Prof. John H. Munro

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Prof. John H. Munro

Department of Economics

University of Toronto

Revised: 20 August 2013
ECO 301Y1
The Economic History of Later Medieval and Early Modern Europe, 1250 - 1750

Topic No. 1 [1]: The Black Death, Famines, and the Late-Medieval Demographic Crises:
the Late-medieval Standard of Living Controversies
READINGS: arranged, by topic section, in the chronological order of original publication. The more important are indicated by asterisks *
A. Demography: General and Methodological:
1. Thomas R. Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population, 1st edn. (London, 1798); 6th edn., 2 vols. (London, 1826).
2. A.M. Carr-Saunders, The Population Problem: A Study in Human Evolution (Oxford, 1922).
3. A.M. Carr-Saunders, World Population: Past Growth and Present Trends (New York, 1936). Especially chapters 6-7.
* 4. J.C. Russell, British Medieval Population (Albequerque, 1948).
* 5. Carlo Cipolla, Jan Dhondt, Michael Postan, and Philippe Wolff, ‘Rapports collectif’, IXe congrès international des sciences historiques, Paris âout - septembre 1950, 1 (1950), 225-41. Michael Postan's contribution was revised and subsequently published as the following:
** 6. Michael Postan, ‘The Economic Foundations of Medieval Society’, Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie, 161 (1951); and:
Michael Postan, ‘Some Economic Evidence of Declining Population in the Later Middle Ages’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 2 (1950), 130-67;
both reprinted in his Essays on Medieval Agriculture and General Problems of the Medieval Economy (Cambridge, 1973), pp. 3 - 27; and 186 - 213 (the latter, with the revised title of ‘Some Agrarian Evidence of Declining Population in the Later Middle Ages.’)
7. Roger Mols, Introduction à la démographie historique des villes d'Europe du XIVe au XVIIIe siècles, 3 vols. (Louvain-Gembloux, 1954-56). See Vol. I on methodology.
8. Wilhelm Abel, Die Wüstungen des ausgehenden Mittelalters, 2nd edn. (Stuttgart, 1955).
* 9. J. Krause, ‘The Medieval Household: Large or Small?’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 9 (1956-57), 420-32. With a critique of Russell's demographic assumptions and methods.
10. Karl Helleiner, ‘New Light on the History of Urban Populations’, Journal of Economic History, 18 (1958), 56-61. A review-article concerning the Mols volumes, no. 6 above.
11. J.C. Russell, Late Ancient and Medieval Population (Philadelphia, 1958).
12. Carlo Cipolla, The Economic History of World Population (London, 1962), especially chapter 4, ‘Births and Deaths’, pp. 73-90.
* 13. B.H. Slicher-van Bath, The Agrarian History of Western Europe, A.D. 500-1850 (London, 1963), pp. 77-97, 132-37.
14. J.C. Russell, ‘A Quantitative Approach to Medieval Population Change’, Journal of Economic History, 24 (1964), 1-21.
15. J.C. Russell, ‘Recent Advances in Medieval Demography’, Speculum, 40 (1965), 84-101.
* 16. David V. Glass and D.E.C. Eversely, eds. Population in History: Essays in Historical Demography (London: E. Arnold, 1965), especially:
(a) D.E.C. Eversely, ‘Population, Economy, and Society’, pp. 23-70.
** (b) J. Hajnal, ‘European Marriage Patterns in Perspective’, pp. 101-46.
17. J. C. Russell, ‘The Pre-plague Population of England’, Journal of British Studies, 5:2 (May1966), 1-21.
** 18. Barbara Harvey, ‘The Population Trend in England Between 1300 and 1348’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser. 16 (1966), 23-42. Opposes Postan's thesis of a pre-plague population decline, implicitly supporting Russell. But see also no. 40 below, a much more recent essay.
* 19. Goran Ohlin, ‘No Safety in Numbers: Some Pitfalls of Historical Statistics’, in Henry Rosovsky, ed. Industrialization in Two Systems: Essays in Honor of Alexander Gerschenkron (New York, 1966), pp. 68 - 90; reprinted in Roderick Floud, ed. Essays in Quantitative Economic History (Oxford, 1974), pp. 59 - 78. An important critique of Russell's demographic statistics.
