Prof. John H. Munro


H. Population, Labour, and Real Wages: Social Unrest and the Standard of Living Controversies, Before and After the Black Death, 1300-1500



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H. Population, Labour, and Real Wages: Social Unrest and the Standard of Living Controversies, Before and After the Black Death, 1300-1500
(i) General and Continental European:

* 1. Edouard Perroy, ‘Wage Labour in France in the Later Middle Ages’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 7 (1955); republished in Sylvia Thrupp, ed., Change in Medieval Society: Europe North of the Alps, 1050-1500 (1964), pp. 314-24.


* 2. Robert Lopez, ‘Hard Times and Investment in Culture’, in:
(a) K.H. Dannenfeldt, ed. The Renaissance: Medieval or Modern? (Heath Series, New York, 1959), pp. 50-63.
(b) Wallace Ferguson et al., eds. The Renaissance (New York, 1962), pp. 29-52.
3. F. Graus, ‘The Late Medieval Poor in Town and Countryside’, [original French version in Annales: E.S.C., 16 (1961)], republished in Sylvia Thrupp, ed., Change in Medieval Society: Europe North of the Alps, 1050-1500 (1964), pp. 237-48, 314-24.

4. Raymond Van Uytven, ‘La Flandre et le Brabant: Terres de promission’ sous les ducs de Bourgogne?’ Revue du Nord, 43 (1961), 281-318.


