President of Convocation Anour Kassim,Chairman of the University Council

Download 0.5 Mb.
Size0.5 Mb.
1   ...   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12
<&/>grammar is trying her <&/>grammar best to make sure that those two monstrous <./>hin <./>hin hindrances are solved as soon as time could allow <&/>grammar <#/>Esteemed delegates it may be good to mention that other segments of the tourism industry are also developing to keep pace with the increase of tourists arrivals which have risen by twenty per cent per year since nineteen eighty-five <#/>This is about uh sixty-four thousand tourists in nineteen ninety-two <#/>Recently fifteen of Zanzibar’s leading <./>to tour operators formed themselves into a uh an organisation called ZATO the Zanzibar Association of Tour Operators which was registered in nineteen ninety-three <#/>Several registered <./>dr dive and marine sports operators have also started to emerge <#/>The UNDP’s operated hotel management school at Manihubi is in the second year of operation with a capacity of seventy-two students <#/>Mr Chairman as partly concern amounts over the growing threat of the global environment and attention focuses on the need to manage the major resources more sustainably the human <./>com community has now to assume a more conscious attitude and the operations of the world's major industries must now come under increasing scrutiny <#/>It is important therefore to bring tourism as one tool in <+_article> global and growing industry within the general debate for sustainable development <#/>It <-/>it’ll <-/>it is the intention of the Zanzibar government to develop a high class environmentally <./>cons environmentally sensitive tourism industry that brings benefit thus to the <-_>to the<-/> national economy and to the <-_>to the<-/> local areas in which tourists <./>ve tourist activities are concentrated and which contribute to the protection of Zanzibar's national heritage culture and environment <#/>The government has every intention to improve and preserve the pearl of this history being the Zanzibar Old Stone Town <&/>grammar with all the urge to restore the life of all the palaces and castles in both Zanzibar and Pemba <#/>The old mosques and the archaeological findings will all be put into view <#/>Very rare species of flora and fauna will be nurtured with maximum care for the tourists and <-_the> posterity <#/>Perhaps the charm and friendliness of the people they do take part may add a great deal to <+_article> oncoming cordiality of the islands of Zanzibar <#/>Mr Chairman allow me to take this opportunity to assure members of this <./>gath gathering and through them the public that those fears which germinated from <./>religi religious enthusiasm over the question of tourism had not that effect nor bearing to the teaching of Koran nor the directives of Prophet Mohammed <#/>We know for sure that they have nothing other than political motives <#/>These granted political demagogues sometimes find it easier to pass through the avenue of <-/>of religion in order to arrive at their political heaven Islam’s <#/>Islamic scholars <-_>Islamic scholars<-/> have proved beyond all doubt that Koran makes very clear and clean mention about tourism <#/>Walk on the land and see <#/>Whether or from God it is my hope that all of us shall co-operate together <&/>lexeme towards achieving this objective and that the of Zanzibar's culture shall forever remain a centre of tourist attraction <#/>It <./>ma <-/>it may again be rightly speaking that uh the Zanzibar government is now in the process of producing plans for the <./>esub for the establishment and management of nature conservation areas <#/>These have the potential to channel money from the tourism industry into the conservation of some of Zanzibar's richest and most important natural ecosystems <#/>Such areas however need to be well managed taking <-/>taking into account the main local communities who are the traditional users of areas and as well as the requirement of conservation in tourism <#/>Mr Chairman what has been obtained most on tourism in the developing world is the interest of the <./>indus industry two or three words to the local culture <#/>While it is not easy to <./>da deny the fact it would be wrong to magnify it beyond proportion <#/>Tourism planning is certainly the essential criterion that will be used to safeguard the purpose <#/>It is my <./>be belief <-_>it is my belief<-/> that the areas of such destructive influence must be borne in mind by both the tourists the tourist and the citizen for it is through their amicable and mutual co-operation that the industry can survive <#/>Mr Chairman it is needless to reiterate <-_to> the theme of the workshop which is ecotourism and environment <#/>Ecotourism and environment cannot be singled out as an <-_>as an<-/><-_>as an<-/> agenda for one country since the earth is a <./>pl <-/>is a<-/> village for all of us <#/>It is interrelated among countries and nations in and among species of all <-_>of all<-/> denominations <#/>We have to work together towards a common goal by arousing the consciousness of the sustainable growth sustainable economy and sustainable development <#/>The present generation may be doing a great disservice to itself and to their <-_offsprings><+_offspring> unborn if it <-_>if it<-/> shall not be <./>care if it shall not be careful enough to the assessment of their own values <#/>In the tropical rain forests about seventeen million hectares of trees are being cleared away every year or around fifty thousand hectares per day <#/>Under those circumstances man through his <./>ur through his urge for a better life can be the most destructive animal under the sun <#/>About the close of this century the relationship between the human world and the place that <-/>that sustains it has undergone a profound change <#/>When the century began neither human members nor two or three words had the power radically to alter system <#/>As the century closes the total of vastly increased human numbers and the activities have that power but major unintended changes are occurring in the atmosphere in cells in waters and in plants and animals and in the relations in the relationships among all of these <#/>The rate of change is outstripping the ability of scientific discipline in our current ability to assess and advance It is frustrating the attempts of medical and economic situations which <-/>which evolved in a different more fragmented world to adapt and cope It deeply worries many people who are seeking ways to place their concerns on the political agendas <#/>The mental <./>degra degradation first seen <-_>first seen<-/> as mainly a problem of the rich nations in a search of it <-_of><+_for> <&/>prep a better life has become a survival issue for developing nations <#/>It is part of the downwards downward spiral of linked ecological and economical decline in which many of the poorest nations are trapped <#/>Despite official hope expressed on all sides no change <./>identif <./>id identifiable today no programmes or policies offer any real hope of narrowing the growing gap between rich and poor nations <#/>At the start of our development several words the path that this nation has followed for millions of years in the creating a planet our ancestors would want to recognise <#/>Humanity has the ability <-_>Humanity has the ability<-/> to make development sustainable to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs <#/>The concept of sustainable development does imply limits not also limits but limitations imposed by the present state of technology on social organisation and environmental resources and by the ability of the <-_>of the<-/> biosphere to absorb the of human activities but technology and social organisation can be both managed and improved to make way for a new era of economic growth <#/>Lastly Mr Chairman ecotourism and environment must be handled at one and the same time through concerted efforts that embody the co-operation of all states and governments in the of individuals <#/>The government of Zanzibar will do all she <&/>grammar can to educate herself and her people towards the need for more understanding of the intricacies and applications of these two topics <&/>break in recording