** 20. Karl Helleiner, ‘The Population of Europe, from the Black Death to the Eve of the Vital Revolution’, in E.E. Rich and Charles Wilson, eds., Cambridge Economic History, Vol. IV: The Economy of Expanding Europe in the 16th and 17th Centuries (Cambridge, 1967), pp. 1-95, especially pp. 5-19, 68-95.
21. Marcel R. Reinhard, André Armengaud, Jacques Dupâquier, Histoire générale de la population mondiale (Paris, 1968).
* 22. J. Z. Titow, English Rural Society, 1200-1350 (1969), chapter 3, ‘The Standard of Living Controversy’, pp. 64-96. Critique of both Russell and Barbara Harvey, defending the Postan thesis.
* 23. E. Anthony Wrigley, Population and History (London, 1969), chapters 1-3.
24. Guy Fourquin, Histoire économique de l'occident médiéval (Paris, 1969), pp. 136-75, 225-34.
25. Harry Miskimin, The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe, 1300-1460 (1969: reissued Cambridge, 1975), chapter 2.
* 26. Norman J.G. Pounds, ‘Overpopulation in France and the Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages’, Journal of Social History, 3 (1969-70), 225-47.
* 27. J.D. Chambers, Population, Economy, and Society in Pre-Industrial England (London, 1972), chapters 1-3.
* 28. Josiah Cox Russell, ‘Population in Europe, 500-1500’, in Fontana Economic History of Europe, Vol. I: The Middle Ages, 900 - 1 500, ed. Carlo Cipolla (London, 1972), pp. 25-70.
29. Frederick Cartwright, Disease and History (New York, 1972).
30. David Loschky, ‘Economic Change, Mortality, and Malthusian Theory’, Population Studies, 30 (1975), 439-52.
31. Edward Miller and John Hatcher, Medieval England: Rural Society and Economic Change, 1086-1348 (London, 1978), chapter 2: ‘Land and People’, pp. 27-63; and chapter 9.
* 32. Michael M. Postan and John Hatcher, ‘Population and Class Relations in Feudal Society’, Past and Present, no. 78 (Feb. 1978): a contribution to ‘Symposium: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe’, pp. 24-36; reprinted in T.H. Aston and C.H.E. Philpin, eds., The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe (Past and Present Publications: Cambridge, 1985), pp. 64-78.
* 33. Wilhelm Abel, Agrarkrisen und Agrarkonjunktur, 3rd edn. (Berlin, 1978; 1st edn. 1966): translated by Olive Ordish as Agricultural Fluctuations in Europe from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (London, 1980), chapters 1-3, but especially the introduction, pp. 1-16.
34. Robert Fossier, ‘Peuplement de la France du Nord entre le 10e et le 16e siècles’, Annales de demographie historique (1979), 59 - 99.
35. James L. Bolton, The Medieval English Economy, 1150-1500 (London, 1980): chapters 1 - 4.
* 36. Ester Boserup, Population and Technological Change: A Study of Long-Term Trends (Chicago, 1981), part III: ‘The Role of Demographic Factors in European Development’, pp. 93-125.
37. Jacques Dupâquier and A. Fauve-Chamoux, eds., Malthus Past and Present (London, 1983).
38. David Coleman and Roger Schofield, The State of Population Theory: Forward from Malthus (Oxford, 1986):
a) Roger Schofield and David Coleman, ‘Introduction: the State of Population Theory’, pp. 1-13.
b) David Coleman, ‘Population Regulation: A Long Range View’, pp. 14-41.
39. Pierre Alexandre, Le climat en Europe au moyen âge: contribution à l'histoire des variations climatiques de 1000 à 1425, d'après les sources narratives de l'Europe occidentale (Paris, Editions de l'Ecole des Hautes Études, Études en Sciences Sociales, 1987).
40. David Loschky and Maw Lin Lee, ‘Malthusian Population Oscillations’, Economic Journal, 97 (1987), 727-39.
41. Paul Bairoch, La population des villes européennes : banque de données et analyse sommaire des résultats, 800-1850/ The Population of European Cities : Data Bank and Short Summary of Results, 800-1850 (Paris: Libraire Droz, 1988).
* 42. L. R. Poos, ‘The Historical Demography of Renaissance Europe: Recent Research and Current Issues’, Renaissance Quarterly, 42 (1989), 749-811.

