Primary Sources Eyewitness Accounts/Interviews



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Primary Sources

Eyewitness Accounts/Interviews

Catling, Lorna. Interview by Noah Adams. "British, French Honor U.S. Spy Virginia Hall." NPR . 12 Dec 2006. NPR. 12 Dec 2006. Radio. http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=661 5482&m=6615483.

The above listed source is a primary source interview with the niece of Virginia Hall. She tells the interviewer about some of the things her aunt did during World War II. However, she found out about these things about the same time the public did. She talks of how her aunt did not speak of the things she did in World War II even when it was safe for Virginia Hall to do so. Mrs. Catling speaks of how her aunt was very humble about the things she did. At the end of the interview, she says that her aunt did some work with the CIA in South America but that is all Virginia Hall had told her family. However, they did know that she was the first woman to be put into an official spy job. Mrs. Catling also highlights in this interview the importance of Virginia Hall’s role in D-Day.

Osmont, Marie-Louise. "Invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944: A Civilian's View." Invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944: A Civilian's View. Ibis Communications, Inc., 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2014. .

This source is an eyewitness account of the beginning of the end of World War II. Marie-Louise Osmont was a girl who woke up to the sound of canons on D-Day invasion of Normandy France. She gives a detailed account of what D-Day was like when it was happening from a civilian’s point of view. Virginia Hall helped make this possible. She was responsible for the death of over 300 Nazi’s and the capture of over 750 more. D-Day was a hallmark point in Virginia Hall’s World War II career.

Government Publications/E-mails

Donovan, William. United States of America. Central Intelligence Agency. Document for May 12th: Memorandum for the President from William J. Donovan Regarding Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) Award to Virginia Hall, 05/12/1945. Washington D.C.: National Archives, Web. .

This source is a memorandum for President Harry Truman regarding the awarding of the Distinguished Service Cross to Virginia Hall. The memorandum was composed May 12th, 1945. The document was classified by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) up until the first decade of the 21st century. Including this one, many documents concerning Virginia Hall and her actions, which this document mentions, remained classified, for her actions were extremely secretive and confidential. A main point made in this document is that even when the Nazis were on the hunt for Virginia Hall and wanted to destroy her, she asked to be sent back into France and that she did.

Hale, Molly. "Central Intelligence Agency Information." Message to Kennedy Ward. 20 Apr 2015. E-mail.

On April 17, 2015 Kennedy Ward emailed the Central Intelligence Agency. She was in pursuit of more information on a former CIA Agent by the name of Virginia Hall. On April 20, 2015, Ward received an email back from the CIA. Molly Hale provided information to Ward about where she might find more information. Hale also gave Ward her the suggestion to visit the CIA section for the Freedom of Information Act where she may request for more information as well as personnel files.

Knoelk, Dorothy. United States of America. Central Intelligence Agency. Petticoat Panel. Washington D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013. Web. .

This is a government publication furnished by the Central Intelligence Agency. The publication was created in 1954. However, it was not published until 2014 because of confidentiality. The above source is a summary of the Petticoat Panel. It lists their findings and “other significant findings on the subject of women’s status”. It is important because it discusses the fight for women’s equal rights in the CIA’s workforce. Many were typewriters; however, there were a few exceptional women, such as Virginia Hall, who were put into spying operations during World War II which brought the attention to the under appreciation of women in the CIA.

Panel on Career Service for Women, . United States of America. Central Intelligence Agency. Career Employment of Women in the Central Intelligence Agency. Washington D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013. Web. .

This is a government publication furnished by the Central Intelligence Agency. The publication was created in 1954. However, it was not published until 2014 because of confidentiality. The above source is detailed report by the Panel on Career Service for Women. It lists their findings of discrimination and sexism toward women in the Central Intelligence Agency. It is important because it discusses the fight for women’s equal rights in the CIA’s workforce. Many were typewriters; however, there were a few exceptional women, such as Virginia Hall, who were put into spying operations during World War II. The matter of the under appreciation for women in the Central Intelligence Agency began to fully develop after World War II when it became clear that many women, especially Virginia Hall, were a major role in the Allied victory over Nazi Germany.

Passports Issued to Virginia Hall During Her OSS Career. N.d. Photograph. Central Intelligence Agency, Washington D.C.. Web. 11 Oct 2014. .

