Primary Sources "Abraham Lincoln's Letter to Horace Greeley."



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Primary Sources
"Abraham Lincoln's Letter to Horace Greeley." NetINS Showcase. Web. 08 May 2011. .

This letter to Greeley, an influential editor, outlines Lincoln’s view on slavery and how he thinks he should/will combat it. First off, he says that he is anti-slavery and is of the mind of abolishing it if it becomes necessary. But he goes on to say that he is doing this to preserve the Union, not to free the slaves and he will try to do his best so that it doesn’t come to that. He will try to do the best he can to stay in the guidelines he has set for himself.


Douglass, Frederick. “A Plea for Free Speech in Boston.” Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 2 May. 2011
A speech that Frederick gave in Boston, pleading for the freedom of speech and assembly. This shows how we are still fighting for the freedom that was officially given to us, but in reality was not. This is related to the Emancipation Proclamation because the freedom of speech and assembly was broken when there was a meeting in Boston. This meeting has about how the citizens were to help abolish slavery. It was raided and then was ordered by the mayor to be stopped
"Letter by Abraham Lincoln to Albert Hodges." NetINS Showcase. Web. 08 May 2011. .

This letter to Albert Hodges issues the same message as his other letter to Horace Greeley; that he is against slavery and that he is only in the war to preserve the Union and not to abolish slavery. However, he does take it one step further by backing his points with examples of when he pulled away from actions that would be considered anti-slavery, which would only serve to fan the flames in the current dispute


Lincoln, Abraham. “A Letter from Abraham Lincoln to Illinois Republican James Conkling.” The African-American Experience. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 2 May. 2011
A primary source, a letter written by Abraham Lincoln to James Conkling supporting the Emancipation Proclamation. This made it clear the thoughts that Abraham Lincoln had. I learned that he really had only two options. They were to kill the rebellion with weapons. He says that is what he is trying to do. The next option is to give up the Union. He says he is against this. If a person does not support either, then there is only a compromise. He believes that this is not possible
"Speech on The Kansas-Nebraska Act, March 21, 1854: Abraham Lincoln, US President | AMDOCS: Documents for the Study of American History." WWW Virtual Library @ Www.vlib.us | WWW-VL | United States History; World History; WWI; American History Documents; US Art Museums; US History Museums; USA Historic Sites; Native American Bibliography; Web Site Tools; Electronic Texts. Web. 08 May 2011. .
Here, Lincoln argues against slavery by appealing to both sides with reason before making the decision that slavery should not spread. He admits that it is unconstitutional for slavery to be halt by the government from spreading but he also acknowledges that for the country to finally settle this dispute, they must come to terms with the end of slavery, despite the protests of Southerners.
Secondary Sources
Baskind, Bruce. "The Emancipation Proclamation." Columbia American History Online. Columbia University, 2004. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .
An article written by Bruce Baskind that uses Foner’s views. I found out that the Emancipation Proclamation not only changed the purpose of the war but also to the history of slavery and to Lincoln himself. This article shows how the Emancipation proclamation was a turning point in not only the Civil War but in the history of the world.
Blackiston, Harry S. "Lincoln's Emancipation Plan." The Journal of Negro History 7.3 (Jul., 1922): 257-77. Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Inc. Web. 2 May 2011. .
Harry Blackiston, rather than focus on the actual Emancipation Proclamation itself, takes up a view on how the document came into being. It traces Lincoln’s earlier conflicts with the subject but ultimately looks at the time period a year before the document was issued to explain why it was necessary. In fact, Lincoln and his cabinet actually waited to find a better window of opportunity to issue the proclamation, as it was originally scheduled to be issued on New Years’ Day
"Book: Lincoln sought to deport freed slaves." Washington Times [Washington, DC] 10 Feb. 2011: A01. General Reference Center Gold. Web. 8 May. 2011.
This was an article about a book written recently. It talked about how Mr. Magness found evidence of Lincoln’s colony plan. This was where Lincoln setup colonies in other countries and he sent off free slaves so they don’t become captured again.
Douglass, Frederick. "A Plea for Free Speech in Boston." Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 2 May. 2011.