<#/>We ask you all ladies and gentlemen to feel all too free <&/>idiom to air <-_>to air<-/> your views and suggestions for the benefit of the people of Zanzibar and beyond <#/>And in conclusion Mr Chairman I wish you every success in reporting a task ahead and take the opportunity now to declare this workshop on ecotourism and environment open <&/>applause <#/>I thank you very much

<&_>Honourable Dr Salmin Amour Juma, 47, m. President. PhD Economics, at the workshop on ecotourism and environment <&/>background noise - recorded over radio programme on bad cassette


<#/>Chairperson uh Assistant Commissioner for Social Welfare Tanzania mainland Director for Social Welfare Tanzania island the UNDP representative the representative of EAFOD uh let’s not forget the manager for Bwawani Hotel here workshop participants invited guests ladies and gentlemen first of all I would like to thank you most sincerely for the great honour and privilege you have given me to close this seminar <#/>The holding of this seminar in Zanzibar is a great honour to Tanzania for which we Tanzanians are very grateful <#/>I would like to take this opportunity on my behalf and on behalf of the government of Tanzania as well to thank all the distinguished guests and seminar participants for your kind participation in this programme <#/>I hope that your brief stay in Zanzibar has been both fruitful and enjoyable and especially because you are <-_in><+_on> <&/>prep an island of perfume Zanzibar is renowned for its unrivalled perfumes from Pemba and also for its people's hospitality <#/>I trust you <&/>grammar that you have enjoyed the fascinating scent of the Zanzibar perfume <#/>Chairperson I wish to extend my special <-_gratitudes><+_gratitude> to delegates representatives of EAFOD <#/>Your attendance at this workshop has enabled it to be a success and it is an inspiration to the people of eastern Africa who are struggling to achieve social economic and political liberation through co-ordination and co-operation among themselves <#/>Chairperson I have been informed that you have been here for one week deliberating on issues concerning disabled persons in our region and that you did visit around the island <#/>I believe this exercise has enriched your vision on your duties lying ahead of you <#/>With the exchange of experience you have had I'm sure your tasks will not be difficult <#/>It can be done so play your part <&/>applause <#/>Chairperson again on my behalf and on behalf of the government of Tanzania I wish to congratulate you for the formation of <-_a> regional co-operation <#/>You have taken the right channel to form the Eastern African Federation of the Disabled which is the right tool in the struggle for your rights <#/>Chairperson your federation has been wise to see the need for the training of trainers <#/>Training enables people to do their jobs in a systematic manner and having identified their skill gaps as regards knowledge skill and attitudes as you have said yourself in the resolution now they need special attention <#/>Some societies had disregarded them some time ago and some still segregate them <#/>Chairperson I'm glad to say that our country Tanzania is aware of the problems facing this group of persons <#/>We have been trying our best to integrate them in all our social and economic development activities according to our economic ability <#/>During the fiscal year of nineteen ninety-two nineteen ninety-three about two hundred and twenty-two disabled people attended courses in different special training institutions for <+_article> disabled <#/>They were trained in agriculture animal husbandry crafts-making electronics carpentry etcetera <#/>Chairperson I'm glad to mention that Tanzania is also ahead in caring for its disadvantaged people as follows <#/>About seventy-three people I mean disabled people were employed <#/>Two hundred and fifty-six were assisted self-employment <#/>Four uh about them <&/>prep were given motorbikes <#/>Fifty were given three-wheeled bikes <#/>Fifty-one were given artificial legs or arms shoes and guidesticks <#/>Two hundred disabled in Iringa village were given loans to the tune of seventeen uh million to enable them <+_to> start small <-_business><+_businesses> under the Community Based Rehabilitation Plan <#/>Our projected plan for nineteen ninety-three nineteen ninety-four is to train about one seventy-nine disabled people <#/>Fifty are to be trained on in vocational training centres and other trade schools <#/>All this will be done in collaboration with UNDP ILO SHIA and all who intend to raise a revolving fund for the disabled for <./>sitt for setting up small business projects to assist them under the Community Based Rehabilitation Scheme <#/>Chairperson I have only been trying to show how Tanzania our country is striving to assist and accommodate the disabled person <#/>Much of this data is based on Tanzanian mainland experience but also in Zanzibar here I was also told that the government has tried its <-/>its best <#/>It gave them an office so that they make it as <&/>grammar <-_headquarter><+_headquarters> <#/>It also gave them one flat so that they can rent and get money so that they can generate funds for themselves and uh most of their let us say seminars sometimes they get some funds from the government so it shows both Tanzania mainland and Tanzania island are taking care of our disabled people <#/>So I believe all our countries will do the same <#/>Chairperson another area which requires extra effort from all areas especially among the disabled <-_person><+_persons> themselves is that of social equity <#/>Everywhere we have of late heard of social equity which advocates equitable distribution of benefits in <./>develme <-/>in development throughout the society <#/>However people in the rural areas and the disabled persons rarely benefit <#/>This has to be rectified and those who are supposed to advocate for <&/>prep this change are the disabled persons yourselves <#/>Chairperson here I need also to mention the plight of the disabled women <#/>Women in general have struggled very hard to be where they are now and they still struggle to get their rights and recognition <#/>I've no doubt disabled women in our societies are more disadvantaged than their male counterparts <&/>applause <#/>Many of them are left behind and they are not given the chance to participate in decision-making and taking other leadership roles <#/>Disabled women are denied the basic human rights of education training economic independence and participation in society compared to their fellow disabled men <#/>Social cultural attitudinal and structural barriers play a significant role in undermining the women's development <#/>I'm sure you have a different attitude <#/>I have <./>in I have been told that in the federation executive committee there is a gender balance <&/>applause <#/>I've <-_>I have<-/> also been informed that Disabled Peoples International of which you are a part of has a solid stand to see to it that in all its governing councils and representations right from the grassroot level there is an equal representation between male and female gender <&/>applause <#/>This is very encouraging and I congratulate these bodies for realising this deficiency <#/>Chairperson during your meeting with the <-_participant><+_participants> here you have exchanged a lot of information and some of you have developed that important human link of friendship <#/>But friendship gets its test of being <+_article> honest and genuine relationship when those who regard themselves are far apart <#/>This is the right occasion to prove that the friendship you have cultivated is an honest one <#/>Dear participants this can be done by promoting an exchange of information <#/>If one of your national <-_association><+_ associations> has found a way to cope with a particular problem this information may be of great use to people in other member countries of the federation <#/>Chairperson and dear participants before I conclude I would like to offer on behalf of the government of Tanzania our gratitude to the local organising committee under the leadership of Mr Khalfan Hemed Khalfan for his tireless effort which has made this gathering a success <#/>I also extend my thanks to those who supported the workshop in one way or the other <#/>Also this my gratitude has to go to the United Nations Disability Unit New York the Netherlands Organisation for International Development Co-operation the Commonwealth Foundation and the Royal Danish Embassy in Tanzania who have generously financed this training programme <#/>I also extend my thanks to <./nat> to the national institution and business community for their contribution <#/>Chairperson dear participants I wish you all a happy and a safe journey back home and with these few remarks I officially declare your one week workshop closed <#/>Thank you very much

