the Small Farmer in the Age of the Industrial Revolution (Studies in Economic History series, London, 1968), pp. 9-32.
21. E.L. Jones, ‘The Agricultural Origins of Industry’, Past & Present, no. 40 (1968).
22. J. G. Brewer, Enclosures and Open Fields: A Bibliography (London, 1972).
** 23. Donald N. McCloskey, ‘The Enclosure of Open Fields: Preface to a Study of its Impact on the Efficiency of English Agriculture in the Eighteenth Century’, Journal of Economic History, 32 (1972), 15-35.
24. Michael Turner, ‘The Cost of Parliamentary Enclosure in Buckinghamshire’, Agricultural History Review, 21 (1973).

25. Michael Turner, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and Landownership Change in Buckinghamshire’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 38 (1975), 565-81.


* 26. D. N. McCloskey, ‘The Economics of Enclosure: A Market Analysis’, and ‘The Persistence of English Common Fields’, in: W.N. Parker and E.L. Jones, ed., European Peasants and their Markets: Essays in Agrarian Economic History (Princeton, 1975), pp. 123-60, and 92-120, respectively.
27. Donald N. McCloskey, ‘English Open Fields as Behaviour Towards Risk’, Research in Economic History, 1 (1976), 124-70.
28. J.A. Yelling, Common Field and Enclosure in England, 1450-1850 (London, 1977), Chapters 9-10: ‘Enclosure and Farming Systems’, pp. 174-213. Unfortunately each of the 11 chapters covers the entire four-century period.
* 29. N.F.R. Crafts, ‘Determinants of the Rate of Parliamentary Enclosure’, Explorations in Economic History, 14 (1977), 227-49.
30. Michael Turner, ‘Enclosure Commissioners and Buckinghamshire Parliamentary Enclosure’, Agricultural History Review, 25 (1977).
* 31. Peter Linneman, ‘An Econometric Examination of the English Parliamentary Enclosure Movement’, Explorations in Economic History, 15 (April 1978), 221-28.
32. Jack J. Purdum, ‘Profitability and Timing of Parliamentary Land Enclosures’, Explorations in Economic History, 15 (1978), 313-26.
33. J. M. Martin, ‘The Small Landowners and Parliamentary Enclosure in Warwickshire’, Economic History Review 2nd ser. 32 (1979), 328-43.
34. J. M. Martin, ‘Members of Parliament and Enclosure: A Reconsideration’, Agricultural History Review, 27 (1979).
35. B. D. Baack, ‘The Development of Exclusive Property Rights to Land in England: An Exploratory Essay’, Economy and History, 32 (1979).
36. Michael Turner, English Parliamentary Enclosure: Its Historical Geography and Economic History (Hamden, 1980).
37. Michael Turner, ‘Cost, Finance, and Parliamentary Enclosure’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 34 (1981), 236-48.
38. J.R. Wordie, ‘Rent Movements and the English Tenant Farmer, 1700-1839’, Research in Economic History, 6 (1981).
* 39. J.R. Wordie, ‘The Chronology of English Enclosure, 1500-1914’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 36 (1983), pp. 483-505.

A most provocative thesis on English enclosures, contending that the major period of enclosures was not the Tudor era of the late 15th and 16th centuries, nor the Industrial Revolution era of the 18th, early 19th centuries, but the ‘in between’ period of the 17th century -- traditionally viewed as an era of few enclosures.