This picture is of some of the passports issued to Virginia Hall during her career with the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Virginia Hall had many passports because she went undercover in many countries such as France and Germany. What is unique about these passports is that many of them were forged by the OSS. Many of these passports have alias names for Virginia Hall because she was such a detrimental spy against the Germans during World War II, that she was wanted and labeled “the most dangerous of all spies”. This group of passports is a single example of the importance of Virginia Hall.

Tardieu, André. European Union. Political Struggles in France in the Thirties. Geneva: Patrice Delpin, 1997. Web. .

This source is a publication from the European Union. It is minutes and summaries from government meetings in France. These meetings took place during the thirties. This source is important to research because it displays the inner turmoil in France. Out of this came the French Resistance in which Virginia Hall was a vital part of.

Williams, Rudi. French identification certificate for "Marcelle Montagne". 2002. Photograph. Department of Defense, Washington D.C.. Web. 11 Oct 2014. .

This picture is of a French identification certificate for a woman by the name of Marcelle Montagne. However, what is so unique about this identification certificate is that it is for a fake person. Marcelle Montagne was an alias name of Virginia Hall. The identification card was forged by the United States’ OSS. Virginia Hall had to have alias for her French identification certificate because France was being occupied by the Germans; they were trying to find Virginia Hall whom was considered by the Germans the most dangerous of all spies.

Maps

War Department, . OSS Operations, France. 1942-1946. Map. National Archives, Washington D.C.. Web. 11 Oct 2014. .

The above source is a map of OSS Operations in France. This source is useful because it helps locate many vital operations during World War II. Virginia Hall is responsible for many of these drop zones. She was a vital part of locating many of those drop zones. Because of these drop zones, many OSS Operations as well as military operations could be performed.



Newspapers

"Victory: Nazis Reveal Surrender to Western Allies, Russia." The Stars And Stripes 8 May 1945, Paris Edition ed., Volume 1, Number 285 sec.: 1. Print.

This primary source is a newspaper article released on May 8, 1945. This was the day after the Nazis surrendered to the Western Allies and Russia. That day would mark the end of the war. Soon after, the Japanese would also surrender. On that day, many nations were liberated. However, as America and other Allied nations began to roll in for relief aid efforts, they began finding concentration camps. The victory also freed millions of prisoners of the Nazis and Hitler. Virginia Hall helped make this happen in her efforts as an OSS and SOE agent and a member of the French Resistance. The above source is used as part of the backdrop for the performance in a timeline like sequence of pictures showing Virginia Hall’s career and the results of her efforts.

Wigmore, Barry. "Finally Honoured, The Female Spy The Gestapo Dubbed "The Most Dangerous of All"." Daily Mail [London] 11 December 2006, n. pag. Web. 28 Sep. 2014. .

This news article, written in London, England, is about Virginia Hall. However, the article is written about the honoring of Virginia Hall by the British and French. The French and British have just honored Virginia Hall for her heroic and leading actions during World War II. They were honoring her for her years of essential service to World War II. Her actions were so valuable to the Allied Powers that the Nazis put out wanted posters. These posters called her the “Limping Lady” and noted that she was “The most dangerous of all”. The newspaper article also gives information about her work in the war. It includes quotes from family members of Virginia Hall making this even more important to research.

Pictures

Boyer, . FRANCE - CIRCA 1944: World War II. The bridge of Neuilly-sur-Marne (Seine- Saint-Denis) dynamited. Winter 1944-1945.. 2005. Photograph. Getty Images, Neuilly-sur-Saine. Web. 29 January 2015. .

This source is a picture taken of the bridge Seine-Saint-Denis. It is the aftermath of Allied forces dynamiting the bridge. Dynamiting bridges was important to the Allied victory in the sense that it cut off roadways and connections for the Nazi forces. Virginia Hall organized three battalions who were responsible for blowing up five bridges. This picture helps to display a major point in the skit presentation of Virginia Hall.

CIA Logo. 2015. Graphic. CIA, Washington D.C.. Web. 29 January 2015. .

The above source is a graphic. It is a graphic of the CIA logo today. The CIA had its early beginnings as the Office of Strategic Services. Virginia Hall was a vital part of the organization under both names. The graphic was retrieved directly from the CIA website.

D-Day Invasion Landing on Omaha Beach. N.d. Photograph. National World War Two Museum, New Orleans. Web. 29 January 2015. .

This source is one of the iconic D-Day invasion pictures of the landing on Omaha Beach. It is being used in this project to make a visual to help viewers further understand certain points within the skit presentation. France was invaded from both land and sea. Virginia Hall played a role in the victory of Do-Day. She led three battalions in destroying communication ways and vital bridges making it possible for the rest of the Allied forces to liberate France and D-Day a success.