<&_>Honourable Fatma Said Ali, 40, female, Minister Eastern African Federation of the Disabled Workshop, concluding speech, 1993


<#/>I think we have to commercialize the conference facilities <&/>laughter

<#/>Mr Chairman of uh TAPO members of TAPO distinguished participants ladies and gentlemen it is an honour for me to officiate <+_at> the official opening of this annual symposium of the Tanzania Association of Parastatal Organisations <#/>After receiving your invitation I’ve taken <&/>grammar/tense some trouble to learn about TAPO and its activities <#/>I must say that I am impressed by TAPO’s forward-looking traditions and its readiness to traverse areas of controversy but uh of significance to the parastatals and to our economy yes even to our body politic <#/>How fortunate Mr Chairman we all are that our parastatals in Tanzania have TAPO to bring them together in a <./>corron in <-/>in a common forum <#/>More important how fortunate we have we are to have an organisation that is ready to look into the future to prepare for it and indeed to influence it <#/>I want to commend TAPO and its leadership its membership for achieving these perspectives bongesi <#/>Mr Chairman statistics show that the Tanzania parastatal <-_>the Tanzania parastatal<-/> cannot be ignored in planning our economy <#/>The parastatal sector has the capacity to contribute significantly to the economic well-being of our country <#/>Unfortunately it also has a capacity to drag the economy of our country backwards <&/>idiom and thus harming the aspirations of our people <#/>Mr Chairman there is evidence that the parastatal sector can exhibit a great deal of creativity efficiency and a sense of accountability <#/>Unfortunately there is also evidence of some parastatals that are the sick creatures of our economy and the worst examples of lack of imagination inefficiency and irresponsibility <#/>This is the parastatal predicament <#/>This is what makes the behaviour of the parastatal sector so unpredictable <#/>Mr Chairman consider the following phenomena <#/>In nineteen eighty-five a hundred and thirty-eight parastatals had their accounts unaudited <#/>What a situation <#/>In nineteen eighty-nine parastatals in this category were reduced to <./>eigh <-/>to eighty-five from hundred and thirty-eight <#/>This is quite an achievement but certainly not a complete achievement <#/>Nineteen eighty-five in nineteen eighty-five thirty-seven point uh one per cent of <+_article> parastatals received clean certificates from the auditors <#/>In nineteen eighty-nine this figure jumped to <-_nineteen><+_ninety> fifty-one point one per cent <#/>This shows a capacity by the parastatals to improve significantly their handling of accounts <#/>In the view of the topic chosen for this year’s uh uh <-_>chosen for this year’s<-/> TAPO’s symposium we should note the importance of proper bookkeeping and financial management and discipline that a parastatal ought to have if it is to be commercially viable <#/>On the whole we have cause for hope <#/>Reading through the reports of the <-/>the Tanzania Audit Corporation the number of uh <-_>the number of<-/> uh uh certified uh of clean certificates <-_>the number of clean certificates<-/> were reduced dramatically <#/>No the number of no-opinion certificates were reduced dramatically from sixty-five to three in the period nineteen eighty-five to nineteen eighty-nine and partially clean certificates uh dropped from hundred and fifty-nine to forty-one during the same period <#/>Mr Chairman I repeat Tanzania cannot afford to ignore the state of the parastatal sector <#/>As for the party and the government the parastatal sector will continue to be important because of its double-track impact <#/>Uh consider the revenue enjoyed by the government through taxation <#/>In nineteen eighty-seven eighty-eight parastatals contributed shillings four point nine billion to <+_article> treasury <#/>In nineteen eighty-nine ninety the treasury enjoyed a revenue of uh shillings ten point five billion <#/>On the other hand losses in the parastatal sector rose from shillings uh two <-/>two billion point eight uh in nineteen eighty-five to shillings twenty-nine billion point one in nineteen eighty-nine <#/>The National Milling Corporation alone is said to have cost the government treasury about uh eight billion <-_>eight billion<-/> shillings during its lifetime <#/>Let me make a political statement about this predicament of the status of the parastatal sector in our economy <#/>The party will not be so foolish as to ignore the positive aspects of our parastatals in terms of their contribution to investment mobilization growth of <+_article> national productive capacity <+_article> supply of essential goods and services availability of employment <#/>Nor will the party ever ignore the parastatal role in providing the necessary competition to the firms in the private <-_>in the private<-/> sector and to balancing the ethnic question of ownership of means of production and <./>dis distribution in our country <#/>Mr Chairman on the other hand CCM and its government can no longer hesitate to take the necessary measures to counter the negative economic manifestations in our parastatals such as perpetual losses in some of them disorganized management systems and dependence on <-_the> government money or bank loans that are not paid <#/>Mr Chairman today in this symposium of <+_article> <-_Tanzania><+_Tanzanian> Association of Parastatal Organisation you are discussing <+_article> commercialization of the parastatals in Tanzania <#/>Let me quickly agree that that is indeed what is happening in Tanzania <#/>I believe that the intensity towards such commercialization will grow and not lessen at all <&/>break in recording that the insensitivity