President of Convocation Anour Kassim,Chairman of the University Council

general talk and background noise

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<&/>general talk and background noise

<#/>Now I'll dwell on the results of the study <#/>Now I processed the <-/>the data by you know when the transcripts had been written I <-/>I counted manually the frequency of these acts and later I went through the written compositions to see if the features noted in the verbal transcripts were observable in the original compositions and how these features could have been probably uh could have helped to convey information which was uh put by the students in their compositions <#/>I took a sample of twelve subjects uh <#/>These were six good performers and six bad performers <#/>Now the results of the study <#/>Now the results of the study indicated that uh the teacher's requests for students to clarify content or language form involved pupils merely completing teacher's utterances in that they are restating what the teacher had said <#/>In other words what I found was that uh if you look at the transcripts of the students uh which are provided in uh in one of these if you look at this sheet of paper which has got uh twenty-one that's page twenty-one <#/>You have the interaction of the students <#/>For example it does compare here <#/>I don't know if you have this

<$B> <#/>twenty-one

<#/>Twenty-one of this small sheet of paper this one <#/>Good <#/>Now what I found out what we found out is that uh in this transcript you have the students trying to exchange ideas about something they are doing and now what we see is that the students are merely repeating the teacher's utterances and that what transpires later as they write their composition <+_is> that they merely repeat what they have been actually what they've been saying in the in their discussions Now what <-/>what actually this reveals is that uh students generally tend to be unaware of the differences between uh the spoken mode and the written mode And therefore it's in view of that that they're not very <-_>they're not very<-/> competent in being able to write something uh in line with the conventions of uh of written discourse Now another observation in six two six point two on page four you'll find that requesting explanation of content or form and the repetition seems to have been a common feature of both the high performers and the low performers with the repetitions of content being prominently a feature of the finished composition Now the nature of request for example as a discourse act varied Request for clarification led to high level talk while the request for explanation did not Now this would be due to the fact that when requesting clarification for example one is likely to learn new words or structures While a request for explanation may not necessarily lead to uh a explanation Now what I mean is that uh as students are you know are requesting for explanation the student the other student may be able to provide an explanation but this explanation did not necessarily lead to high quality of talk in the sense that what the student uh <-_provide><+_provides> as explanation may not be helpful in making the student write properly Another observation six three point six three on <./>pa on page five was as regards the organization of the work itself of group work What I found was that the group work which involved six students sitting together afforded students better opportunities to expand on their statements to incorporate new ideas and subsequently to <-/>to incorporate them in their writing themselves Now this might show that uh probably group work is more ideal than pair work but possibly in view of the fact that when you're pairing two students both of whom are not competent in the language they may not be able to sustain the conversation <&/>background noise whereas if you're pairing students in a group there is a possibility of these students at least two or three of them being able to be competent enough Not all of them will be incompetent Now the impact of this on written composition is that the <-_composition><+_compositions> which were written generally uh reveal that the factors of interaction which the students displayed in their discussions were also discernible or were seen in their compositions However this interaction factor did not seem to have to result in good compositions In other words although they interacted it was not really clear to see if the interactions did in a way help the students very much And I think this is uh primarily because of the pupils' failure to differentiate for example between spoken language or spoken discourse and written discourse Now this can be seen in an appendix if you look at the percentage of utterances in these charts They've got these uh shall I call them bar graphs or <&/>laughs You have these <-_>you have these<-/> the graphs which represent the discourse acts which the students engaged in uh Sorry you'll have to share You know these graphs Yeah that's it You have one figured you have figure one two three and four Figures one two three and four <-_Figure><+_Figures> one two three and four <-_shows><+_show> the interaction that took place in teacher-led discussions one and two teacher-led discussions whereas three and four <-_shows><+_show> the interactions which took place in student-led discussions Now the symbols uh have been described uh have been explained there GIC for example means giving information on content EV means evaluating speculating and reasoning and therefore you'll find that the <-/>the <-_>that the<-/> sort of interaction that the students engaged in merely involved mostly giving information and did not in any way lead to uh high-quality discussions In other words they failed to engage in uh <-/>in such uh interactional patterns as reasoning or speculating or clarifying which could have uh probably helped them when they went on to write their compositions Now what then are the implications of this study Now from this I could tell that the implications of this study that teachers need to be careful in assigning tasks which engage learners in <./>explora <-_>in exploratory talk In other words uh they should be able to design tasks that will anyway sustain discussion make the students talk and not merely tasks that will probably make them think or tasks which will uh hinder them from being able to exchange ideas with their friends Secondly the implication of the study is that secondary school pupils should not be regarded as having nothing to contribute to one another because of lack of proficiency in English In other words there is a tendency for most of the teachers to regard these students as I mean they are incompetent in the language and the they take it for granted that these cannot interact in learning because after all they have got a lot of lexical and grammatical errors which they could learn from each other and therefore they have nothing to contribute to each other Now third <-/>third thirdly I think there is a need to look into the whole pattern of you know arranging students' work In other words there is <-_>there is<-/> currently the desire to making students learn together We've had this for a long time But then what we found out is that there is a need for example to decide how to <-/>to arrange students together how to pair them together on the basis of ability Should we pair them in yeah should we put them into groups of two students who are equally competent in pairs or should we mix them up in groups with others who are a little bit more uh I mean more fairly competent Then finally the implication of this study is that syllabus designers need to structure learning and write books that promote both talking and writing skills In other words uh here I think we have to go back to the communicative aspect the nature of function of all sort of activities uh which have been suggested by and others in the sense that uh probably some of these activities could in a way promote <./>acti uh <-/>promote sort of interaction among pupils than <&/>grammar the tasks which we simply I mean are assigned by merely writing a topic on the blackboard and letting students learn