Hanging of Allied Sympathizers. 1943. http://concentrationcamp1.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/2/1/14212879/7962259.jpg

This is a picture of two Allied sympathizers. Hangings were very common by the Nazis. They used hangings of people as a warning to other people. Virginia Hall knew the possible consequences of her spying actions against the Nazis. After all, she was considered by the Nazis “the most dangerous of all spies”. Virginia Hall continued to work for the OSS on spy missions ignoring the possible outcomes if she were to be captured by the Nazis.

Office of Strategic Services Emblem. 2014. Photograph. The Julia Child Foundation for Gastronomy and the Culinary Arts, Santa Barbara, California. Web. 4 Jan 2015. .

The above cited picture is the official emblem of the Office of Strategic Services. The Office of Strategic Services was founded June 13, 1942. It was a secret service group during World War II. It would become the predecessor of the, now, Central Intelligence Agency. In March of 1944, the OSS recruited Virginia Hall after hearing of her prestigious actions with the French Resistance and the British Special Operations Executive. Also, the Office of Strategic Services became knowing of Virginia Hall when the Nazis posted wanted posters of her all over Nazi occupied territories. The above source is used as part of the backdrop for the performance in a timeline like sequence of pictures showing Virginia Hall’s career and the results of her efforts.

Rommel, Erwin. "Virginia Hall." La Segunda Guerra Mundial. phpBB Forum Group, 17 Sep 2009. Web. 1 Feb 2015. .

This source is being used for the picture of the wanted poster. The wanted poster was put out for Virginia Hall by the Nazi Gestapo. They noted that she was the “most dangerous of all Allied spies”. They put out a hefty reward for the capture of Virginia Hall. Virginia Hall knew about the wanted posters and even snatched some down for “keepsakes”, but she was not afraid. She actually found it quite amusing. This is important to the project because it provides a better understanding of just how detrimental Virginia Hall was to the destruction of the Nazis.

Special Operations Executive Plaque. 2015. Photograph. London Remembers, London, England. Web. 4 Jan 2015. .

The plaque pictured in this source is a memorial plaque for the Special Operations Executive (SOE). According to the plaque, the SOE operated as an intelligence group during World War II from 1940 to 1946. The Special Operations Executive was “a secret service which supported resistance in all enemy-occupied countries”. The photographers are from a group making an effort to preserve London’s rich history. This plaque is outside the original Special Operations Executive building on Baker Street. Throughout the span of World War II, the Special Operations Executive would move into most of the buildings on Baker Street in Westminster. The SOE recruited Virginia Hall as a spy after hearing of her notable actions with the French Resistance. Her duties with the SOE would eventually land Virginia Hall with recruitment from the American Office of Strategic Services. The above source is used as part of the backdrop for the performance in a timeline like sequence of pictures showing Virginia Hall’s career and the results of her efforts.

Train Derailed in St. Malo, France. 1944. Photograph. WordPressWeb. 4 Jan 2015. .

The above picture is a photograph of a derailed French train returning from its trip from Switzerland. It was derailed during World War II and two people were killed. This picture is used to make a connection for the audience of Virginia Hall’s leadership and actions while she was with the Office of Strategic Services. She led three batallions of French Resistance fighters into D-Day. They derailed freight trains, tore up rail lines, tore down telephone lines, and was responsible for the demolition of five key bridges during D-Day. This train very well may have been a train Virginia Hall and her team derailed since the picture was taken in 1944. The photograph is used as part of the backdrop for the performance in a timeline like sequence of pictures showing Virginia Hall’s career and the results of her efforts.

Virginia Hall SOE Suitcase Radio. 2008. Photograph. National World War Two Museum, New Orleans. Web. 29 January 2015. .

The above source is a picture of the SOE suitcase radio that Virginia Hall used. Its outer appearance was one of a regular suitcase that anyone would carry. However, it was anything but a regular suitcase. On the inside was a radio system. The radio system was used by Allied spies during World War II to communicate with their spy agency or pilots to locate drop off and landing zones. Spies would often parachute with them or the suitcases would be parachuted down to the spies.

"WWII Female Spies." WWII Female Spies. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. .

This website is actually a secondary source. However, it is being used in this research as a primary source. The above website contains a picture of Virginia Hall’s Distinguished Service Cross. She received the Distinguished Service Cross for her exemplary actions during World War II as a spy for the OSS. This picture shows the importance of Virginia Hall. She was so important to the Allied victory over Germany, that she was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by, then, President Harry S. Truman.