towards such commercialization will grow and will not lessen at all <#/>There is no future in Tanzania for economic parastatals which cannot stand on their own but are perpetually bailed out by the taxpayers through subsidies from the government treasury <#/>I cannot see any future for training parastatals which cannot or will not make profits from their operations <#/>Mr Chairman such parastatals are doomed <#/>Yes Mr Chairman and members of TAPO our parastatals must go commercial and must make profits <#/>It is clear that the people of Tanzania have exhausted their patience with respect to parastatals which believe that they have a right to exist even if they are not earning that right or are not even trying to earn it <#/>I believe ideology alone is no longer a alibi for loss-making parastatals to shield in <&/>lexeme <#/>The party and the government I believe that the <-/>the people as well are now no under no illusion that loss-making and subsidy dependent parastatals are a liability and not an asset to our efforts for economic recovery <#/>Such parastatals are a discredit not a credit to the policy of socialism and self-reliance <#/>Tanzania is going through a sea change right now uh not unlike that which is occurring in the world around us <#/>The sea change will <./>no <-/>will demand political reforms but also particular changes in economic perceptions prospectives and values <#/>In this situation men of <-/>men and women I must say men and women I wrote men here men and women <&/>laughter of old ideas and views will be seen as archaic and as an obstacle to <+_article> advancement of our nation and its economy <#/>They will and I think they are being discarded <#/>In economics and business Tanzania has already reached a stage of giving great appreciation to results on the welfare of the people and not just to forms of ownership of an enterprise <#/>Appreciation will go to the <./>enper enterprise that delivers at least cost <-_>that delivers at least cost<-/> and with efficiency regardless of whether it is a public or a private institution of an <-_>of an<_/> <./>enter enterprise <#/>I believe Mr Chairman that <+_article> time has arrived and ought to arrive the time for giving the parastatal monopoly status is gone <#/>The <./>ti <-/>the time for <./>follo <-/>for allowing competition on serving the public has come <#/>The time for tolerating a sluggish management in the parastatals that cannot seize investment opportunities that cannot cut costs even when <./>opport opportunities exist that cannot compete in the marketing functions that cannot motivate its labour that will not make necessary but difficult decisions the time for such management in Tanzania is gone <#/>Are these policies and views uh Mr Chairman some of you might <-/>might be wondering are these policies and views mine or are they part of the official party and government <&/>laughter policy <#/>They are implied in the decisions of the party to promote equally both the public and private investment through the investment code <#/>They are implied in the liberalisation of external and internal trade <#/>They are implied in the decisions of the commission report with its emphasis on opening up to the public purchase of shares stocks and ventures including those in the banking sectors <#/>These positions are already being implemented in the decision to ask loss-making parastatals to seek salvation not from the Treasury but from the private investors through such schemes as joint ventures uh partnerships and indeed <./>privat privatization <#/>Mr Chairman let me tell you my friends from the parastatal sectors those who have eyes to see would have <./> see <-_>would have<-/> already seen those with ears to hear will have heard and those with <+_article> audacity to seize new <-_opportunity><+_opportunities> will see the situation as not threatening but definitely challenging <#/>Let me say that the drive for commercialization of our parastatals must be accompanied by measures that enable parastatals to play this <./>ro <-/>this role <#/>You have yourself mentioned some of them <#/>These policy and practical measures must include a real granting of autonomy to parastatal enterprises and <./>indepen <-/>and companies <#/>It is vital that most decisions that affect their performance and discretion must be restored <&/>grammar to the management and boards of directors of the parastatals themselves <#/>These should include decisions on employees' morale and motivation quality quantity and prices of goods and services produced financial decisions etcetera <#/>Such types of decision must no longer reside outside the parastatals <#/>I hope our friends from uh <-/>from uh are not too worried about this statement <&/>laughter <#/>I also believe that in certain cases especially where there is <-_a> stiff competition from external producers government should review taxation policies including level of sales tax for home-produced goods and of customs duties for imported goods <#/>All these measures should create the right environment for parastatals to apply themselves with full vigour on the basis of normal commercial principles and practices <#/>There may be these and other measures which are necessary to make a success of <./>pri <-/>of privatisation of the <-_>of the<_/> parastatal sector <#/>Ndugu Chairman gentlemen and ladies from the parastatal sector don't wait for somebody to point <&/>prep such <-/>such policies and decisions which you need <#/>You must do it yourselves and in a forum like this one there is an opportunity for enlightening the party and for enlightening the government <#/>Mr Chairman ladies and gentlemen thank you for according me this honour I now declare the TAPO annual symposium of nineteen ninety-one officially open