5. Herman Van der Wee, ‘Typologie des crises et changements de structures aux Pays-Bas, XVe-XVIe siècles’, Annales: E.S.C., 18 (1963), 209-25.
6. David Herlihy, Medieval and Renaissance Pistoia: the Social History of an Italian Town, 1200 - 1430 (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967), chapters 6- 8, pp. 121 - 212.
7. Bronislaw Geremek, Le salariat dans l'artisanat parisien aux XIII-XVe siècles (Paris, 1968).
* 8. Harry A. Miskimin, The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe, 1300 - 1460 (1969; republished Cambridge, 1975), especially pp. 77-111; 116-58.
9. Bronislaw Geremek, ‘La lutte contre le vagabondage à Paris aux XIVe et XVe siècles’, Ricerche storiche ed economische in memoria di Corrado Bargallo, vol. II (Naples, 1970), 213-36.
10. Brian Pullan, Rich and Poor in Renaissance Venice: The Social Institutions of a Catholic State to 1620 (Cambridge, Mass. 1971).
* 11. Michael Mollat and Philippe Wolff, The Population Revolutions of the Late Middle Ages (London, 1973), especially chapter 3: ‘Revolts Against Poverty’, pp. 91-137.
12. Michel Mollat, ed., Etudes sur l'histoire de la pauvreté, 2 vols. Paris, 1974.
13. Charles-M. de la Roncière, ‘Pauvres et pauvreté à Florence au XIVe siècle’, in Michel Mollat, ed. Etudes sur l'histoire de la pauvreté, Vol. II (Paris, 1974).
* 14. Guy Bois, Crise du féodalisme (Paris, 1976): republished in English translation as The Crisis of Feudalism: Economy and Society in Eastern Normandy, ca. 1300 - 1550 (Past and Present Publications, Cambridge, 1984). Part I, chapters 3-5 (‘Prices’, ‘Wages’, and ‘The Gross Product’, pp. 78- 133; Part II, chapter 7, ‘Peasant Holdings’, pp. 175 - 214; Part III, ‘The Stages of the Crisis (esp. chapter 13, ‘The Disasters, ca. 1410 - c. 1450, pp. 316 - 45).
15. Wim Blockmans and Walter Prevenier, ‘Poverty in Flanders and Brabant from the Fourteenth to the Mid-Sixteenth Century: Sources and Problems’, Acta Historiae Neerlandicae, 10 (1977), 20-57.
16. David Herlihy, ‘Family and Property in Renaissance Florence’, in Harry Miskimin, David Herlihy, and Avrom Udovitch, eds., The Medieval City, (1977), pp. 3-24.
17. David Herlihy, ‘The Distribution of Wealth in a Renaissance Community: Florence, 1427’, in Philip Abrams and E.A. Wrigley, eds., Towns and Societies, (London, 1978), pp. 131-58.
18. Michel Mollat, Les pauvres au moyen âge: étude sociale (Paris, 1978). Republished in English translation as The Poor in the Middle Ages (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1986).
19. Charles-M. de la Roncière, Prix et salaires à Florence au XIVe siècle (1280 - 1380) (Rome: Ecole française de Rome: 1982).
20. John H. Munro, ‘Economic Depression and the Arts in the Fifteenth-Century Low Countries’, Renaissance and Reformation, 19 (1983), 235-50.
21. David Herlihy and Christianne Klapisch-Zuber, Tuscans and Their Families: A Study of the Florentine Catasto of 1427 (New Haven and London, 1985), chapter 4, ‘Wealth and Enterprise’, pp. 93 - 130.
22. David Nicholas, The Metamorphosis of a Medieval City: Ghent in the Age of the Arteveldes (1987), chapter 3, ‘The Poor You Will Always Have With You’, pp. 41 - 66.
23. Francis X. Newman, ed., Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies vol. 39 (Binghampton, New York, 1986):
(a) D. W. Robertson, Jr., ‘Chaucer and the Economic and Social Consequences of the Plague’, pp. 49-74.
(b) John B. Friedman, ‘ ‘He Hath a Thousand Slayn This Pestilence’: Iconography of the Plague in the late Middle Ages’, pp. 75-112.
(c) Russell A. Peck, ‘Social Conscience and the Poets’, pp. 113-48.
24. Jean-Pierre Sosson, ‘Les XIVe et XVe siècles: un `âge d'or de la main-d'oeuvre'? Quelques réflexions à propos des anciens Pays-Bas méridionaux’, in Jean-Marie Cauchies, ed., Aspects de la vie économique des pays bourguignons, 1384 - 1559: dépression ou prospérité (Basel, 1987), pp. 17 - 38.
25. Bronislaw Geremek, The Margins of Society in Late Medieval Paris, trns. by Jean Birrell (Cambridge, 1987).
26. Bronislaw Geremek, La pietà e la forca: storia della miseria e della carità in Europa (Bari, 1988).
27. John Munro, ‘Deflation and the Petty Coinage Problem in the Late-Medieval Economy: The Case of Flanders, 1334 - 1484’, Explorations in Economic History, 25 (October 1988), 387 - 423.
* 28. David Loschky, ‘New Perspectives on Seven Centuries of Real Wages’, Journal of European Economic History, 21:1 (Spring 1992), 169 - 82.
* 29. John H. Munro, ‘Wage-Stickiness, Monetary Changes, and Real Incomes in Late-Medieval England and the Low Countries, 1300 - 1500: Did Money Matter?’, Research in Economic History, 21 (2003), 185-298.
30. John Munro, ‘Builders’ Wages in Southern England and the Southern Low Countries, 1346 -1500:A Comparative Study of Trends in and Levels of Real Incomes’, in Simonetta Caviococchi, ed., L’Edilizia prima della rivoluzione industriale, secc. XIII-XVIII, Atti delle “Settimana di Studi” e altri convegni, no. 36, Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica “Francesco Datini” (Florence, 2005), pp. 1013-76.
31. Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., Lust for Liberty: The Politics of Social Revolt in Medieval Europe, 1200 - 1425: Italy, France, and Flanders (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press, 2006).
* 32. Samuel Cohn, ‘After the Black Death: Labour Legislation and Attitudes Towards Labour in Late-Medieval Western Europe’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 60:3 (August 2007), 457-485.
33. Samuel K. Cohn, Jr, ‘Popular Insurrection and the Black Death: A Comparative View’, in Christopher Dyer, Peter Coss, and Chris Wickham, eds., Rodney Hilton's Middle Ages: An Exploration of Historical Themes, Past & Present, no. 195: Supplement no. 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 188-204.
34. Samuel Cohn, Jr., ‘The Black Death and the Burning of Jews’, Past & Present, no. 196 (August 2007), pp. 3-36.

* 35. Şevket Pamuk, ‘The Black Death and the Origins of the “Great Divergence” Across Europe, 1300 - 1600’, European Review of Economic History, 11:3 (December 2007), 289-317.


* 36. John Munro, ‘The Usury Doctrine and Urban Public Finances in Late-Medieval Flanders (1220 - 1550): Rentes (Annuities), Excise Taxes, and Income Transfers from the Poor to the Rich’, in Simonetta Cavacioccki, ed., La fiscalità nell’economia Europea, secc. XIII - XVIII/ Fiscal Systems in the European Economy from the 13th to the 18th Centuries, Atti della ‘Trentanovesima Settimana di Studi’, 22 - 26 aprile 2007, Fondazione Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economic “F. Datini”, Prato, Serie II: Atti delle “Settimane de Studi” et altri Convegni 39 (Florence: Firenze University Press, 2008), pp. 973-1026.
* 38. William Caferro, ‘Petrarch’s War: Florentine Wages and the Black Death’, Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies, 88:1 (January 2013), 144-65.