<&_>Dr Ireneus Kapoli, m, 40, d, teacher, on Interactional Features in Writing and The Role of Imaginative Composition, 25/10/93


<$A> <#/>I would like to <-/>to offer uh in summary form a discussion of findings uh of ongoing work by both myself and <-/>and Dr on the language of political leadership in Tanzania uh <#/>It's Part of it is ongoing work and part of it is work that I myself have been doing for the last seven years uh <#/>Let us begin by quoting uh Sir Geoffrey Howe who was the deputy prime minister in the British government of Margaret Thatcher on the uh <-_>on the<-/> eve of his resignation as deputy prime minister on the thirteenth of November nineteen ninety <#/>It was quoted in the Independent London and he said <&/>quote

<#/>The truth is that in many aspects of politics style and substance complement each other <#/>Very often they are two sides to the same <-_>the same<_/>coin

<#/>We uh myself and Dr are interested and have been interested in that <-/>that coin with the two sides you know style and substance <#/>The overall picture uh is set by uh the fact that there is growing interest in the language of political leadership among linguists and uh in this we may quote Atkinson nineteen eighty-four <#/> Atkinson discusses Reagan Thatcher Kinnock Martin Luther King and he goes back actually to Hitler Lenin and so on discussing the political leadership styles in the US nineteen eighty-seven <#/>And Wilson nineteen ninety uh attempts what he calls political leadership uh styles uh you know political speaking politically speaking in western settings and of course there you know is <-/>is more recent work by Daphne and Kolinsky on uh <./>leader leadership uh political leadership styles in terms of language styles of course language speaking styles oratory styles <#/>Of course in the UK West Germany then and <-/>and <-/>and France uh in much of the work the interest has arisen or has coincided with the major global socio-political changes that have taken place since the oil crisis nineteen seventy-three uh which culminated in the assumption of political leadership by strong and highly personalized political figures in several countries in Western Europe for example Thatcher in the UK Mr <-/>Mr Mitterrand in France and in North America Mr Reagan and the <-/>the <-/>the impact of these personalities especially in terms of western scholarship as occasioning this interest among linguists uh <#/>Here in <-/>in Africa in the shadow of these political changes uh we at least in Tanzania have witnessed also we have also witnessed major personnel changes especially from ninety eighty-five when you know the former founding president of the United Republic of Tanzania retired from the presidency and was succeeded by uh <-/>by Mr Ali Hassan Mwinyi <#/>Now uh as the political scientist sociologist has summarised uh these changes in Tanzania in the following way <&/>grammar <#/>He has suggested that these personnel changes in Tanzania could be characterised by nineteen eighty-five onwards could be characterised as follows <#/>The experts have displaced the politicians as the current dominant voice in the struggle for power in Tanzania <#/>A political perspective that <./>undertoo <-/>that <./>understoo <-/>that understood development as <+_article> fundamental political process and emphasized <-_the> politicisation mobilisation and to some extent socialism of some sort guided Tanzanian political discourse in the late sixties and the mid-seventies <#/>The early eighties however saw a return to the view that development is primarily <+_article> technical process though of course requiring <+_article> supportive political environment and I'm sure those of you who attend conferences maybe every now and again on market-oriented performance they <&/>grammar hear this word political environment a lot so <-/>so that development is principally a technical process a process that economists know better how to enter not politicians but at the same time politicians are needed to create the inappropriate political climate in which these technical people could perform their <-/>their duties <#/>So it is that sort of background I mean which has occasioned you can see uh on <-/>on <-/on> the handout which is the number the page number one ninety uh which has occasioned the kind of concerns that we thought uh and still believe would be of <./>conc of interest to a linguist and that could constitute what a linguist could call uh a unique area of contribution <-_>a unique area of contribution<-/> by the linguist to any ongoing socio-political changes <#/>These areas uh are to do as you can see there about five we've selected variation uh you know in the deployment of the following language forms for instance <./>proprosody features which affect pausing intonation subordination and some human behaviour like laughing <#/>We <-/>we thought you know those could merit you know investigation by linguists by a linguist and then also syntactic devices like the use of existential and passive clauses which help in the staging of message chunks <#/>Existential uh clauses would be for those who are not linguists I see uh uh clauses that have been introduced by there <-/>there are for instance <#/>There are those who etcetera <#/>There are those who you know where you know uh you know that would be along the same sort of lines as uh you know the passive clauses which again would be saying things without <./>ma you know <-/>without spelling out the authors of those things that are happening so you know a good example would be for instance say you know food is eaten instead of I eat food uh where you'd have passified and left out I eat food or people eat food and then the vocabulary choices resulting in the nouns versus verbs ratio <./>character characterising human message chunks where you know as uh Halliday Michael Halliday in the nineteen eighty-five paper suggested and I quote here I think that education to uh give a paper of this one on the ideas of Michael Halliday where as I quote <&/>quote

