President of Convocation Anour Kassim,Chairman of the University Council

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two or three words <#/>These have been occupied or colonalized by agro-pastoral Arusha in Massai land but they practise agriculture <#/>So on the one hand we have the migration and expansion of agro-pastoralism where it has <-_>it has<_/> been moving physically by people of those communities which were located particularly as in the past moving out with their herds and with their agriculture into new areas so we have some plains which have been occupied now by the Sukuma <#/>We have the Mwanzi moving to those areas and in <-/>in Morogoro area where we have quite a substantial amount of people from those <-/>those places <#/>So this is one phenomenon <#/>The other one is where you have pastoralism emerging in former pastoral areas agricultural development and uh pastoral communities have been known of course to consume agricultural goods for a long time <#/>People travelled through Massai land in the <-_>in the<-/> eighteen-eighties <#/>We are saying that the Massai were exchanging their <-/>their pastoral products for agricultural goods <#/>Even during war they will <-_>they will<-/> send their women to collect agro-pastoral goods <#/>So it’s not a phenomenon that is new depending on some of agricultural produce but they never produced these crops themselves <#/>They bartered again with other communities and other people and literature on the or in literature sometimes they are called they were cultivating and after the wars of the Massai in the eighteenth century they were looked down <+_on> as people practising agriculture by the other Massai because these were infiltrating <#/>These are keeping livestock and nothing else and these others are doing some cultivation and uh so you have this division <-/>division now there is a trend to move agriculture in the pastoral areas not depending on the food but being able to grow them themselves <#/>So what I am studying here is not the well-known fact that agriculture has been transported into pastoral areas by land-hungry cultivators agro-pastoralists and commercial farmers and the state projects <#/>I am looking into process in which hitherto pastoral communities have or are gradually taking up agriculture for their purpose of dealing with their different needs <#/>The reasons are new <#/>One Mr Chairman is that productivity of their pastoral system has declined in many parts of Tanzania for many reasons <#/>One is the scarcity of land <#/>If the high potential areas have been taken over by the cultivators then the system is ready to sustain itself so there are returns on <-/>on labour alone <#/>Again there has been the decline of livestock for many reasons <#/>One is of course the shifting of pastures but another is that through government switching from being a provider to a facilitator in the past all the dips and all the <./>livest agricultural no no the animal health facilities were given for free and suddenly during the crisis the government is unable to provide these services so suddenly the services are not available and then there have been so many debts from this switch from providing to facilitating <#/>People are required now to buy sites and borrow other services <#/>Some can some cannot and those who can they <-/>they avoid it <#/>They have been used to getting it for free <#/>They are not yet doing that <#/>So people lost livestock and this process we have uh documented that information <#/>We find that people gradually are becoming more dependent on agricultural foods <#/>Whereas in the sixties the people from Ngorongo were dependent on agricultural foods for only twenty per cent of their food intake uh in <./>mid-eight <-/>in mid-eighties they were dependent on agricultural foods for fifty-three per cent of their food intake so they need nutritional value <#/>The way they can combine their foods has been getting you know poorer and poorer uh but another thing is that in the seventies Mr Chairman one head of cattle could purchase could be for eight bags of maize but today you uh one <-/>one bag of three bags of maize can <-/>can be bought by a head of cattle one big head of cattle so the terms of trade have been working against pastoralism against animal production so whereas they could barter more they could barter for more bags of maize or other forms of grain by less heads of cattle they are paying less for more heads of cattle to barter and get maize so there’s been some economic motivation that if you can grow the food yourself then you save your <-/>your herd from deflation but on the other hand is there is this <-/>this feeling that uh for <-/>for decades the people have been bombarded by the ideological bullets of the nation state <#/>Of course we bureaucrats have been going around telling people you must become <./>agricult agriculturalists you must grow food crops you must grow cash crops and this over a few decades seems to be catching up with the pastoralists and uh in uh all this the Barbaig who were pastoral a few decades ago they are now agro-pastoral <#/>You have other people <#/>The Massai themselves now are becoming pastoral <#/>So the trend is moving on <#/>There are those people who are not cattlemen for example but they have taken to agriculture for the cash for a different motive <#/>Rather than deflate your for food you grow that food but then by selling the surplus which you may have acquired from <-/>from the produce you can buy more of cattle and do more things with in this way <#/>So there are people who are <-_>who are<-/> pastoral <-_>who are pastoral<-/> but now aren't pastoral not because they are <-_>they are<-/> losing cattle or they are unable to feed themselves sufficiently but because there is this amount <#/>So the ideology of the state has been catching up with these people but what does this mean in terms of pastoralism in this new trend <#/>It means all the high potential areas that were vital for agro-pastoral for pastoralism because you needed the territory