43. Massimo Livi-Bacci, Population and Nutrition: An Essay on European Demographic History, trans. by Tania Croft-Murray (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

** 44. Barbara Harvey, ‘Introduction: the ‘Crisis’ of the Early Fourteenth Century’, in Bruce M.S. Campbell, ed., Before the Black Death: Studies in the ‘Crisis’ of the Early Fourteenth Century (Manchester and New York, Manchester University Press, 1991), pp. 1 - 24.
45. Richard M. Smith, ‘Demographic Developments in Rural England, 1300-48: a Survey’, in Bruce M.S. Campbell, ed., Before the Black Death: Studies in ‘Crisis’ of the Early Fourteenth Century (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1991), pp. 25-78.
46. Gregory Clark, ‘The Economics of Exhaustion, the Postan Thesis, and the Agricultural Revolution’, The Journal of Economic History, 52 (March 1992), 61 - 84.
47. Ronald Lee, ‘Accidental and Systematic Change in Population History: Homeostasis in a Stochastic Setting’, Explorations in Economic History, 30:1 (January 1993), 1 - 30. See in particular ‘The Origin of Long Swings in Historical Populations’, pp. 21-28.
48. Karl Gunnar Persson, ‘Was There a Productivity Gap between Fourteenth-Century Italy and England?’ Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 46:1 (February 1993), 105-114.
49. David Loschky and Ben D. Childers, ‘Early English Mortality’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 24:1 (Summer 1993), 85 - 97.
** 50. Jan de Vries, ‘Population’, in Thomas A. Brady, jr., Heiko O. Oberman, and James D. Tracy, eds., Handbook of European History, 1400-1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation, Vol. I: Structures and Assertions (Leiden/New York/Cologne: E.J. Brill, 1994), pp. 1 - 50.
51. David Kertzer and Peter Laslett, Aging in the Past: Demography, Society and Old Age (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
52. Mark Bailey, ‘Demographic Decline in Late-Medieval England: Some Thoughts on Recent Research’, The Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 49:1 (February 1996), 1-19.
53. Massimo Livi-Bacci, A Concise History of World Population, trans. by Carl Ipsen, 2nd edn. (London: Blackwell, 1997. [1st edn: Italian, 1989; English trans., 1992)

54. Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York, 1997).

55. Michel Morineau, ‘Malthus: There and Back, From the Period Preceding the Black Death to the Industrial Revolution’, The Journal of European Economic History, 27:1 (Spring 1998), 137-202.
56. Gerhard Andermann, Heinrich Hockmann, and Günther Schmitt, ‘Historical Changes in Land-Labour Relationships in Western Europe’, The Journal of European Economic History, 27:2 (Fall 1998), 245-83.
57. Peter Biller, The Measure of Multitude: Population in Medieval Thought (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
58. Guy Bois, La grande dépression médiévale: XIVe - XVe siècles: le précédent d’une crise systémique, Actuel Marx Confrontation (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2000).

59. P.M.G. Harris, The History of Human Populations, vol. I: Forms of Growth and Decline (Westport: Preager, 2001).

60. David Levine, At the Dawn of Modernity: Biology, Culture, and Material Life in Europe after the Year 1000 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).
61. Bruce S. Fetter, ‘History and Health Sciences: Medical Advances Across the Disciplines’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 32:3 (Winter 2002), 423-42. A review essay.
62. John Landers, The Field and the Forge: Population, Production, and Power in the Pre-Industrial West (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
63. P.M.G. Harris, The History of Human Populations, vol. II: Migration, Urbanization, and Structural Change (Westport: Praeger, 2003).
64. Andrew Hinde, England’s Population: A History Since the Domesday Survey (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
* 65. E. A. Wrigley, Poverty, Progress, and Population (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
66. Tommy Bengtsson, Cameron Campbell, and James Z. Lee, eds., Life Under Pressure: Mortality and Living Standards in Europe and Asia (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
67. Katherine Lynch, Individuals, Families, and Communities in Europe, 1200 - 1800: The Urban Foundations of Western Society (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
68. Nikola Koepke and Joerg Baten, ‘The Biological Standard of Living in Europe during the last Two Millennia’, European Review of Economic History, 9:1 (April 2005), 61-96.
69. Ethne Barnes, Disease and Human Evolution (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005).
70. Hervé Le Bras, The Nature of Demography (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008).
71. Elisabeth Carniel, ‘Plague Today’, in Vivan Nutton, ed., Pestilential Complexities: Understanding Medieval Plague: in Medical History, supplement 27 (2008), 121-22.
* 72. Lawrence R. Poos, ‘The Historical Demography of Northern Europe, 1400 - 1650’, in Troels Dohlerup and Per Ingesman, eds., New Approaches to the History of Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Selected Proceedings of Two International Conferences at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen in 1997 and 1999, Historisk-filosofiske Meddelelser 104 (Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, 2009), pp. 365-96.
* 73. Steven A. Epstein, An Economic and Social History of Later Medieval Europe, 1000 - 1500 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), chapter 6: ‘The Great Hunger and the Big Death: The Calamitous Fourteenth Century’, pp. 159-89.
* 74. Lester K. Little, ‘Plague Historians in Lab Coats: A Review Article’, Past & Present, no. 213 (November 2011), pp. 267-90.
* 75. Morgan Kelly and Cormac Ó Gràda, ‘The Preventive Check in Medieval and Preindustrial England’, Journal of Economic History, 72:4 (December 2012), 1015-35.

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