<&_>Horace Kolimba Member of Parliament, opening of TAPO annual symposium 1991


<#/>I would like to thank the minister very much for his contribution of these personal views about multipartism because I believe he did not speak as a minister but as a human being who is free to contribute his ideas in a free country <#/>I agree with him .

<$B> <#/>Would you please identify yourself I should ask everyone I identified because I know him too well

<$A> <#/>Sorry

<$B> <#/>Could you please identify yourself

<#/>I'm Pastor Christopher Mtikila uh uh <#/>I agree with both the two previous speakers to a large extent except where it touches on the feasibility of multipartism in Tanzania <#/>Maybe to be more precise and to be better understood I should define what is the meaning of human rights of civil rights of democracy and a political party <#/>I understand human rights to be the rights of human beings be them blue green or white wherever they are provided they have not resigned from humanity to become other things <#/>Then there a separate entitlement to those rights <#/>Civil rights is what we were fighting for under the umbrella of TANU way back in the late fifties and achieved them I think on the ninth <+_of> December sixty-one or sixty-two <#/>I don't know what we got in each in both the years but the two years consolidated our entitlement to civil rights <#/>And what TANU was actually fighting for was not good roads was not bread butter and cheese <#/>I think we had plenty from England those days and very cheaply <&/>laughter <#/>It was nothing <#/>It was only the human right to participation one's participation in his own country and we said we were by then nine and a half million people so all of us were human beings <#/>So each one of the nine and a half human beings had entitlement to that civil right <#/>Anyway a few breaths away uh a smaller group from the nine and a half million people grabbed that right from the rest of the people <#/>That's what I understand <&/>laughter <#/>I always have difficulty <-_of><+_in> <&/>prep merging reality and diplomacy when I deliver my speeches <#/>You can do it to suit your own understanding anyway <#/>Now democracy there people talk about multiparty democracy and one party democracy <#/>But I read English I think as much as you did <#/>I want to think that democracy is the right to freedom of opinion and the right to freedom of expression of that opinion and the right to freedom of participation in the ruling in the governing in the running of one's own country through that freely opted-for opinion <#/>So when we talk about a democratic country we talk about a climate a political climate where we have got so many freely opted-for opinions <#/>So here it is important to know what a political party is then <#/>A political party is supposed to be one such opinion one political party is one such opinion which is shared by a group of individuals of a particular country who commit themselves fully to that opinion making an identity between that opinion and their own virtues <#/>It is an entitlement <#/>So I would oppose anybody who would say for the shortcomings economically and socially in our country we do away with the party which is responsible for this <#/>It would be very sinful because they have their entitlement <#/>They must be there and I was sent to defend them and join them if they <-_>if they<-/> change <#/>But that would not give me entitlement to grab other people's similar right because after all our banner is human equality <#/>So when we talk about multipartism we should be careful about bringing in the word feasibility <#/>In the sixties we had a bitter war which we fought using the United Nations and so many international fora <#/>We were trying to convince people in the west to reason with us that we are as equal human beings as they are <#/>We were rejecting their suggestions that we were <./>un uncivilised we were a cursed race even when they tried to equate us intelligently and diplomatically to monkeys <#/>We resisted it in the strongest terms until they came to agree with us that we were on equal status <#/>So those people are human beings and they decided to agree also that we were also human beings <#/>So the united the <-/>the Universal Declaration of Human Rights under articles nineteen <./>twent twenty-one twenty-three sections one to three and twenty-five section one which describe which enshrine the sacred human rights of every human being wherever he is and to which our system here is signatory <./>force forces those people to help us remember that we agreed we are going to be as equal human beings as them <#/>Now since they observe human rights in their homes in Europe and America etcetera etcetera we should do the same here <#/>So if we turn to them and say <-/>uhu we understand that we fought for this equality very much but as for human rights we shall have to think about it if is feasible in our country because we don't have only human beings we also have got other things other than human beings <#/>Is that to say so <&/>idiom <#/>We cannot talk about economy we cannot talk about social uh eventualities and justify them to deny us the rights civil rights in the country or human rights <#/>We cannot talk about events in other countries which led to their search for human rights in their own countries because we have entitlement here whether or not there are changes in Europe or in Eastern Europe <#/>It is an entitlement be ourselves be us educated or not we need to feel part of the population of this country <#/>So if it is a human right for any human being wherever he is in his or <-_>in his or<-/> her own country to have a share in the governing of that country of being elected to government or electing then if I'm denied here automatically and straight away without any compromise <#/>I'm being denied ingredients of my humanity which I probably should seek elsewhere <#/>I don't know whether I should cross borders and go and seek my human rights in other people's countries <#/>So I appreciate all the changes taking place elsewhere in the world even in South Africa for that matter where we <-/>we have been I think in the forefront fighting apartheid because we are not racists we say because the majority were denied civil rights in their own country <#/>They had more bread more butter better houses better education better everything but they felt more comfortable when they came here as refugees because they found us enjoying civil rights which they are denied in their home at their home <#/>Whether they were denied the rights because of pigment or not I remember our country has always supported people who were denied such rights by the people of their own <./>pigm pigments in their own countries <#/>So I would say there is a another version of apartheid in other countries that apartheid is of a group of stronger people who grab all the power <&/>laughter from their fellow citizens like our system here that is black to black apartheid <#/>So what we are doing now is we should not debate on whether human rights would be good for those who have been politically deprived <#/>People are misunderstanding us and I'm misunderstanding myself and even those the integrity of those people who say so I freely say and that uh I cannot lose touch with reality <#/>And even the commission I thank the first speaker and our chairman <#/>He's praised it very much and has told told us the sense of the commission being there <#/>I totally disagree with the idea of forming that <-/>that commission if it's for looking for views as to whether human right would be good suitable for the human beings of Tanzania because that would justify what the western has used to say that we are a barbaric race etcetera etcetera <#/>Today we have lost the privilege of defending ourselves by forming such commissions <#/>But if it were a commission to go and prepare and look out how we shall reinstitute human rights in our country I would write an application to the chairman of CCM to be included in that commission <&/>laughter <#/>So we should not go away we should not mention any other thing <#/>Even thieves and murders if they are they have nation if they have got citizenship anywhere they are they are entitled to civil rights <#/>Their crimes are very very different they cannot sabotage their rights they cannot take them away <#/>They have also got their civil rights to imprisonment if they fall criminal <&/>laughter <#/>But we are not going to deny them <#/>That is the most important thing we should talk about <#/>The second speaker mentioned about <&/>prep the Zanzibar revolution <#/>Maybe that was very good because it helped me explain a little about the democracy that we have and the need for multipartism in our country <#/>The problem is not that people did not think about their rights their civil rights in this country <#/>They have always been knowing <&/>grammar/aspect that they have the right and our constitution also states very clearly that we have got these political rights to multipartism <#/>There are so many contradictions in our constitution and there are people who try to walk in that constitution to to demand their civil rights <#/>We know what happened to them <#/>They were tortured victimised and imprisoned etcetera etcetera until one man <./>out outside the constitution said that we can now debate the human rights <#/>He is not sure whether we are really human beings to deserve human rights <#/>So that <-/>that <./>con convinces me to believe that a monoparty state a monoparty a supreme party is a personal property because the man at the top can never be opposed <#/>The party in Iraq can never oppose Mr <./>Saba <-/>Mr Saddam Hussein and so many other examples <#/>So with our union it is very difficult <#/>I think what we should be discussing is how we should amend innovate our constitution to be suitable to suit the changes which we desire because with a union I <-/>I doubt very much if the commission would even come out with anything because the parliament in parliament one a <./>six uh sixty thousand Zanzibaris islanders are represented by one man <#/>So all of the <-_>of the<-/> people in the islands are represented <#/>If we take the same ratio to the mainland we find that in a population of twenty-four million only twenty-three million and four hundred thousand are represented in parliament <#/>If we take we <./>tran transfer that under the umbrella in the principle of equality the same representation in Zanzibar we take it to the mainland so we see even there the democracy is so loose <#/>I'd not see it because we take sixty thousand people of mainland Tanzania and pick a representative for them <#/>So we shall have all of them representing only six hundred thousand like the Zanzibaris <#/>So all others are unrepresented <#/>There are all these things and we talk about national consensus on in all our national uh decisions <#/>I would not remember to have had <&/>grammar one national consensus for the union anyway because I remember the former president said that what we are going to discuss about <&/>prep is not the question whether we need one party or many parties but how we are going to institute a one-party system

<$X> No no no

<#/>So there was no consensus national consensus there <#/>That's what he said <#/>He said we are not going to discuss about <&/>prep whether multi-partism is good or monopartism no <#/>We are only going to discuss about <&/>prep how to institute a one-party system <#/>National consensus is out there <#/>Even the union as <-/>as actually for the union I've got a very very funny idea about it all

<$B> <#/>Can you please be brief because uh if we talk at this rate you will be the only one who participates in this discussion You notice even this morning the remarks were very brief indeed and I'd like as many people to participate in this discussion as possible I don't want to cut you short

<$X> you are right

<$B> <#/>but let us be precise and uh to the point and let others also have a chance to air their views Please