A speech that Frederick gave in Boston, pleading for the freedom of speech and assembly. This shows how we are still fighting for the freedom which are officially give to us, but in reality are not. This was related to the emancipation proclamation because the freedom of speech and assembly was broken when there was a meeting in Boston. This meeting was about “How to abolish slavery.” It was raided and then was ordered by the mayor to be stopped.



Foner, Eric. "Nothing but Freedom." Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2007. Print.
Eric Foner's book takes into account mass slavery, including that of the American civil war era, defining general question for a newly post-slavery society. Would there still be a wide disparity in wealth and power between former slaveholders and there slaves? Would plantation economies survive the transition? Would former slaves be allowed civil liberties despite lingering racism? All of these questions apply to American slavery at the end of the civil war but also other
slavery present societies of the time
, allowing Foner to present potent universal observations, problems, etc. on slavery.
Foner, Eric. "The Civil War and the Story of American Freedom." Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 27.1 (2001): 8-12. JSTOR. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. .
A book by Eric Foner, relating the civil war to the meaning of freedom and liberty. The United States fought the civil war to bring a new kind of freedom. This era was known as reconstruction. Reconstruction began in 1863, with the emancipation of slaves and it ended in 1877. To the North, Freedom meant for every man to enjoy the reward for his work, to the Southern whites it meant the power to do as they please with other men, and the product of other man’s work.
Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W. W. Norton &, 2010. Print
As Eric Foner expresses, for a supposedly revered person in Abraham Lincoln, much is debated about him and his methods. But rather than try to analyze these decisions, Foner tries to look back and trace his roots to find exactly why he made the decisions he did. The book chronicles his homely beginnings up until his death and the incomplete legacy that he left, reading almost like a biography by only regarding what has happened so far in his life to remove bias that people nowadays can have. As well, slavery is prominent in the discussions on Lincoln as both man and subject are forever intertwined. These discussions come to a climax when Lincoln is faced with the decision of the Emancipation Proclamation, with Foner making it seem like the culmination of his work.
Foner, Eric. The Story of American Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. Print.
The book that our class has read excerpts of describes how freedom has changed throughout America’s history from the forming of the nation to the last 15 years. By focusing in on how slavery pertained to freedom in the country, Foner is able to analyze how freedom for a slave became more and more a possibility from the changing of the thinking regarding racism and slavery. By looking at how the sense of freedom changed, one can than take that a step further to identify how the actions of certain people came to change the traditional way of thinking. Freedom was not just something that came about and the book is devoted to exploring why freedom has changed as it has throughout our history.
Frederickson, George M. "A Man but Not a Brother: Abraham Lincoln and Racial
Equality."
Journal of Southern History 41.1 (1975): 1-5.
Many historical icons and national heroes have been argued over by historians, pushed from their pedestal and raised upon it again by each new generation of scholars. Possibly no man more so than Abraham Lincoln. As George M. Frederickson explores this relationship, he reveals that Lincoln is a three dimensional character, not completely pro-slavery or against. Frederickson argues that this is what makes Lincoln such a polarizing character, he supported openly