<#/>In a culture that is literary in any culture that is literary

<#/>That is Halliday now <&/>quote

<#/>there will always be a difference between the spoken and written language not usually a clear distinction between two different languages although this can happen and used to be common enough uh <#/>Nowadays the two are generally closer together and we have mixed forms a very colloquial style very very colloquial style of writing and bookish styles of speech <#/>Nevertheless the fact that we recognise some speech as bookish and some writing as colloquial means that there must be patterns that are typical of speech and others that are typical of writing <#/>Otherwise we could not characterise the one as being like that in respect to the other

<#/>Okay <#/>You know Halliday went with others to suggest that uh written discourse would be characterised by a higher proportion of nouns as opposed to verbs and you know spoken discourse you know written discourse will be characterised by a higher proportion the use of a higher proportion of nouns than verbs while spoken discourse would be characterised by you know <+_article> higher proportion of use of verbs as opposed to nouns <#/>So I mean that <-/>that sort of interest we thought you know I mean is some is an area you know where you might use a moderning style and substance by political speakers moderning which is of relevance to a linguist you see <#/>And then uh number five pronominal selection which manipulate which is manipulated to realise face management or politeness pronominal selection <#/>Here we mean the use of pronouns like I or we or he or they and so on okay which are <-_>which are<-/> in a such selection <&/>grammar as is manipulated to create either you know to reduce the extent to which people's faces are threatened in a negative or positive way I mean in the sense for instance if I want to order villagers and I'm a president to put manure into their farms I might say We have to put manure in our farms although I don't have a farm actually I'm just telling them to do it you see but I'm reducing the extent of distance between myself and them by including myself in the people who are going to put manure in the farms <#/>So the use of we uh you know is manipulative and then these dimensions we suggest they're you know you know that these dimensions along with the use of linguistic forms that vary would include the speech mode dimension <#/>For example the style of speech delivery would vary according to whether the speech was scripted or unscripted again bringing in <&/>background noise <-_>again bringing in<-/> the idea you know by Halliday of speech versus you know written versus spoken discourse okay <#/>The study showed that the scripted the study by nineteen ninety-two shows that the scripted versus unscripted distinction tended to mirror the extent to which features that typify written discourse are <./>deplayed deployed in the given spoken texts scripted oratory deploying more written discourse features than unscripted oratory irrespective of the speaker and I mean and you know we want to suggest that you know much as we might notice a lot of substance <./>dist differences between Nyerere and Mwinyi there are certain stylistic features that <-/>that they share <#/>And then the audience dimension <./>distinct the audience design dimension uh which is to say the influence which is exerted on the speaker by the socio-political profiles of the participants of the speech event for example whether the audience consists of village peasants senior political senior national political leaders or a mixture of peasants workers and politicians you know who we usually call the mass you know <#/>This audience design dimension influencing the you know the style is neatly shown in the work that uh my colleague has done uh on you know say <-/>on parliamentary language where code switching you know which is done there more <-/>more often than it would be done by the same politicians if they are speaking <&/>grammar/tense to a village audience or you know uh when especially in the past when say Julius Nyerere as the president would go out to the regions he will call <&/>grammar/tense he will speak <&/>grammar/tense to regional leaders and there will be <&/>grammar/tense more English there more code switching into English <#/>And when we go to a public audience a public square you know we reduce the extent to which we code switch into English again you know showing that the audience design you know the people you are addressing influence the kind of language you might use <#/>The finally the physical dimension where you know indirect influence is exerted on your speech delivery by factors such as whether the speech is delivered in an assembly hall uh in an open field in a village in a town football stadium or a city square <#/>Okay all these are factors that definitely might uh might <-/>influence the language the style that is <#/>Now uh very quickly maybe it will not be possible to go through all the sort of observations we've arrived at I will uh quickly go through some of the observations that are striking you know deriving from the work by ninety ninety-two on the on what he has called Tanzanian political <./>Ki uh Tanzanian political Kiswahili uh Tanzanian presidential <-_>Tanzanian presidential<-/> Kiswahili political oratory where you know it's looking at the language of presidents when they give speeches <#/>Now a number of observations you know have been you know found and the most telling you know are the following okay uh <#/>One can make a series of points relating to the <./>inter speakers' variation within the presidential speeches in Tanzania <#/>Firstly Julius Nyerere whose style of speech ever <-_tend><+_tends> to be bookish <#/>Julius Nyerere's style tended to be bookish and bombastic was also one we incontestably qualified as the foremost ideology builder you know and <-/>and therefore this is uh contrasted in terms of the observation with Ali Hassan Mwinyi whose speeches whose style is analysable as colloquial and now I'm using the word colloquial very carefully as it is used by <-/>by to mean that it is less bookish in a positive sense actually uh right and that is used by tended to play more the role of an ideology player and less that of an ideology builder okay and a very good example in terms of vocabulary for instance would be Mwinyi's use of <#/>He interpreted phrases <#/>You know Mwinyi tended to interpret the collocative meaning range of ideologically important nominal expressions such as for instance in <-/>in you know okay or and you find is an expression for capitalist in <#/>When he uses the word in where he uses for <#/>One sort of does not translate incontestably into <-/>into you know <#/>He's casting negative connotations <#/>But Mwinyi on the other hand has sought to reinterpret the terms for instance to mean you know being assertive you know and as a manager ever knowing what you are doing etcetera <#/>And also indeed actually you find Mwinyi <#/>In nineteen ninety-one I think speech to elders of Dar es Salaam which was itself actually a bit of a problem because you know I mean it was built as a speech to elders of Dar es Salaam but actually it was organised by the businessmen and he used the occasion to reinterpret the meaning of businessman to say that you know there are three categories of Tanzanian not just two you know but you'll also find where previously was interpreted to mean you know a category a subcategory of you know meaning you know a worker in the private sector you see