where you can get water salt lakes you can have pastures you can <-_>you can<-/> uh all the other things that you need but now the high potential areas are being taken over by individuals from the because in this system everything that has been put under agriculture becomes kind of individualized by the individual cultivator but _>two or three words place as long as it’s out there people will be will have access to it <#/>It belongs to them all <#/>But once you you <-/>you take it over and there is this process now that the high potential areas are being taken over now by the outsiders cultivators agro-pastoralists but also pastoralists themselves the Massai are having cultivation so they are also transforming their own resources in that pattern that which <-/>which used to transform and contain these processes uh <#/>To go quickly through these things what <-/>what I what we have now is you have agro-pastoralism in the former pastoral areas <#/>You have agro-pastoralists moving on their way into the new areas so this landscape having changed what is <-/>what is what does it mean what are the implications <#/>More so in terms of policy <#/>More so in terms of history-making <#/>When we were studying an area say Massai land you are looking at the problems of that particular area sometimes an exclusion of all the other problems around <#/>When we are dealing with pastoralism you are looking at the pastoralists their problems their concerns to the exclusion sometimes of all the other systems <#/>Now when you look at this entire trend which is three or four words<O/> that uh <-/>that there are changing structures all over the country we have talked about the legal structures the economic structures the political structures you know the system has changed <#/>What are the implications <#/>Let me start with <-/>with a few The exportation of the pastoralism into areas where it never existed as in the case of the of Morogoro region <#/>There are some plains of region has increased pressure on the natural resources in the areas due to the increasing demand for fuel wood and drilling poles has subjected forests to greater pressure <#/>Wood is obtained from harvest <#/>It's obtained from natural forests which take many years to grow four or five words <#/>Moreover land has been cleared by the agro-pastoralists who migrate to give way who migrate into new areas to prepare their own farms because they are rearing livestock three or four words so they are clearing forests and bushes to create new farms in areas where the land was still intact <#/>What is more worrying is that these people are moving with their cultural techniques which will not be suitable to the new areas especially the arid and semi-arid areas uh <#/>Then in some places they are ploughing by oxen or cows or tractors because the <-/>the Sukuma are known to be very very very skilled farmers with cotton growing and so on <#/>Some of them have moved some of their capital into the new areas where they're ploughing the new areas to create farms and at the same time keep livestock uh Already in some areas local people are raising concern over the way in which migrant agriculturalists are claiming the resources On the social scene one can see the emergence of new but prominent neighbourhoods constituted by members of hitherto distant ethnic groups new relations and alliances have been forged between the migrants and the local groups as each group tries to secure the understanding and support of the local <-/>local people In regions have received long distant agro-pastoral migrants from Mwanza Shinyanga and Tabora and as well as from Arusha the the In these areas they have most of their water with Zambia They move from Arusha on their way looking for pastures They are really eating the water five or six words So there is this massive long distant movement of people who are being displaced for one reason or another or they have larger herds or they want to grow agriculture and they can’t get sufficient land areas so this process with people moving southwards with their herds and probably with and also with their home the massive movements of agro-pastoralists into areas that have little or no cattle They have created a new economic demand and anxieties These areas have no sufficient animal health facilities such as dips and veterinary centres and they have neither the history nor the infrastructure for livestock marketing Some of their knowledge of livestock <-/>livestock keeping has become redundant in the new setting leading to some frustration as alternative <-_solution><+_solutions> have not been easy to come by The southern regions of Tanzania which have been invaded by pastoralists are leading producers of grain in the are leading producers in the country four or five words they are called In recent years however <./>out output has been dependent on fertilizers yet the economic crisis has made the availability of this important import very difficult to obtain I think one presentation yesterday was about the use of mature I would say that it is of interest for all of us to look into the extent at which they get fertilizer and their need for fertilizer four or five words with manure because while it is a problem of wood cutting and land taking but there is also a potential for using the livestock manure that is farming this area to kind of support agriculture What I find in most of most agricultural societies is the lack of linkage between livestock keeping and <-/>and <-/>and <-/>and agriculture in terms of production using manure to feed the farms and vice versa They tend to be two <./two separate systems There might be What I’m saying now this opportunity has moved in this area to what extent can it be a potential for changing development The increasing dependence on agriculture and the subsequent taking over of agriculture by pastoral communities has affected the traditional division of labour much to the disadvantage of women Since they like pastoral food most of the agricultural foods have to be cooked for a relatively longer time the