<#/>Yaah actually I have almost finished what I wanted to say only that on the question of the union again there was no national consensus <#/>It was something that was done single-handedly by one person although he had some good reasons to assign to his decision which does not uh <-_>does not<-/> tally with democracy anyway so multipartism is true democracy because it represents the ideas and the thinking of all other people such that even economically and socially we had antagonised the ideas some very positive ideas of people because they thought outside the framework of the one party so we threw away what they had to offer to this country because they should offer it under an <./>um a political umbrella of a party <#/>So the country's fallen casualty to all the <-_predicament><+_predicaments> that every one understands <#/>So human rights civil rights and democracy and the meaning of a political party should guide us in thinking about whether the commissions are right or not and whether we should have any debate on human rights at all because we'd be resigning from humanity if we do so

<&_>Pastor Christopher Mtikila, at Tanzania School of Journalists, 1991


Thank you Mr Chairman It was
For a number of reasons I decided to restructure my paper <#/>Although the title is the same <#/>It's on recent land changes in land tenure and its implication in the livelihood communities in the drylands of Tanzania <#/>Now there is a myth in Tanzania that land is so abundant uh that uh we don't have to worry and yet there are tenural shortages and these tenural shortages is <&/>grammar especially acute in the areas of the dryland mainly because of the <./>appro <-_>because of the<-/> conflicts between the appropriate type of conventional theories regarding dryland use and two because of the social dimensions of the problems of <+_article> livelihood of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists <#/>The importance of land even to people in the drylands cannot be exaggerated because land gave people identity it gave them their basic resource uh and above all it was a method of both livelihood and survival of the community <#/>In terms of the land use I think the nineteen twenty-three uh land ordinance of Tanzania was extremely important because it introduced a duality system uh of tenure in which there was a deemed right versus the title rights <#/>And what is interesting is that this duality moved at Independence and it is now being tried to be justified under the liberalisation uh model that Tanzania is trying to adapt or adopt <#/>Now putting changes in land tenure in context in the socio-political changes that have taken place in the country I think are <&/>grammar extremely important and it is in here that one of the reasons why I'm particularly interested in this is that the country as a whole is more agrarian based rather than pastorally based <#/>The arid lands <#/>The climatic boundaries define where it is roughly an area of uh between six hundred and eight hundred millimetres of rainfall where permanent agriculture is not possible and there are various uh figures given as to how big this area is the semi-arid is <#/>The figure varies from between twenty-five to seventy-five per cent of the country and between thirty-five and seventy-five per cent of the country <#/>Those are two <-/>two extremes really <#/>If you notice the figure of seventy-five per cent that does not occur all <-/>all <-/>all the time and so I think critical are the twenty-five and thirty-five per cent of the country <#/>Roughly speaking this is in the centre of the country <#/>To me the heartland of the dry areas are that boundary there but when we talk about seventy-five per cent it could be once in every five or seven years or eleven years depending uh you'll find that the boundary extends to this other extreme giving us our seventy-five per cent <#/>Now most people regard the drylands as homogeneous <#/>The fact of the matter is that none of this thing none of the drylands are really homogeneous and it is in here that for example we'll find juxtapositions between pastoralists you have people practising irrigation <#/>And yet the general practices in the country particularly uh with the abolishment of the uh <-_>of the<-/> uh customary rights these things uh are completely distorted to give an impression that we're dealing with a homogeneous system <#/>Changes which occurred in the tenural system I think uh are at <+_article> present moment under great uh they are under great uh uh pressure to conform <#/>African governments both and the people are <-_in><+_under> <&/>prep enormous pressure to conform to western norms and number one to remain as primary producers and two to extend into non-traditional exports for example flowers vegetables citrus etcetera which tend to move into the semi-arid areas and into the arid areas <#/>And lastly you've got to look at these changes in terms of progression growth and settlement <#/>We are not only dealing with numbers but access to basic rights <#/>In the drylands it's not only land alone but I'll argue that it is a cluster of resources that uh we've got to be concerned with which once again tenure does not look at uh adequately <#/>For example in the semi-arid areas and arid areas land water pasture cattle all go together <#/>In fact you can have ownership of uh cattle not only <-_to><+_by> <&/>prep individuals but also <-_to><+_by> <&/>prep the whole society <#/>There has also been concern about the marginality of improvement to the productivity of both agriculturalists as well as among the pastoralists the interventions for example have led to further scarcities <#/>These scarcities have occurred both naturally as well as because of societal pressure <#/>For example if we look at land in Tanzania although they say a lot of it is available by nineteen forty-eight per capita the distribution was roughly eleven point eight hectares <#/>By nineteen eighty-eight it's down to three point nine <#/>And not only that but we'll find that one of the main pressures in fact on the land use because of state ownership is that twenty-five per cent of the country is either in terms of national parks game reserves and an increasing amount under urban areas uh <#/>Thirdly there's this conflict between game-controlled areas national parks uh for example in the <-_>in the<-/> Maasai area out of the total uh area of sixty-three thousand square kilometres by <+_article> nineteen forties only twenty-seven thousand <-_was><+_were> left to the Maasai and today even that twenty-seven per cent uh sorry twenty-seven thousand square kilometres <-_is><+_are> under dispute <#/>If you look at this thing a bit more closely in terms of the uh what is available for people you get this picture uh <#/>The purple border there is supposed to be the semi-arid area almost a half of the semi-arid areas and look at the amount of land that has gone into national parks uh into game controlled areas and uh the large game parks like sorry the game reserves like the <#/>One thing which has still not been