40. John Chapman, ‘The Chronology of English Enclosure’, and:
J. R. Wordie, ‘The Chronology of English Enclosure: A Reply’, both in
Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 37 (Nov. 1984), 557-59, 560-62.
** 41. Michael Turner, Enclosures in Britain, 1750 - 1830 (Studies in Economic History Series, London, 1984), sections 1 - 4, pp. 11 - 63.
42. J.M. Neeson, ‘The Opponents of Enclosure in Eighteenth-Century Northamptonshire’, Past and Present, No.105 (November 1984), 114-39.
43. A. G. Parton, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure in Nineteenth-Century Surrey: Some Perspectives on the Evaluation of Land Potential’, Agricultural History Review, 33 (1985), 51-8.
44. Brinley Thomas, ‘Food Supply in the United Kingdom during the Industrial Revolution’, in Joel Mokyr, ed., The Economics of the Industrial Revolution (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1985), pp. 137 - 50.
45. John Chapman, ‘The Extent and Nature of Parliamentary Enclosures’, Agricultural History Review, 35 (1987), 25-35.
46. David Grigg, ‘Farm Size in England and Wales, from Early Victorian Times to the Present’, Agricultural History Review, 35 (1987), 179 - 90.
47. E. L. Jones, ‘Enclosure, Land Improvement, and the Price of Capital: A Comment’, Explorations in Economic History, 27 (July 1990), 350-55.
48. Gregory Clark, ‘Enclosure, Land Improvement, and the Price of Capital: A Reply to Jones’, Explorations in Economic History, 27 (July 1990), 356-62.
49. Ann Kussmaul, A General View of the Rural Economy of England, 1538 - 1840, Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy, and Society in Past Time no. 11 (Cambridge University Press, 1990).
50. John Chapman, ‘The Later Parliamentary Enclosures of South Wales’, Agricultural History Review, 39:ii (1991), 116-25.
51. Eric Kerridge, The Common Fields of England (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992).
52. Robert C. Allen, Enclosure and the Yeoman: The Agricultural Development of the South Midlands, 1450 - 1850 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).
53. Susan Neave, ‘Rural Settlement Contraction in the East Riding of Yorkshire Between the Mid-Seventeenth and Mid-Eighteenth Centuries’, Agricultural History Review, 41:2 (1993), 124-36.
54. Graham Rogers, ‘Custom and Common Right: Waste Land Enclosure and Social Change in West Lancashire’, Agricultural History Review, 41:2 (1993), 137-54.
55. Jennifer R. Baker, ‘Tithe Rent-Charge and the Measurement of Agricultural Production in Mid-Nineteenth Century England and Wales’, Agricultural History Review, 41:2 (1993), 169-75.
56. Michael Turner, ‘Common Property and Property in Common’, Agricultural History Review, 42:ii (1994), 158-62.
57. Christian Petersen, Bread and the British Economy, c1700-1870 (Aldershot, Hampshire: Scolar Press, 1995).
58. David Eastwood, ‘Communities, Protest and Police in early Nineteenth-Century Oxfordshire: The Enclosure of Otmoor Reconsidered’, Agricultural History Review, 44:1 (1996), 35-46.
59. Alon Kadish, ed., The Corn Laws: The Formation of Popular Economics in Britain, 6 vols. (London: Pickering and Chatto, 1996).
* 60. George E. Mingay, Parliamentary Enclosure in England: An Introduction to its Causes, Incidence, and Impact, 1750 - 1850 (London: Longman, 1997).
61. Michael E. Turner, J.V. Beckett, and B. Afton, Agricultural Rent in England, 1690 - 1914 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
62. Gregory Clark, ‘Renting the Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 58:1 (March 1998), 206-10. A review article based on M.E. Turner, J.V. Beckett, and Bethanie Afton, Agricultural Rent in England, 1690 - 1914 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997). For the reply, see Michael Turner, John Beckett, and Bethanie Afton, ‘Renting the Revolution: A Reply to Clark’, Journal of Economic History, 58:1 (March 1998), 211-14.
* 63. Gregory Clark, ‘Commons Sense: Common Property Rights, Efficiency, and Institutional Change’, Journal of Economic History, 58:1 (March 1998), 73-102.
64. Susanna Wade Martins and Tom Williamson, ‘The Development of the Lease and its Role in the Agricultural Improvement in East Anglia, 1660 - 1870’, Agricultural History Review, 46:ii (1998), 127-41.
65. John Chapman, ‘Charities, Rents, and Enclosure: A Comment on Clark’, Journal of Economic History, 59:2 (June 1999), 447-50.
66. Gregory Clark, ‘In Defense of ‘Commons Sense’: Reply to Chapman’, Journal of Economic History, 59:2 (June 1999), 451-55.
67. Sara Birtles, ‘Common Land, Poor Relief and Enclosure: The Use of Manorial Resources in Fulfilling Parish Obligations, 1601-1834', Past & Present, no. 165 (November 1999), 74-106.
68. John Broad, ‘Housing the Rural Poor in Southern England, 1650 - 1850’, Agricultural History Review, 48:ii (2000), 151-70.
69. H.R. French, ‘Urban Agriculture, Commons and Commoners in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: the Case of Sudbury, Suffolk’, Agricultural History Review, 48:ii (2000), 171-99.
70. Susanna Wade Martins and Tom Williamson, Roots of Change: Farming and the Landscape in East Anglia, c.1700 - 1870, Agricultural History Review Supplement Series no. 2 (1999).
71. Steven Hollowell, Enclosure Records for Historians (Philliomore, 2000).
72. Ross Wordie, ed., Enclosure in Berkshire, 1485 - 1885, Berkshire Record Society no. 5 (Berkshire, 2000).
73. J.R. Wordie, ed., Agriculture and Politics in England, 1815 - 1939 (London: MacMillan, 2000).
74. Leigh Shaw-Taylor, ‘Labourers, Cows, Common Rights and Parliamentary Enclosure: the Evidence of Contemporary Comment, c. 1760 - 1810', Past & Present, no. 171 (May 2001), pp. 95-126.
75. John Chapman and Sylvia Seelinger, Enclosure, Environment and Landscape in Southern England (Tempus Publishing, 2001). On enclosures in Dorset, Hampshire, Sussex and Wiltshire, from 1700.
76. Harriet Bradley, The Enclosures in England: an Economic Reconstruction (Kitchener: Batoche Books, 2001).
77. Elaine S. Tan, ‘ “The Bull is Half the Herd”: Property Rights and Enclosures in England, 1750 - 1850', Explorations in Economic History, 39:4 (October 2002), 470-89.
78. Gregory Clark, ‘Land Rental Values and the Agrarian Economy: England and Wales, 1500 - 1914’, European Review of Economic History, 6:3 (December 2002), 281-308.
79. H. R. French, ‘Urban Common Rights, Enclosure and the Market: Clitheroe Town Moors, 1764-1802’, Agricultural History Review, 51:i (2003), 40-68.