Quotes

Bradford, Barry. "Julia Child: Spy and Chef." Barry Bradford: Speaking For Change. Barry Bradford, 21 Sep 2012. Web. 15 January 2015. .

The website for the cited source would be a secondary source. However, the website this source has been pulled for is being used for a piece of its content: a quote. The quote is by Julia Child addressing why she wanted so badly to be a writer. She says, “In my generation, except for a few people who’d gone into banking or nursing or something like that, middle-class women didn’t have careers. You were to marry and have children and be a nice mother. You didn’t go out and do anything. I found that I got restless.” This quote is used because it closely relates to how Virginia Hall felt. Virginia Hall did not want to be another average housewife, and the above quote clearly displays such mentality toward women during this time period through another woman’s eyes.

McIntosh, Elizabeth. Sisterhood of Spies. Naval Institute Press, 1998. 119. Print.

This source is being used for the quote within the text. This book is a compilation of biographies about World War Two female Office of Strategic Services spies. However, there were only few. In this book, there is a passage about Virginia Hall. There is a quote in the biography from Virginia Hall, which is what is being cited. The quote states, “I am living pleasantly and wasting time. It isn’t worthwhile and after all, my neck is my own. If I am willing to get a crick in it, I think that’s my prerogative. Virginia Hall made this comment when she was working in Spain. She had to escape to Spain after the threat of the Nazi’s became too dangerous. The Special Operations Executive gave her the job of an office secretary and a journalist for The Chicago Times. Virginia Hall wanted to do something significant and actually help the war effort.

Secondary Sources

Books

Mann, Chris. "Normandy Landings." Trans. Array Great Battles of World War II: Decisive Conflicts That Have Shaped History. . 1st. Bath, UK: Parragon Books, 2008. 161-173. Print.

This source is a chapter out of a book focusing on the greatest battles of World War II. “Normandy Landings” is a chapter centered on the first two months of the Normandy/D-Day invasions. It informs of the struggles, defeats, and successes of the operation. The operation was named Neptune/Overlord. The reading tells of just how difficult D-Day was and how we almost lost it. However, due to land forces and other factors, we regained the battle, and it was commenced. This section of reading has statistical data, dates, times, actual pictures, and charts of the action and battle plans of Operation Neptune/Overlord.

Pearson, Judith. The Wolves at the Door: The True Story of America's Greatest Female Spy. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons, 2005. Print.

This book is a biography of Virginia Hall. It is a detailed version of Virginia Hall’s missions in World War II. The author creates suspense and drama as she retails the stories of Hall and her work. Judith Pearson considers Virginia Hall “America’s greatest female spy”. The Wolves at the Door is a great source as it gives the researcher insight into the missions of Virginia Hall and what may or may not have been her thoughts as she prepared and went into these missions.

Polansky, Daniel. "Virginia Hall." Trans. Array War Spies. . First. New York City: Scholastic Inc., 2013. 68-85. Print.

This source is a compilation of six biographies of six war spies throughout our nation’s history. Of these biographies, Virginia Hall is one of them. This biography is a brief retelling of her life. However, the biography focuses extensively on Virginia Hall’s incredible work of espionage during World War Two. It also speaks much of her awards and recognition, for her prestige actions in World War Two, she received after the war. There is also brief mentioning of her early life at the beginning of this biography.

TIME Editors, . D-Day: 24 Hours That Saved the World. 1st. New York City: TIME Books, 2004. Print.

The above listed source is a book on the first twenty four hours of the Normandy invasions. The book takes the reader hour by hour through the events of D-Day. It tells the stories of not only the soldiers landing on the beaches of Normandy or para trooping into France, but also of the medics, of the journalist, the engineers, and the journalists. This source gives vital information to this project. It includes data, charts, numbers, diagrams, and actual pictures from the D-Day landings.

Government Publications

United States of America. Central Intelligence Agency: From Typist to Trailblazer: The Evolving View of Women in the CIA's Workforce. Washington D.C.: , 2013. Web. .