considered but which is fundamentally of importance in Tanzania still today are these tsetse areas including oddly enough even in the part of the uh <-_>of the<-/> uh pastoral areas and this is where a lot of the problems with the Barbaig have occurred because in the past uh it meant clearing of the bush in order to uh get rid of the tsetse <#/>Now land should be looked into <#/>The <-/>the context of land ownership in Tanzania is based on number one customary rights which are user based <#/>The nineteen twenty-three ordinance as I said allowed a multiplicity of customs to <-/>to <-/>to be to <-/>to still be perpetuated but I think at the same time although we tend to treat customary rights as something uh uniform in fact that's not true at all <#/>By nine the nineteen forties land in certain parts of the country was already being sold it was being redistributed it could be owned communally etcetera <#/>Two as I've already indicated right at the start <&/>grammar/tense there is this continuity of the dual system <#/>At Independence uh you might wonder why we're making such a big fuss about the state abolishing customary rights uh now whereas we didn't say anything at Independence because by then also the idea of state ownership began to come in <#/>What I'm trying to say is that both during the colonial period at Independence and at <+_article> present moment the idea of state ownership is there <&/>idiom implicitly <#/>It was first threatened in a major way by villagisation and I think now it's being threatened again by liberalisation and a factor which we have talked very little about I think also bothered by environmental factors including uh disease <#/>I'd like to elaborate on this by stating that customary land rights <#/>The origin of it is that uh there are modes of ownership which were based on entitlement <#/>There was no question in traditional society that there was a scarcity of it uh <#/>If there was a scarcity you moved you spread uh but uh everybody had a right to it and there were three modes of ownership one as a clan member two as an individual of the household three as a collective ownership of men and lastly there was also a special dimension which uh was very important in terms of collective ownership of the pastoral people <#/>Now whether you belonged to one or the other or a combination of all of them depended on the political system of the tribe and the leadership of the clan the family <#/>For example among the it was the individual who decided to move into new areas and they allowed him because if he became successful he would have more people coming in and so settlements could be fairly large depending on the individual <#/>It would also depend on the scarcity or abundance of cultivated land and after the colonial period a great deal depended on the economic crops that were being grown <#/>As a result for example of economic crops both in Bukoba and in Kilimanjaro uh land began to have a very serious market value <#/>For many reasons uh the British period did allow or it was imposed because it served the purpose of the state <#/>People became smallholder producers and it is in here <&/>idiom that I think there is a rather interesting development by the state until villagisation for example uh the government was <-/>was uh encouraging this this dual ownership because suddenly uh the state ownership <./>conp uh concept was not only reinforced in nineteen sixty-two but it also allowed the state to pose as a developer <#/>And because it was failing to develop it decided to get involved with villagisation <#/>But there is another element too why the dual system uh was simply being tolerated in fact encouraged by the state and that is because it became a producer uh <#/>NALCO is Natural Company <#/>Millions were spent on it but it was it accounted for less than one per cent of the total national product despite spending millions into it and large tracts of land were actually taken away <#/>It became involved in food production NAFCO and of course all the problems that were associated with the sugar development etcetera <#/>It is in here <&/>idiom too uh that one must look at land use and state intervention <#/>The state intervention business really started not in the drylands <#/>It started in areas of problems like the flood plains nineteen sixty-nine <#/>In nineteen seventy they decided to use the same techniques in other words civil servants deciding where people should remain and what they should be doing and that was implemented in Dodoma in the villages and the Dodoma operation then became the operation for the whole country between nineteen seventy-three and nineteen seventy-five <#/>The results of that were insecurity decline of productivity and a central control and a lack of participation in all the communities <#/>Now in the post-liberalisation period what we are beginning to see is the continuation of the breakdown of primary production systems loss of output unless it is externally generated <#/>For example uh the loss of <-/>of output in cashew nut production has been quite dramatic uh from a hundred and twenty-five thousand tons we are producing less than thirty thousand tons entirely because of villagisation because now the fields were very far away the trees were uh abandoned uh they caught on fire quite easily and so unless you have uh external inputs the chances of recovering are very very low <#/>There has been also a change of the type of uh <-/> of uh <-/>of uh productivity demanded and that is for example you can produce a lot of cotton uh but if uh the markets and infrastructure is not there then I'm afraid that a people cannot really benefit <#/>In a liberalisation period too we're talking about market forces but these have been so imperfect uh that uh we cannot rely too much on them and then lastly I think what liberalisation is bringing out very very strongly is centralisation versus the de-centralisation of uh <-/> of production <#/>It's in here <&/>idiom that it is within this context of what I've said <#/>I'd like now to spend the rest of the time talking about the implication of Act Number Twenty-Two uh on the livelihood patterns <#/>Villagisation as I said was a major upheaval and it was not a question of land tenure but more a process of structures they created which were both contradictory in policy and in reality <#/>Now the Act is trying to legitimise these contradictions <#/>Number Two the contradictions in fact led to a great deal of corporisations of people For example there is now more and more emphasis put on the National Parks on grazing the land etcetera so that among the pastoralists although the pro capita numbers <-_has><+_have> declined one would say in the nineteen sixties maybe ten per cent at the <-_>at the<-/>most were considered marginal that is they had less than uh five head of cattle per capita today <./>i because of the land that's been extracted from the pastoralists either in terms of game parks or in terms of other uses then there is less sorry more than twenty per cent now cannot <-/>cannot manage