ii. On England:


1. Nora Ritchie (née Kenyon), ‘Labour Conditions in Essex in the Reign of Richard II’, Economic History Review, 1st ser., 4 (1934), reprinted in E. M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, vol. II (London, 1962), pp. 91 - 111.
2. Brian Tierney, Medieval Poor Law: A Sketch of Canonical Theory and its Application in England (Berkeley, 1959).
* 3. A. R. Bridbury, Economic Growth: England in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1962), chapters IV - VI, pp. 52 - 109.
4. D.G. Watts, ‘A Model for the Early Fourteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 20 (1967), 543-47.
* 5. Christopher Dyer, ‘A Redistribution of Incomes in Fifteenth-Century England’, Past and Present, no. 39 (1968), 11-33.
6. R. R. Davies, ‘Baronial Accounts, Incomes, and Arrears in the Later Middle Ages’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 21 (1968), 211-29.

* 7. J.Z. Titow, English Rural Society, 1200-1350 (1969), chapter 3: ‘The Standard of Living Controversy’, pp. 64-96.


* 8. A. R. Bridbury, ‘The Black Death’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 26 (1973), 557-92.
9. A.N. May, ‘An Index of Thirteenth-Century Peasant Impoverishment? Manor Court Fines’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 26 (1973), 389-402.
10. R. H. Hilton, The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1975), chapters 3 and 4.
11. R. B. Dobson, ‘Urban Decline in Late-Medieval England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 27 (1977), 1- 22.
12. Charles Pythian-Adams, ‘Urban Decay in Late-Medieval England’, in P. Abrams and E. A. Wrigley, eds., Towns in Societies (Cambridge, 1978), pp. 159 - 85.
13. Ian Blanchard, ‘Labour Productivity and Work Psychology in the English Mining Industry, 1400 - 1600’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 31 (1978), 1-24.
14. T. H. Aston, P. R. Coss, C. Dyer, Joan Thirsk, eds., Social Relations and Ideas: Essays in Honour of R. H. Hilton (Cambridge University Press, 1983).
a) M. M. Postan, ‘Feudalism and its Decline: A Semantic Exercise’, pp. 73 - 87.
b) Zvi Razi, ‘The Struggles between the Abbots of Halesowen and their Tenants in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries’, pp. 151 - 67.
c) Geoffrey Shepherd, ‘Poverty in Piers Plowman’, pp. 169 - 89.
d) Christopher Dyer, ‘English Diet in the Later Middle Ages’, pp. 191 - 216.
e) G. G. Astill, ‘Economic Change in Later Medieval England: An Archaeological Review’, pp. 217 - 47.
15. Larry R. Poos, ‘The Social Context of the Statute of Labourers Enforcement’, Law and History Review, 1 (1983), 34-7.
16. Christopher Dyer, ‘Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381’, in R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, eds. The English Rising of 1381 (Cambridge, 1984).
* 17. Robert Tittler, ‘Late Medieval Urban Prosperity’, and A. R. Bridbury, ‘Late Medieval Urban Prosperity: A Rejoinder’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 37 (Nov. 1984), 551-56.
18. Mavis Mate, ‘Labour and Labour Services on the Estates of Canterbury Cathedral Priory in the Fourteenth Century’, Southern History, 7 (1985), 55 - 67.
19. R. H. Hilton, Class Conflict and the Crisis of Feudalism: Essays in Medieval Social History (London, 1985). Various essays.
20. Miri Rubin, Charity and Community in Medieval Cambridge (Cambridge, 1987).
21. Simon A. C. Penn, ‘Female Wage-Earners in Late Fourteenth-Century England’, The Agricultural History Review, 35:1 (1987), 1 - 14.
22. Christopher Dyer, ‘Changes in Diet in the Late Middle Ages: The Case of Harvest Workers’, The Agricultural History Review, 36 (1988), 21 - 38.
23. Christopher Dyer, ‘Changes in the Size of Peasant Holdings in Some West Midland Villages, 1400 - 1540’, and,
Christopher Dyer, ‘Changes in the Link between Families and Land in the West Midlands in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries’, and also:
Bruce Campbell, ‘Population Pressure, Inheritance, and the Land Market in a Fourteenth-Century Peasant Community’,
in Richard Smith, ed., Land, Kinship and Life Cycle (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 277 - 94, 305 - 12, and 87 - 134, respectively.
24. Hallam, H. E., ‘The Life of the People’, in H. E. Hallam, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. II: 1042 - 1350 (Cambridge, 1988), 818-53.
** 25. Christopher Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England c. 1200 - 1520 (Cambridge, 1989). Especially chapters 5-8.
26. Mark Bailey, ‘The Concept of the Margin in the Medieval English Economy’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 42 (Feb. 1989), 1-17.
27. Christopher Dyer, ‘The Consumer and the Market in the Later Middle Ages’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 42 (August 1989), 305-27.
28. Kathleen Biddick, The Other Economy: Pastoral Husbandry on a Medieval Estate (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989). Contains some information on peasant consumption (chiefly before 1348), in chapters 3-6.
29. Simon A. C. Penn, and Christopher Dyer, ‘Wages and Earnings in Late Medieval England: Evidence from the Enforcement of the Labour Laws’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 43:3 (August 1990), 356-76.
30. Lawrence R. Poos, A Rural Society after the Black Death: Essex, 1350 - 1525, Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time no. 18 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), chapter 10: ‘Wages and Labourers’, pp. 207-30.
31. John Hatcher, ‘England in the Aftermath of the Black Death’, Past & Present, no. 144 (August 1994), pp. 3 - 35.
32. Mark Bailey, ‘Peasant Welfare in England, 1290 - 1348’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 51:2 (May 1998), 223-51.