This government publication by the Central Intelligence Agency is about the transformation of women in the CIA workforce. It displays the transformation of women and their jobs in the CIA’s workforce from before, during, and after World War II. The publication shows how women in the CIA mostly worked as typists during and before World War II and for a few years after the war. During this time, it would have been the OSS, Office of Strategic Services. At this time, only a few exceptional women worked undercover, such as Virginia Hall. In the 1950’s, these women began to receive equal rights in the CIA’s workforce including undercover operations, respect, and pay. Virginia Hall became the first woman to be put into an official espionage position with the CIA.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Spotlight on Women's History: Virginia Hall. Washington D.C.: CIA, 2012. Web. .

The above source is furnished by the CIA. It gives a brief description of Virginia Hall’s education. The brief description also includes how she got to Europe and what she did before and after World War II. This source is useful because it gives a background of Virginia Hall in World War II which provides a basis and foundation for the growth and development of the project. Also, it informs of her importance to the war effort and the results of her actions.

Historical Documentaries

"D-Day in HD." D-Day in HD. History: 06 Jun 2014. Television.

D-Day in HD, a television mini-series by History, centers around what is considered one of the greatest battles of World War II and the events that occurred during D-Day. The mini-series has veterans who fought at D-Day. They narrate much of the program, telling the battles from their point of view. D-Day in HD provides a great foundation for understanding the extent of how valuable Virginia Hall’s actions and leadership actually was. D-Day started as a disaster, but because of forces in-land, that disaster quickly turned to the opposite. This was especially true at Omaha Beach where it started as a “blood bath”.

"The World Wars." The World Wars. History: 26 May 2014. Television.

The World Wars was a television special aired by History. It focused on the lead up to both World War I and World War II as well as during and in between the wars. In The World Wars viewers see some of the world’s greatest leaders grow and the reasoning behind their actions in World War II. This mini-series gives great background on World War II, which is needed to help build a foundation for this project, and the leaders during the war. Through the eyes of Hitler, viewers see just how dangerous it was in World War II. The series, at one point, focuses on the build-up and the arrival of D-Day landings on the beaches of Normandy, France.

"World War II in HD." World War II in HD. History: 2009. Television.

This television program by History tells of World War II through the eyes of multiple soldiers who served in World War II. The soldiers that this story is told through are actually narrating a majority of the mini-series. World War II in HD has actual footage of World War II. Some of the footage is never before seen until the airing of this program. World War II in HD provides a basis and foundation for the research of this project. The mini-series has an episode dedicated to D-Day. Viewers are taken into the action of D-Day through the view of American soldiers and a Nazi soldier.

Magazines/Periodicals

Elsworth, Catherine. "OSS Unmasked as US Declassifies World War II Spy Files." The Telegraph 14 Aug. 2008. Telegraph Media Group. Web. 3 Dec. 2014. .

This article was published in 2008 when the OSS revealed their classified World War II spy files. The OSS stopped their operations in World War II when the Second World War ended. The missions of the OSS were so important and top secret that over sixty years after World War II ended, the government finally felt it was safe to release the files on the OSS spies. This is significant because it shows the importance of the OSS and its spies to the Allied Powers in World War II. Virginia Hall was one of these OSS spies. She was so feared by the Nazis that they put out wanted posters for her arrest and labeled her “the most dangerous of all spies”. The above article also gives a basic background into the OSS.

Holt, Karen. "Virginia Hall Was Hitler’s Limping Nightmare ." Examiner. (2012): n. page. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. .

This article was informing of Virginia Hall’s prestigious actions during World War II. It included information concerning her work with the French Resistance, Special Operations Executive, and the Office of Strategic Services. The article also included in depth information about her escape into Spain. This informed of her imprisonment in Spain too. The read concluded with informing of the recognitions she received. However, because she was so humble, she did not want large ceremonies.

Lineberry, Cate. "WANTED: The Limping Lady The intriguing and unexpected true story of America's most heroic—and most dangerous—female spy." Smithsonian Magazine. 01 Feb 2007: n. page. Web. 27 Sep. 2014.

This source comes from an online Smithsonian magazine article. It gives a summary of the missions and jobs carried out by Virginia Hall. The author gives an accurate and detailed family members of Virginia Hall making the source even more valuable. The article informs the reader of awards and memorials for Virginia Hall. With the article is a picture of the painting of Virginia Hall using her suitcase radio. She used the radio to communicate back and forth with the SOE and eventually, the OSS. It was disguised as a suitcase to enhance her disguise. The painting is used as part of the backdrop for the performance in a timeline like sequence of pictures showing Virginia Hall’s career and the results of her efforts in World War II.

Perry, Joellen. "We must find and destroy her." U.S. News & World Report 01 27 2003, n. pag. Web. 11 Oct. 2014.