80. Stephen Hipkin, ‘The Structure of Landownership and Land Occupation in the Romney Marsh Region, 1646 - 1834', Agricultural History Review, 51:i (2003), 69-94.


81. Ian Whyte, Transforming Fell and Valley: Landscape and Parliamentary Enclosure in North-West England, Centre for North West Regional Studies (University of Landcaster, 2003).
* 82. Simonetta Cavaciocchi, ed., Il mercato della terra, seccoli XIII - XVIII, Istituto internazionale di storia economica “F. Datini” Prato, Serie II: Atti delle ‘Settimane di Studi’ et altri convegno no. 35 (Florence: Le Monnier, 2004). See the following essays, in particular:
a) Bas van Bavel, ‘The Land Market in the North Sea Area in a Comparative Perspective, 13th -18th Centuries’, pp. 119-46.
b) Richard Hoyle, ‘Estate Management, Tenurial Change and Capitalist Farming in Sixteenth-Century England’, pp. 353-82.
c) Michael Turner, ‘Comparative Land Prices in Europe, 1500 - 1800', pp. 521-46.
d) Patricia Hudson, ‘Land Markets, Credit and Proto-Industrialisation in Britain and Europe’, pp. 721-42.
83. David R. Stead, ‘Risk and Risk Management in English Agriculture, c. 1750 - 1850’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 57:2 (May 2004), 334-61.
* 84. Roger J. P. Kain, John Chapman and Richard Oliver, The Enclosure Maps of England and Wales, 1595 - 1918: A Cartographic Analysis and Electronic Catalogue (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
** 85. Robert Allen, ‘Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution, 1700 - 1850’, in Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson, eds., Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, 3rd edn., 3 vols. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004): Vol I: Industrialization, 1700 - 1860, pp. 96-116.
86. Ian Whyte, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and Changes in Landownership in an Upland Environment: Westmorland, c.1770 - 1860’, Agricultural History Review, 54:ii (2006), 240-56.
87. Edward Martin and Max Satchell, ‘Wheare most inclosures be’ East Anglian Fields: History, Morphology and Management (Ipswich: East Anglian Archaeology, 2008).
* 88. Leigh Shaw-Taylor, ‘The Rise of Agrarian Capitalism and the Decline of Family Farming in England’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 65:1 (February 2012), 26-60.




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