  1. * John H. Munro, ‘Wage-Stickiness, Monetary Changes, and Real Incomes in Late-Medieval England and the Low Countries, 1300 - 1500: Did Money Matter?’, Research in Economic History, 21 (2003), 185-298.

34. Eona Karakacili, ‘English Agrarian Labor Productivity Rates Before the Black Death: A Case Study’, Journal of Economic History, 64:1 (March 2004), 24-60.


* 35. John Munro, ‘Builders’ Wages in Southern England and the Southern Low Countries, 1346 -1500:A Comparative Study of Trends in and Levels of Real Incomes’, in Simonetta Caviococchi, ed., L’Edilizia prima della rivoluzione industriale, secc. XIII-XVIII, Atti delle “Settimana di Studi” e altri convegni, no. 36, Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica “Francesco Datini” (Florence, 2005), pp. 1013-76.
36. Gregory Clark, ‘Work, Wages and Living Conditions: Building Workers in England from Magna Carta to Tony Blair’, in Simonetta Caviococchi, ed., L’Edilizia prima della rivoluzione industriale, secc. XIII-XVIII, Atti delle “Settimana di Studi” e altri convegni, no. 36, Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica “Francesco Datini” (Florence, 2005), pp. 889-932.
37. Gregory Clark, ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1209-2004’, Journal of Political Economy, 113:6 (December 2005), 1307-1340.
38. Gregory Clark, ‘The Long March of History: Farm Wages, Population, and Economic Growth: England, 1209-1869’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 60:1 (February 2007), 97-135.
* 38. John Munro, ‘Before and After the Black Death: Money, Prices, and Wages in Fourteenth-Century England’, in Troels Dohlerup and Per Ingesman, eds., New Approaches to the History of Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Selected Proceedings of Two International Conferences at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen in 1997 and 1999, Historisk-filosofiske Meddelelser 104 (Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 2009), pp. 335-64.
* 39. John Munro, ‘The Late-Medieval Decline of English Demesne Agriculture: Demographic, Monetary, and Political-Fiscal Factors’, in Mark Bailey and Stephen Rigby, eds., Town and Countryside in the Age of the Black Death: Essays in Honour of John Hatcher, The Medieval Countryside, vol. 12 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2012), pp. 299-348.
* 40. Eric B. Schneider, ‘Real Wages and the Family: Adjusting Real Wages to Changing Demography in Pre-Modern England’, Explorations in Economic History, 50:1 (January 2013), 99-115.

(iii) On Wages, Prices, and Income Distributions: Statistical Sources and Studies


1. James E. Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, Vol. I: 1259 - 1400 (Oxford, 1867); and Vol. IV: 1401 - 1582 (Oxford, 1882).
2. Douglas Knoop and G. P. Jones, ‘Mason's Wages in Mediaeval England’, Economic History, 2 (Jan. 1933), 473 - 99.
3. William Beveridge, ‘Wages in the Winchester Manors’, Economic History Review, 1st ser., 7 (1936-37), 22-43.
4. Johan Schreiner, ‘Wages and Prices in the Later Middle Ages’, Scandinavian Economic History Review, II (1954), 61-73.
* 5. E. H. Phelps Brown and Sheila Hopkins, ‘Seven Centuries of Building Wages’, Economica, 22 (1955); and
E. H. Phelps Brown and Sheila Hopkins, ‘Seven Centuries of the Prices of Consumables, Compared with Builders' Wage Rates’, Economica, 23 (1956):
Both articles are reprinted in E.M. Carus-Wilson, ed. E.M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, vol. II (London, 1962), pp. 168 - 178; and 179 - 207; and in Henry Phelps Brown and Sheila Hopkins, A Perspective of Wages and Prices (London, 1981), pp. 1-12; and 13-59.