This secondary source was written as a periodical in the U.S. News & World Report. The author wrote about the incredible actions of Virginia Hall, and her modesty of her actions. The title of the periodical, “We Must Find And Destroy Her,” is a quote from the Nazis, her referring to Virginia. Yes, the author writes about the actions of Virginia Hall, but she writes about how secretive Virginia Hall had to be because the Nazis were so determined to locate and “destroy” her. Yet, she continued her work and would not settle for a behind the desk foreign affairs job, even after the war ended.

Reference

Barclay, Martin Blumenson, John Elting, Vincent Esposito, Robert Futrell, John Hayes, Woodburn Kurby, Charles Macdonald, Ernest May, John Snell, and Earl Ziemke. "World War II." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 29. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 364-531. Print.

This source is an in depth overview of World War II. It provides information on many of the Allied and Axis Powers war and battle plans. It also includes maps that outline these battle plans as well as Nazi occupied territories. The passage informs on big events, as well, such as the Final Solution, D-Day, and Pearl Harbor. In one section, the source focuses extensively on the French Resistance and their role in World War II. Both the European and Pacific Theatres are addressed in this information. This information verifies the information provided by The World Book Encyclopedia.



Blumenson, Martin. "D-Day." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 8. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 549. Print.

This passage explains why the events occurring on June 6, 1944 are given the name “D-Day”. It states that the term “D-Day” is, in fact, a military term, not just the name of the landings on the beaches of Normandy. The author explains the term “D-Day” as “a date planned for an action…enables planners to establish sequential priorities for activities before and after an operation’s starting date, which may be unknown, may be designated but secret, or may be subject to change”. The excerpt also explains how the term is most recognized as the events that occurred on June 6, 1944. It includes terms that parallel with “D-Day” such as “H-Hour” and “M-Day”. This information verifies the information found in The World Book Encyclopedia.



Burke, Mary, and Elizabeth Pleck. "Women's Status." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 29. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 111-115. Print.

This excerpt is an extensive and detailed passage on the status of women throughout and their struggles for equal rights. It tells of the role of women and their contributions to society in history. However, the passage largely focuses on the status of contemporary women beginning with the early 20th century. This information explains how the role of women has changed in all areas such as politics, work, health and education. As well, explains the difference in how women are treated in America and other democracies versus the rest of the world.



Carruth, Gorton. "Exploration and Settlement; Wars; Government; Civil Rights; Statistics." The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates. Eighth Edition ed. Vol. 1. New York City: Harper & Row, 1987. 538,552. Print.

This encyclopedia is a timeline of important and historical dates throughout history. The dates used from this source are June 6, 1944 and July 25, 1947. On June 6, 1944, the Allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy, France. June 6, 1944 is most recognized as D-Day. This is known as the turning point in the war because this was the first major step to pushing back and defeating the Nazis. This mission was nicknamed Operation Overlord. D-Day was under command by the future president, General Dwight D. Eisenhower. On July 25, 1947, the National Security Act of 1947 was passed by Congress. The National Security Act of 1947 unified the armed forces, formed the Air Force, formed the National Security Council, and formed the Central Intelligence Agency. This act was signed by President Harry S. Truman two days later.



Coles, Harry. "Central Intelligence Agency." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 6. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 185-186. Print.

This excerpt from The Encyclopedia Americana provides background information on the Central Intelligence Agency. It provided information such as the founding and history of the CIA. The excerpt informs of the National Security Act of 1947. The National Security Act of 1947 is responsible for creating the CIA as well as the Air Force. This came after President Harry S. Truman disbanded the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) after World War II. Major General William J. Donovan is considered the father of the CIA. This source verifies the information found in The World Book Encyclopedia.



Evans, Robert. "Donovan, William Joseph." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 9. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 291. Print.

The above source gives information on Major General William J. Donovan. It provides readers with knowledge on Donovan’s military and political career. This excerpt includes his service in World War I and his rise to the position of colonel, as well as his awarding of the Medal of Honor. Between World War I and World War II, the excerpt acknowledges William J. Donovan’s work in a law practice and an active member in New York Republican politics. He was assistant U.S. Attorney General from 1924 to 1925. Readers are informed of his leading role in the formation of the Office of Strategic Services and, later, the Central Intelligence Agency during and after World War II. Donovan passed in 1959 at the age of seventy-six.



Fielder, Deborah. "World War II." The Kid's World Almanac of History. New York City: 1991.