racist policies at the beginning of his political career and yet went on to be the great emancipator and free America's blacks. The juxtaposition of these acts highlight Lincoln's evolution, a statesman form Illinois to the leader of the Union
, Lincoln's moral stance has been debated for generations.
Guelzo, Allen C. "The Great Event of the Nineteenth Century: Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation." Pennsylvania Legacies 4.2 (2004): 20-23. JSTOR. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. .
This was an article from a scholarly journal called Pennsylvania Legacies. I learned that Lincoln could not deal with slavery in some ways because slavery was a part of the Constitution. If Lincoln issued an emancipation proclamation abolishing slavery, then slaveholders would be in federal courts, everyone would be suing the courts, and all of these cases would end up in the Supreme Court and the unsympathetic Roger B. Taney, who is a and thought would be the end of emancipation.
Kowalski, Kathiann M., and Harold Holzer. "Striking at slavery." Cobblestone Oct. 2008: 20+. General OneFile. Web. 8 May. 2011.
This was an article that talked about the before and after of the Emancipation proclamation. It described the Battle of Antietam that led up to the Emancipation Proclamation. Then it described the effects of how the people reacted and how other countries reacted.
Krannawitter, Thomas L. Vindicating Lincoln: Defending the Politics of Our Greatest President. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. Print.
Thomas Krannawitter was angered in part by other scholars trying to tarnish Lincoln’s image with biased accusations and false conclusion so he set out to explain Lincoln’s view as the Great Emancipator. By taking a look at what these scholars had certifiably said was proof of Lincoln’s racist attitude, he shows how Lincoln’s words were crafted in a way of apparent neutrality or even racial bias but were in fact a subtle message to enable himself to stay out of the spotlight of racism but still hold true to his values. His necessary reflection of public sentimental allowed him to maintain his career while having the resolve to stick to his moral view on slavery. This in fact makes Lincoln an even better and moral person than previous interpretations, further endearing himself to both author and reader. By tackling key questions surrounding the aura of Lincoln, Krannawitter is able to give a positive portrayal of the president and his action.
Krug, Mark M. "Lincoln, the Republican Party, and the Emancipation Proclamation." The History Teacher 7.1 (Nov,. 1973): 48-61. JSTOR. Web. 2 May 2011. .
Mark Krug’s insight on how the three topics mentioned in the title of the article helps to give a greater understanding to the political landscape during the period of the Civil War and how the Emancipation Proclamation affected it. Lincoln had to consider the political aspect of the proclamation as there were numerous groups of people with conflicting agendas whom Lincoln had to pass judgment on in order to enacted the Emancipation Proclamation.
Levinson, Sanford. "Was the Emancipation Proclamation Constitutional? Do We/Should
We Care What the Answer is
?" David C. Baum Memorial Lecture. Chicago: University of Illinois Law Review, 2001. 1135.
An essay exploring the constitutional grounds for the emancipation proclamation, professor Sanford Levinson's provocative piece questions whether the emancipation proclamation was legally constitutional, but ultimately sets us up with another question; does it matter. The issue then becomes, although it would be hard for anyone to argue the morality of the Emancipation Proclamation, does it matter that it may have not been legal. The essay goes on to explore the
allowances of the office that Lincoln was subject to
, as well as the constitutional boundaries and obstacles that shaped arguably the most important document in American history.
Lincoln, Abraham. "A Letter from Abraham Lincoln to Illinois Republican James Conkling." The African-American Experience. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 2 May. 2011.