demand for firewood has increased significantly There are studies to verify this in and other parts that more time more labour time is spent on firewood and on cooking than two words there and in some localities firewood has to be fetched from several kilometres away as cooking is women’s job so is the collection of firewood In this cooking has put greater demands on the energies of pastoral women cultivation of the fields has also been left to the women This means that women have to undertake their traditional activities such as milking animals and tend their fields However pastoralist women are not particularly conversant with agriculture Therefore pastoral <-/>pastoral men have sometimes have to hire cultivators to prepare their fields for them and in some instances take wives from agro-pastoral communities in order to obtain good returns from agriculture We have examples in in other places where Massai men are taking more to Arusha women and local women because these know how to cultivate and keep livestock so they are <-_>they are<-/> taking the opportunities they are moving away so it’s not the movement five or six words but culture is in a way I'm not sure that it is disintegrational of consolidation but it's moving away from its parameters in the sixties

<&_>Dr Daniel Ndangala on changing the landscape of agropastoralists, 19/6/94


<&/>not the beginning <#/>When people finally said no to the <./>dict <./>dic <-_>to the<-/> dictatorship of their leader the results become riveting <#/>Walls crashed <#/>Governments crumbled and some of those leaders who were lucky enough to survive are being called upon to account <#/>It is important to underline this fact Ndugu Principal for far too often the point has been made that the changes there that is in Eastern Europe meant the rejection of socialism by the people that changes in Eastern Europe showed the triumph of capitalism over socialism <#/>Nothing in my view could be further more uncertain <&/>idiom <#/>The people of Eastern Europe asked for greater freedom <#/>It would be foolish to conclude that the rejection of socialism and communist parties and their governments in Eastern Europe was also the rejection of socialism and the embracing of capitalism <#/>The lessons of Eastern Europe were important to both party and government<#/>But there are internal roots to our debate for ours is a dynamic party and therefore given to periodic review of its organisation and performance <#/>The difficult economic times and the political and social ills that they were clearly giving rise to made it certain that we would ask ourselves pertinent questions <#/>Is our system more open more accessible and effectively reaching out <#/>Are our democratic institutions more democratic today <#/>Are we positioned within the party and the government to deliver the goods aspired <-_for> by the people <#/>These are not new questions to CCM and the government <#/>Self-re-examination and appraisal have been a permanent feature of our evolutionary process <#/>We certainly are more democratic day than we have ever been <#/>We are amenable to advice from our people <#/>We listen to sift and weigh heavily suggestions for change <#/>Views so received either directly from the people or through their representatives will be accommodated through the democratic process <#/>And since social growth is a dynamic process we will keep on changing with time <#/>That is the crux of President Mwinyi's message to Tanzanians last Monday that in implementing the policy of socialism and self-reliance a goal we set ourselves twenty-four years ago we will move with time making changes as appropriate <#/>In this respect the democracy debate is important to us to the extent that it provides us another rich source of receiving views from a wider public we commend it <-_>we commend<-/> and value it highly <#/>That people are exercising their democratic right without fear of victimisation whatsoever is a clear demonstration that democratic practice in Tanzania has matured and come of age <#/>Having said all this what then is the role of the media in this debate <#/>The traditional role of the media of reproducing and reporting views and events will still remain <#/>That requires no elaboration <#/>But in this debate the media will be additionally expected to promote the debate thus providing useful fora for the airing and presentation of views <#/>The commissioners will certainly also be greatly assisted by what the media will be carrying <#/>However I must warn against exercising <#/>I must warn the media that is against exercising undue influence on the debate <#/>I use the phrase undue influence deliberately <#/>The media cannot possibly distance themselves from the debate <#/>The selection one makes of participants in a radio discussion for example is itself a form of influence <#/>Similarly the selection of letters on the debate which will appear in the readers' columns of newspapers is a form of influence <#/>In both cases some views are read others are not <#/>Some views are heard others are not <#/>That is what the process of selection is about and that is where the influence flows <#/>In these circumstances what I am calling upon the media to do is to ensure that all sides of the debate are heard and that contributors be presented in the full vigour of their eloquence <#/>You would be doing a disservice to the debate if for example you published or aired the most illiterate and incoherent advocacy of one side or another in the debate <#/>Additionally however the media must moderate the language of the debate <#/>In this charge of the responsibility to direct the debate which the media inherently has presentations should be encouraged to address issues and not personalities <#/>On the record so far it seems to me there has been a visible tendency for contributors to go for the person rather than the argument for abuse rather than ratiocination <#/>It is important to remember that we are not embarked upon a public contestation of patriotism <#/>We should be engaged rather in a