<#/>So now you know obviously in a way since these are terms defined clearly in <-/>in documents that he would himself actually owe allegiance to or at least owe legitimacy to then it would seem that Mwinyi was in a way uh you know blurring the meaning the sort of distinction range you know and encouraging a more liberal laissez-faire you know attitude towards these documents as well as their definitions okay <#/>And very quickly you know in <-/>in terms of ideology builder like Julius Nyerere uh we would say that he tended to use laughter and other prosodic features to humour his strictures against fellow political leaders whom he tended to harangue more than to lecture <#/>And I think we have an example there of Julius Nyerere there on the <-_>on the<-/> handout with the page one four seven <#/>There he says sentence humour there okay audience laughs sentence <&/>laughter because obviously he's playing on humour I mean and there is a whole range of activities about humour sentence and yet while he was saying this was some time later in the speech it can be added that the issue wasn't picked up by the media <#/>He was encouraging the media to pick up what he was saying <#/>This is why he kept turning to it again and again one of sacking corrupt co-operative union bosses some of whom were with him on the speech platform because this was a speech he was giving for day in and you know I remember you know was there sentence and he kept referring to him you know I mean and one can and he wasn't the president then actually he was only the chairman so one can imagine he was trying to push them to do something using their speech but you know couching such you know <-/>such strictures in humorous text so as you know not to offend some kind of uh face management you know device and he's very good at that <#/>Again and again there are many examples when he would you know he would want for instance say things which are you know like I mean once for instance he was giving a speech in Dodoma <#/>This is after the conference in nineteen eighty-six where Mwinyi in December said a number of things needed to be changed and there's in eighty-seven giving a speech celebrating twenty years of Arusha he then started by saying you know I too think there must be a few changes in and everybody clapped even those on the platform including the president of course Ali Hassan Mwinyi okay <#/>And then he followed that you know by saying you'd be amazed at the kind of things I'm going to suggest ought to be changed and then following that by saying we needed to have a bit of editing to remove things reference to TANU CCM

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