A primary source, a letter written by Abraham Lincoln to James Conkling, supporting the emancipation proclamation. This made it clear the thoughts that Abraham Lincoln had. I learned that he really had only two options. They were to kill the rebellion with weapons. He says this is what he is trying to do. The next option is to give up the union. He says he is against this. If a person does not support either then there is only a compromise. He believes this is not possible.


McPherson, James M. "How President Lincoln Decided to Issue the Emancipation Proclamation."The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 37 (2002): 108-09. JSTOR. Web. 24 Apr. 2011. .
Slaves were so important in the Confederate army, that they drafted slaves before they drafted white men. Slaves worked as army laborers, teamsters, cooks, musicians, and servants in the army. These were usually performed by white men before. Since slaves took over these jobs, there were more confederate soldiers on the battle field. In July 1862, Lincoln and his cabinet agreed that after the next win, he will issue the emancipation proclamation. So after his victory at Antietam in Sep. 1862, he got with his cabinet and agreed that he would it’s the right time to deliver the emancipation.

Mercury, Charleston. "Refuge of Oppression." The Liberator 22 Sept. 1862.
Written in William Lloyd Garrison's newspaper, the article announces that abolition has finally won out, asserted itself, and will not tumble. The Charleston Mercury proclaims that with the Emancipation Proclamation slavery is now no longer considered indispensible, a "necessary evil" to keep the Southern economy afloat. Slavery, perceived by both paper and publisher as the solely moral issue that it is, has now become loathsome, wrong, and will soon be abolished once and for all throughout the Union. This sentiment is most likely shared by his readers, his subscriptions slowly growing throughout the years, William Garrison's paper tentatively represents the stance of his followers on Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.
Miller, Steven F., Susan E. O'Donovan, John C. Rodrigue, and Leslie S. Rowland. "FREEDOM: POLITICS: BETWEEN EMANCIPATION AND ENFRANCHISEMENT." Chicago: Chicago-Kent Law Review, 1995. 1059- 1063. Print.
This book discusses the short-term legacy of the emancipation proclamation, the two-year period between 1865 and 1867. The book explores newly freed slaves' appeal for the freedom they were supposedly guaranteed by the emancipation proclamation, turning from the reliance on the slaveholder to the law for personal freedoms. Beyond that the authors chronicle black Southerners odyssey for a shared voice in the reconstructed southern society, despite being refused active membership.

No Author. “Emancipation in the Border states.” New York Times Oct. 1 1862.

This article in the New York Times talks about the situation of the Border States after emancipation, for the president’s proclamation only covered freeing the slaves in the rebel states. This journalist brings up the question that slavery in the border states of Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri is not officially illegal, but asks how will it survive in a Union that has a Free South, a Free North, and a Free West. Thus the general opinion became prevalent that gradual abolition will be taken up in the Border States and with it the end of slavery in America. This article is valuable because it gives us a good, concise insight into how the Border States were affected by emancipation, a side that we had not heard from yet.
"The President's Proclamation in Secessia." Harner's Weekly 18 Oct. 1862: 658.

A newspaper article in Harper's Weekly talking about "Mr. Lincoln's" recent emancipationproclamation, issued on September 22, 1862.



The northern paper talks about the emancipation proclamation as a good thing, although not on totally moral grounds. Harper's Weekly puts forth that freeing the slaves will right the wrong of the South, supposedly honest people in fact the opposite, destroying the Union and using as a tool of that destruction there 4 million slaves. Abolition will break that tool. "The thing, the onlY thing, which the rebels do fear is the loss of"four thousand millions of property." The chivalry see that after 1 st January, if the rebellion lasts, they will have to work for their living, instead of fattening on the unpaid labor oj/our millions of blacks. Tbis is the awful prospect whith unmans them. It is this whit'h convulses the rebel newspapers, and has thrown their Congress into paroxysms of anguish. "Evan Page 5. This paper probably reflects the opinion of the public reading that at the time, abolition on the grounds of economy, righteousness, but rarely
solely morals. Through this article we are presented with a clear view of how a
portion of the general public saw the emancipation proclamation
.

"Tracing President Lincoln's Thoughts On Slavery." Narr. TERRY GROSS. Fresh Air. 21 Feb. 2011. Transcript. eLibrary. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.


An interview that was recorded in October of 2011 between Eric Foner and the host of the widely listened to radio show Fresh Air, Terry Gross on Foner’s new book, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. Foner comments on the topic of his book and how our 16th President’s views on slavery were shaped. As well, Foner details how Lincoln was faced with a hard decision in how to express his views in a society that was hostile towards anything other than a racist attitude towards the blacks in America. By viewing Lincoln’s thoughts on slavery, an attempt is made to connect these thought with the ones that Americans nowadays have about slavery, outlining the idealism of Lincoln.

William B. Gould IV. “140th Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation/ Slavery’s Lingering Legacy.” SFGate Jan. 1 2003: 1-2.



William B. Gould’s article brings up the point that although slavery was abolished by the Civil War and African Americans were supposedly put on equal footing it is not always so. Evidence to that effect includes the Civil Rights Movement and more recently the continuation of racist attitudes in Congress. In the article Gould quickly chronicles the racism in Congress of southern statesmen, making it obviously clear that although the Emancipation Proclamation abolished slavery in law, it did not abolish racist attitudes or unfair laws to follow, giving us a more three dimensional picture of the legacy of the Emancipation Proclamation.


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