comprehensive reasoned analysis of the political economic social and constitutional circumstances now obtaining in our country the problems they give rise to and the kinds of institutional and behavioural arrangements that can improve performance in all these areas while strengthening the unity and stability of the country <#/>Personal abuse and a foul tongue do not conduce to such an outcome and the media must not be seen to be promoting them <#/>Ndugu Principal the power of the pen and the microphone should be used in this debate demonstrably fairly and clearly <#/>The language should be concise unambiguous and presentable devoid of libellous imputation of motives <#/>The debate will be healthier if we participants exercise great restraint and arguments follow a logical pattern without rancour and insinuations <#/>The importance of having an unfettered truly free debate cannot be overstated <#/>To this end I have special appeal <-_on><+_to> <&/>prep the official media <#/>The official media's editorial comments tend to be seen by the average person to reflect official view in every respect and on every occasion <#/>Now you and I know that that cannot be the case <#/>The Monday morning editorial comment for instance on the latest league match brawl on the pitch on Saturday will not necessarily be the official view of the event <#/>Indeed there may in fact be no official view on it at all but as I say many will think that there is an official view if they read the editorial comment and that the editorial reflects that official view <#/>For this reason I urge that in the process and underline the word process in the process of the debate I urge the official media to exercise great care and circumspection in editorialising on the substance of the debate <#/>I want to repeat that I urge that in the process of the debate the official media exercise great care and circumspection in editorialising on the substance of the debate <#/>I stress the word substance for the manner in which the debate is conducted is clearly a subject of fair comment <#/>But pronouncing on the substance puts you in danger of putting pressure on the commission and wananchi straight-jacketing the debate and predetermining its outcome <#/>That of course runs counter to the aspirations of the party the government and the people <#/>To the print media I commend the trite and true observation that a newspaper should be the maximum of information and the minimum of comment certainly on this subject <#/>Ladies and gentlemen we have over the years built up a tradition in this country of democracy and making decisions through popular participation and national consensus <#/>We will want to uphold that enviable record It is a record indeed that has been one of the secrets behind our national stability <#/>It is the foundation upon which we can confidently negotiate a prosperous entry into the new millennium I now have a great pleasure to declare this encounter open <#/>Thank you very much

<&_>Mr. B. Mkapa, Minister for Information and Broadcasting, addressing Tanzania School of Journalism, 1991


<#/>In my view I think the Minister's statement or speech has been it's all embracing <#/>He has I think he has left no stone unturned on attitudes on uh behaviour on reactions and on the party philosophy and intentions on this national issue <#/>But he has underlined certain areas which are a primary interest calling for reaction <-_for><+_from> <&/>prep journalists in terms of their behaviour their role in this particular sensitive historical and I must say very important debate in the history of our nation <#/>Well the whole world is said to be on the verge of a <-_>of a<-/> new new venture which has been precipitated by the changes in Europe <#/>Older military alliances are now becoming allies <#/>But whereas in the past they were enemies now they have to be they are becoming allies and they have to work together towards new goals and uh if these superpowers if these uh great industrial affluent nations of the world be coming together what will be the impact of all that <-_to><+_on> <&/>prep developing countries or <-_to><+_on> <&/>prep Tanzania in particular <#/>So in order to <-/>to be fair and I think to be to have an intelligent approach to this whole issue of political discussion and political uh impending political change in Tanzania I think the journalist's role will only be effective if he will look at certain important parameters that would have <+_article> tremendous influence on his judgement conscience therefore his choice of words therefore his selection of candidates selection of material parameters which would influence the journalist as an agent of social change which will influence him how to be effective in his particular role in this particular debate <#/>Well having said that I think the minister if I understood him <-_right><+_rightly> he's demanding only quality he's demanding a better quality of journalism well not only in traditional matters but more importantly in this particular phase in this particular era of our country <#/>But to be a good journalist or a bad journalist uh<#/> Internationally we are said to be to belong to a highly cultured profession <#/>I tend to agree yes because the nature of our training the sophistication of the science of communication and journalism certainly it places us all these factors place us in that unique position to be able to <-/>to <./>sp to play a particular role of special significance in our societies because we have that training <#/>But surprisingly in the end equipped with professional training there are questions of etiquette there are questions of finesse <#/>You may know your content but if you don't write or broadcast with etiquette with finesse certainly it will be reflected in the end-result of your work <#/>So the journalist trained or untrained <-_but> he still has the individual responsibility to raise his own standard as a journalist by developing qualities which he may not necessarily uh find them

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