<&_>Professor Adolpho Mascarenhas Dar es Salaam, Recent Changes in Land Tenure, Bayreuth 18/6/94


<#/>Thank you very much <-/>oh <#/>Thank you very much for uh inviting me to this seminar uh <#/>As you might uh see in the paper which I've just circulated uh uh I <./>do I think you're going to be scared by the slight change in the title <#/>The paper's entitled Interactional Features in Writing Discussions of Writers and The Role of Imaginative Composition <#/>I think it's just a change of form rather than substance so I think it won't very much for after all I'm dwelling on exactly the same thing <#/>Now this paper is based on uh uh some research that I did for my uh doctorate but of course I just adapted part of it and the basic uh point was to look into the role of interactions on writing so I tried to look into how the various patterns of interaction may affect uh the <./>writ the political writings in secondary schools <#/>Now I'll begin first of all with a general view of the developments in the time <#/>Now as is well known uh during the last two decades especially in the United States and Britain there has recently been an <./>int an interest in trying to view writing not only as uh something that has got to be marked as something uh that is an end-product but as something which is involves both cognitive and social processes and therefore there is a reason a need for trying to study how collaboration among learners or collaboration between teachers and pupils on the one hand and between pupils and pupils themselves might enhance the process of learning <#/>Now this paper therefore is going to focus on the role of interaction in learning first and then we will see how this discourse affected uh the writing <#/>I'll now <-/>I'll <-/>I'll first of all try to look into the discourse in learning <#/>Now communication in the classroom is seen as a gently and too shallow constructed activity <#/>However it's now evident from studies done that teachers are seen to monopolize the classroom talk <#/>As a matter of fact according to Flander's uh study Flander in nineteen seventy he's found that teachers talk most of the time seventy per cent of teachers' <./>utt of utterances in the classroom are found to be uh teachers' utterances and uh the classroom becomes a sort of a power arena where power is exercised by the leader of authority who in this case is the teacher <#/>Now this is seen very much of course in the way the teacher allocates turns because in most cases the teacher allocates turns very rarely to pupils and that he does uh monopolize most of <./>th <-_>most of<-/> those turns <#/>Now in view of this it has been seen in some academic circles that uh group work could somehow help us towards uh uh creating an atmosphere which would probably lead to <#/>Let me <-_>let me<-/> now dwell a little bit on the role of pupil - pupil discourse <#/>How pupils could enhance their own learning through their own discourse <#/>Now most of the literature on pupil - pupil discourse that is uh talk between pupils and pupils <-_have><+_has> tended to hinge on the official benefits <#/>Most American studies have hinged on the <-/>the official benefits which derive for example it is assumed that uh if <-/> if learners interact among themselves they can be self-confident and they can also learn to trust each other <#/>However studies done in Britain have given group-work some sort of backing by regarding it as a socio-cognitive dimension a socio-cognitive uh arena where students are able to exchange ideas where they are able to each other argue and therefore come up with something that is likely to enhance learning <#/>Now there is therefore a general consensus that group interaction <-_lead><+_leads> to structured and modified comprehensible input measured through certain interactional features as clarification requests uh cognition checks comprehension checks and repetitions <#/>Now these interactional features later lead to language acquisition according to studies done by some of the authors uh whose references are cited in the paper <#/>Now there are a number of psychological and psycholinguistic studies that have been done to uh reinforce this point of view chief among which are the works of uh and Piaget <#/>Now uh I don't want to deal at length here with this uh Piaget's theory for example of cognitive conflict presupposes that when learners are trying to perform a task together the fact that they sometimes uh do not agree creates a situation where uh by reaching a consensus they're able to come out with some uh brighter and more articulate ideas <#/>Now on the other hand the Russian psychologist and linguist sees co-operation transacted between the learner and an adult the centre of interactions and that this subsequently leads to learning and uh however does see that uh the child before the child reaches a stage where he's able to solve his own problems he needs to interact with others <#/>In other words here he says this is a point which he calls the learner proximal development <#/>On the other hand however the tasks which learners do do very much help to promote learning <#/>Now you have tasks for example the one-way-task uh <-_task><+_tasks> which do not uh enable in us to interact among us or in solving problems may not seem to be well predisposed towards learning whereas tasks which enable learners to interact or to solve problems may to help promote learning <#/>Therefore tasks not only interaction but also tasks it's the nature of the task that they should learn in the classroom will help very much to promote a sort of uh interaction uh the sort of learning that is felt to be appropriate <#/>I will now dwell upon writing on talk and see how talk as a base of interaction does could help literacy <#/>Now pupil talk has been perceived as contributing to uh you know promoting ideas before pupils are able to learn <#/>Now such work by people like Britten Graves and others have added to this sort of conception <#/>Now some of these studies into the role of talk and writing have merely looked into interactional patterns of training teacher - student or student - student writing uh for example without stating for example how these teachers affected writing <#/>However there are a few studies which have been done and which have shown that uh when teachers I mean when students interact uh in other words when they offer each other requests and when they also engage in interactional features such as uh confirmation and so on they're able to provide themselves with uh the language that they might probably use later to uh linguistic meaning and therefore be able to write something coherent <#/>Now uh in view of this therefore what were the bases of the study <#/>Now this study was intended to look into the interaction of patterns which emerge once students are engaged in discussions about writing <#/>An attempt was made to determine which interactions lead to high quality discussions and which ones led to low quality discussions by relating them to compositions written after discussion <#/>In other words the study sought to examine whether or not the interactional features of the discussions have a bearing on the discourse and hence led to interactional features as products which means that uh basically I was trying to look into how these patterns of interaction which were likely to emerge as students were working together could help them write uh their compositions <#/>Now in so doing them uh I devised my research design this way <#/>I had a target sample of twenty-four high-ability average and low-ability pupils of secondary schools who were selected after an English cloze test had been administered <#/>Now the tasks which the students did were of two types <#/>Some of these tasks were teacher-fronted that is the task was conducted mainly or directed by the teacher and the other tasks were done in groups in pairs or various groups pair being two pupils and groups being made of six pupils <#/>The tasks were involved descriptive compositions and active compositions <#/>Now if you look at the appendix which I provided because you'll find that uh there're two completely different compositions uh which were assigned <#/>One was the teacher-directed composition and the other was uh a fundamentally different composition because of pair work <#/>Now if you look at the pictures you find that uh <#/>Have a look I don't know if you can <#/>Yeah the picture you have the pictures uh <#/>This is called <./>teach teacher-fronted <./>com composition <#/>Have it there <#/>Okay <#/>So this was the teacher-fronted composition task that was by the teacher <#/>So the teacher had to describe something and then the teacher the pupils merely wrote something <#/>Then appendix b <-_>appendix b<-/> we have the instructions and the task follows <#/>This was the pair work where the pupils collaborated to do some work <#/>In other words they had pictures and they developed the topic of the pictures and then they tried to talk out am among themselves to see what comparison they could make of the picture <#/>You can see for example appendix b in this picture there are two pictures <#/>In one picture this <-/>this picture the picture above looks <&/>lexeme to be somewhat similar to the picture below appendix b but uh we can find that there are some objects which are missing in one of the pictures so that pupils had to talk and therefore this was seen as uh being able to promote some sort of talk I mean among <-/>among the pupils <#/>Now the other one was a narrative task <#/>This again was done was levied by the teacher and was also led uh by uh also done by the pupils themselves <#/>Now after the pupils when the pupils were working I <-/>I took some audiotaped transcripts <#/>So audiotapes related to the study are collected using a cassette recorder <#/>Now when the lesson ended what I did was I took the tapes of the conversation preceding the tasks and then I analysed the transcripts of the discourse that had taken place between the teacher and the pupils and among the pupils themselves <#/>Now if a teacher did the coding of utterances and of the coding scheme was used <#/>Now how the <-/>the <-/>the operation coding scheme was worked you can see in appendix d and e <#/>So I used appendix d and e to code the uh uh <-_>to code the<-/> interactions which took place while they were talking <#/>Then they I also coded the activities of listening reading and writing <#/>Now an additional coding scheme was designed to observe the frequency of both teachers' and pupils' behaviour as they interacted during writing lessons <#/>Now talking listening reading and writing features were further divided into discourse acts which helped shape the interaction in the classroom <#/>Now some of the discourse acts uh are the ones which you can see in appendix f <#/>In other words uh these were somewhat based on pictures and therefore I tried to code the interaction for example if he's requesting if he's repeating or simply giving information <#/>So I tried to code the interactions on the left-hand side of the transcripts you know to find out what the students were trying what utterances the students were trying to make

<$B>After c there's another page

Share with your friends:
1   ...   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12

The database is protected by copyright © 2020
send message

    Main page