This source gives basic information on World War II. It provides information on when, opponents, and who won. The passage explains why the war was fought in two short paragraphs. One paragraph addresses the European Theater, while the other addresses the Pacific Theater. These paragraphs are followed by a simple timeline outlining the major events and battles of World War II. This excerpt ends with a paragraph addressing the solutions after the war.

Godson, Roy. "Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. Vol. 3. Chicago: World Book Incorporated, 2008. 356-357. Print.

This source provided background information on the Central Intelligence Agency. This information included the founding and history of the CIA. The excerpt informs of the National Security Act of 1947. The National Security Act of 1947 is responsible for creating the CIA as well as the Air Force. This came after President Harry S. Truman disbanded the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) after World War II. Major General William J. Donovan is considered the father of the CIA. Researchers are informed largely on the focuses of the CIA since its founding from the Cold War to 9/11 to the Terrorism Prevention Act. This source, unlike The Encyclopedia Americana, provides information on the everyday functions of the Central Intelligence Agency. This source verifies the information found in The Encyclopedia Americana.



Gordon, John. "D-Day." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. Vol. 5. Chicago: World Book Incorporated, 2008. 2. Print.

This source gives a brief description of D-Day. However, most of the information provided is focused on the military term D-Day, not the events known to occur on June 6, 1944. The military term D-Day means “a secret date on which a military operation is to begin”. The passage does inform on the publicity of the term D-Day. It does state that it became current during World War II as referring to the landing on the beaches of Normandy, France on June 6, 1944. The term D-Day is still used today to refer to those events. This information verifies the information found in The Encyclopedia Americana.



Hook, Richard. "Office of Strategic Services (OSS)." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 20. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 649. Print.

This excerpt gives a rather brief description of the Office of Strategic Services. However, it does provide information on the history of the Office of Strategic Services. The OSS is the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency. It was formed in 1942 and was disbanded in October of 1945. It was created to “collect and analyze strategic information. Members of the OSS were sent behind enemy lines to gather information about the conditions behind those enemy lines. It was also organized as a means of liaison with “anti-Axis resistance movements in enemy-occupied countries” such as the French Resistance. The Office of Strategic Services was under the direction of William J. Donovan as appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Donovan would go on to be considered the father of the Central Intelligence Agency.



Le Vine, Victor. "Nazism." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 20. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 39. Print.

This brief description of the term “Nazism” and focuses on the origins of Nazism. It denotes the form of government in Nazi Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. Hitler enunciated Nazism in his book, published in 1925, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). The term Nazism is a shortened from the title “National Socialist”. National Socialist is an abbreviation of German National Socialist Workers Party. Hitler considerably based Nazism on the Italian Fascist and Soviet Communist systems. Its beliefs were centered on world dominance and a superior race. This information verifies the information found in The World Book Encyclopedia.



Nolan, Mary. "Nazism." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. Vol. 14. Chicago: World Book Incorporated, 2008. 92-93. Print.

This passage is and in depth informer of the socialist political group called Nazism. The passage begins with the birth of Nazism. Nazism was the form of government in Nazi Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. Hitler enunciated Nazism in his book, published in 1925, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). The term Nazism is a shortened from the title “National Socialist” which is an abbreviation of German National Socialist Workers Party. Hitler considerably based Nazism on the Italian Fascist and Soviet Communist systems. Its beliefs were centered on world dominance and a superior race. The party grew because of the world depression. Germany was in a particularly atrocious depression because of the repercussions of “starting World War I” as stated in the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler promised a better nation and world domination. With the German people in a desperate situation, they believed everything Hitler told them and thus came the rise of power of Hitler and Nazism, as informed by the passage. The source then informs of the expansion, war and collapse of Germany, Hitler, and Nazism. This information is verified by the information in The Encyclopedia Americana.



Ransom, Harry. "Intelligence, Strategic." The Encyclopedia Americana. International Edition ed. Vol. 15. Danbury: Grolier Incorporated, 1996. 246-248. Print.

This excerpt is a detailed, informative passage on strategic intelligence. Strategic intelligence is such like the Central Intelligence Agency (United States) and the SVR (Russia) (formerly the KGB during the era of the Soviet Union). It explains the increasing importance of strategic intelligence in modern-day war. The passage includes information on the intelligence process, the components of intelligence, evaluation, and the intelligence organizations in major nations such as the United States, Britain, Soviet Union (now Russia), and communist China. The excerpt largely focuses on the American intelligence community and its role in international affairs. This information verifies the information provided by The World Book Encyclopedia.