  1. William Beveridge, ‘Westminster Wages in the Manorial Era’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 8 (1955-56), 18 - 35.

7. David L. Farmer, ‘Some Grain Price Movements in Thirteenth-Century England’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 10 (1957), 207-20.


8. Charles Verlinden, E. Scholliers, et al, eds., Documents pour l'histoire des prix et des salaires en Flandre et en Brabant/Dokumenten voor de geschiedenis van prijzen en lonen in Vlaanderen en Brabant, 4 vols. (Bruges, 1959 - 65), Vols. I and II.
9. Herman Van der Wee, The Growth of the Antwerp Market and the European Economy, fourteenth - sixteenth centuries, 3 vols. (The Hague, 1963), Vol. I: Statistics.
10. Roger S. Schofield, ‘The Geographical Distribution of Wealth in England, 1334-1649’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 17 (1965), reprinted in Roderick Floud, ed., Essays in Quantitative Economic History (1974), pp. 79-106.
11. J.P. Cooper, ‘The Social Distribution of Land and Men in England, 1436-1700’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 20 (1967), reprinted in Floud, ed., Essays in Quantitative Economic History (1974) pp. 107-32.
12. D. L. Farmer, ‘Some Livestock Price Movements in Thirteenth-Century England’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 22 (1969), 1 - 16.
13. John Munro, ‘The Purchasing Power of Coins and of Wages in England and the Low Countries from 1500 to 1514’, in R.A.B. Mynors and W.K. Ferguson, ed., The Correspondence of Erasmus, A.D. 1501-1514, (Collected Works of Erasmus, Vol. 2, Toronto, 1975), pp. 307-45.
14. R.A. Doughty, ‘Industrial Prices and Inflation in Southern England, 1401-1640’, Explorations in Economic History, 12 (1975), 177-92.
* 15. Herman Van der Wee, ‘Prices and Wages as Development Variables: A Comparison between England and the Southern Netherlands, 1400-1700’, Acta Historiae Neerlandicae, 10 (1978), 58-78.
A republication in translation (with graphs, but without the long statistical appendices of the original): ‘Prijzen en lonen als ontwikkelingensvariabelen: Een vergelijkend onderzoek tussen Engeland en de zuidelijke Nederlanden, 1400 - 1700’, in Album aangeboden aan Charles Verlinden ter gelegenheid van dertig jaar professoraat (Ghent, 1975), pp. 413 - 47.
16. Charles-M. De la Roncière, Prix et salaires à Florence au XIVe siècle (1280-1380) (Paris: École française de Rome, Palais Farnèse, 1982.)
16. David L. Farmer, ‘Crop Yields, Prices and Wages in Medieval England’, Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, new series, 6 (1983), 115 - 55.
17. John Munro, ‘Mint Outputs, Money, and Prices in late-Medieval England and the Low Countries’, in Eddy Van Cauwenberghe and Franz Irsigler, ed., Münzprägung, Geldumlauf und Wechselkurse / Minting, Monetary Circulation and Exchange Rates, (Trierer Historische Forschungen, Vol. VIII, Trier, 1984), pp. 31-122.
18. David L. Farmer, ‘Prices and Wages’, in H. E. Hallam, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. II: 1042 - 1350 (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 715 - 817.
19. David L. Farmer, ‘Prices and Wages, 1350 - 1500’, in Edward Miller, ed., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, vol. III: 1348 - 1500 (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 431 - 525.
20. John Munro, ‘Builders’ Wages in Southern England and the Southern Low Countries, 1346 -1500:A Comparative Study of Trends in and Levels of Real Incomes’, in Simonetta Caviococchi, ed., L’Edilizia prima della rivoluzione industriale, secc. XIII-XVIII, Atti delle “Settimana di Studi” e altri convegni, no. 36, Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica “Francesco Datini” (Florence, 2005), pp. 1013-76.
* 21. Pamela Nightingale, ‘Gold, Credit, and Mortality: Distinguishing Deflationary Pressures on the Late Medieval English Economy’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 63:4 (November 2010), 1081-1104.
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