Stokesbury, James. "World War II." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. Vol. 21. Chicago: World Book Incorporated, 2008. 468-531. Print.

This source is an extensive informative of World War II. It begins with a summarization of World War II and then proceeds to the many causes of the war. It also includes maps of Nazi occupied territories, as well as locations of concentration and extermination camps, and many famous pictures from the front lines. The passage informs on big events, as well, such as the Final Solution, D-Day, and Pearl Harbor. This excerpt informs about both the European and Pacific Theatres. Effects of World War II are addressed in this source. This information verifies the information provided by The Encyclopedia Americana.



Taylor, Robert. "Intelligence Service." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. Vol. 10. Chicago: World Book Incorporated, 2008. 319. Print.

This source informs on intelligence services. It compares and contrasts domestic intelligence and foreign intelligence. The passage informs researchers on some of the methods used with the American intelligence service (Central Intelligence Agency). Intelligence services in nations such as Canada, France and the United Kingdom are mentioned. This information verifies the information found in The Encyclopedia Americana.



Websites

Bedin, David, ed. "D -Day June 6th 1944 > Battle of Normandy > The Resistance." D-Day June 6th 1944. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr 2015. http://www.historyonline.com/DDay/en/ Resistance.aspx .

This source informs readers of the importance of the French Resistance in events and battle leading up to D-Day. It also tells of the beginnings of the French Resistance. The French Resistance started in South France when it was still independent from Nazi Germany. Many Allied operations were a success because of the French Resistance. Often, the French Resistance, “…gathering ample and detailed information regarding the German units and fortifications…”. This was especially true with the cooperation of the French Resistance with the British Special Operations Executive and the American Office of Strategic Services.



"Execution of Women by the Nazis." Execution of Women by the Nazis. Web. 1 Dec. 2014. .

This website informed of the capital punishments for women by the Nazis. These punishments were, what would be considered in America, cruel and unusual. Some of these punishments included torture, public hangings, firing squads, and guillotines. Female spies were often punished in these ways. Virginia Hall, a female spy, knew that she could face these punishments. Being the Nazi’s most wanted spy, she faced even worse punishments. However, Virginia Hall continued to put her life on the line for the Allied cause.

Russell, Ronald. "Virginia Hall, Heroine and Spy of WWII." Don Corina. Ronald Russell. Web. 27 Sep 2014. .

This source is published by an author who has thoroughly researched spies in World War II. It, along with other sources, provides a summary of the career of Virginia Hall. The website includes the awards, descriptions, and biographical information of Virginia Hall. Also, it includes her field status and allegiances. These facts make the source important and valuable to the research and foundation the project.

Simkin, John. "Spartacus Educational." Spartacus Educational. Spartacus Educational Publishers Ltd., 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 7 Dec. 2014. .

This website is a secondary source concerning the French Revolution. It tells the importance of the French Resistance in World War II. It also informs readers of the history and background of the French Resistance. The above source is important to the research because of Virginia Hall and her early affiliations with the French Resistance. Virginia Hall spent time as an operative and sympathizer for the French Resistance. She did things for the Resistance such as drive an ambulance for the Resistance even though she had a peg leg and was a part time journalist. Through her job as a part time journalist for the New York Times, Hall was able to set up a network of insane asylums. However, these asylums were not for the insane. They were covers for downed Allied pilots escaping to safety and Jews escaping from the Nazis and their imprisonment camps. The system was described as a “World War II underground railroad”.

"Virginia Hall (1906-1982)." National Women's History Museum. National Women's History Museum. Web. 11 Oct 2014. .

This article is very detailed in describing Virginia Hall’s life. It not only talks about her war efforts, but her personal life as well. While giving acclaimed descriptions of her achievements, it discusses her impact on the world and her influence in the war. It comes from a website which is specifically based around women’s achievements in the world. Because of the thesis that this research is being conducted for, this website is very helpful to the topic.

Weinstock, Yael. "Women and Resistance During The Holocaust." The International School for Holocaust Studies. Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, n.d. Web. 28 Sep 2014. .

The article informs readers of women and resistance during the Holocaust. It informs of the important roles women played during the Holocaust and World War II. Also, it informs of the role of women in resistances during these time periods. The passage explains the importance of women and resistance to the end of the Holocaust. This source helps to understand the historical context of the period of time in which Virginia Hall did her jobs that made her famous today.


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