President of Convocation Anour Kassim,Chairman of the University Council

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<+_article> family is not the only institution responsible for culture maintenance uh <#/>There are other secondary ones like schools and religious institutions <#/>Well from the structural and functionalist approach uh when a member of society deviates from the culture this indicates that one of the institutions responsible for shaping the behaviour of the individuals does not operate effectively <#/>Hence it is argued sometimes that uh social problems are there because of irresponsible members of society and these are often irresponsible parents and elders <#/>Through the socialisation process uh individuals acquire certain uh behaviour <#/>Well uh <#/>On the other hand it is sometimes argued that uh heredity that is the transmission of physical traits from a parent to <./>urs offspring has been uh and it is so it is to a certain extent today uh considered uh uh the causative factor in some social problems like crime but this argument is open to doubt because nothing is inherited as a social problem uh <#/>It is the socialisation that uh one is brought up with which shapes <-_his><+_one's> behaviour and this process is not inherited anyway but it is acquired <#/>Mass media <#/>Mass media has <+_article> close relationship with the causes of social problems <#/>TV can be an indirect cause for instance <#/>There is some evidence that <./>vi some viewers engage <+_in> or imitate some bad behaviour due to the coverage of certain crimes or violence on TV <#/>Individual's pathology <#/>For some problems the cause may be <+_article> individual's pathology which means that he or she has frustrations mental illness or hysteria <#/>Also another cause of social uh problems is uh social change <#/>Both positive and negative social changes may lead to some problems <#/>Urbanization or industrialization for example can lead to air pollution and delinquency <#/>Also from <+_article> Marxian perspective it can be argued that division of labour can lead to some members of society having little wealth <#/>If the wealth is not distributed proportionally some members will be poor <#/>A good illustration is seen in slave and capitalist modes of production <#/>The major means of production are owned by the minority slave masters and bourgeoisie respectively <#/>Hence the majority of the masses remain poor <#/>As a result some members are forced to engage in other ways to support themselves regardless they are accepted or not <&/>grammar such as prostitution or robbery <#/>Now let us examine uh some uh <-/>some of the social problems and discuss the view that uh there are social problems because there are ill-mannered and uh irresponsible lazy people <#/>Poverty <#/>It is the condition of those men and women who lack one or more of the essentials of human life <#/>It is believed by some people of the middle and upper classes that people are poor because they do not want to work <#/>But this contention is debatable <#/>It is a misconception <#/>Is work a solution of poverty uh <#/>Sometimes you may work and have <+_article> low income or one may have work and have a little income or one may have a job and gain a higher income but uh things are sold expensively a high price for a household to afford more than uh people can afford uh <#/>On the other hand poverty is caused or <./>i is linked to many other social problems such as crime and delinquency <#/>Hence poverty is not only caused by lazy people but it can be viewed as a long process which should be analysed historically <#/>Colonialism including slave trade affected the economies of many African societies <#/>The resources were taken including the energetic people to America and Europe <#/>The consequences of these changes have led to many social problems like poverty <#/>Another social problem is alcoholism <#/>Alcoholism may be defined as a condition which arises from excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages <#/><+_article> World Health Organisation has defined alcoholics as those excessive drinkers whose dependence on alcohol has attained such a degree that they show <./>no noticeable mental and bodily disturbance uh <#/>Yes <./>the their <./>in <./>inter interpersonal relations and their smooth social and economic functioning uh who show the uh sign of uh such development <&/>grammar <#/>It is a social problem that leads to crime incurring debts and sometimes alcoholics are responsible for many accidents which occur on our roads <#/>Under the influence of alcohol <-_individual><+_individuals> may become active boisterous aggressive silent or unconscious uh <#/>In many African societies alcoholism is not regarded as criminal behaviour or a form of major deviant behaviour since people seem to have a reasonable capacity for alcohol consumption <#/>But for some societies consuming any amount of alcohol is deviance from culture and hence uh it is uh a social problem to that particular society <#/>Unemployment uh <#/>Unemployment is a condition in which <+_article> capable uh person having the right and willingness to work is unable through no fault of his own to find work commensurate with his ability and reasonable demands <#/>It is not only an important social problem for those who can't work but it is also problematic because society must come up with some form of uh support of the unemployed through either welfare or unemployment compensation taken from the taxes of the others <#/>More indirect but also important is the fact that unemployment is related to such social problems as crime poverty and family difficulties <#/>Unemployment can also be related to problems of health <#/>The person who has had serious physical or mental health problems <+_will> not get a job because of his medical uh history <#/>Also unemployment is an <-_evitable> <-_>an <-_evitable><-/> consequence of technical change <#/>For example in the nineteen thirties in North America thousands of men were hired to dig ditches but that job was made obsolete with the development of digging machines <#/>Criminality <#/>It is a behaviour <&/>grammar that deviates from the norms of a particular community to a degree considered dangerous to the society <#/>Some examples of criminality are robbery rape or murder those uh the offences against the prevailing laws of the particular society <#/>Most criminals commit offences when there is insufficiency of being capable or to satisfy their needs <&/>grammar through the normal channels of their salaries or incomes <#/>This may consequently resort to crime to satisfy their appetites <#/>Another social problem is truancy uh <#/>Truancy means that uh a child runs away from home usually from the countryside to the urban areas <#/>This is mainly caused by broken marriages or broken homes <#/>By broken homes it means that parents are separated or divorced or one or both parents are dead crowded home <-_condition><+_conditions> or one or more members of the family are criminalistic immoral or alcoholic <#/>This problem is found much more frequently in urban areas <#/>A group of youths form uh gang delinquency <-/>de uh gang delinquents such as of Tanzania uh in the street corners <#/>Parents or elders are responsible for the supervision of their children <#/>Hence <./>irr irresponsibility of the parents for their children results in this form of behaviour <#/>Another social problem is homosexuality <#/>This is a behaviour <&/>grammar which involves sexual relations with members of one's own sex <#/>The beliefs about the causes of homosexuality have changed <#/>A century ago the causes were attributed to the bad seed of one's ancestors and there was no cure because it is impossible to reverse heredity <#/>In <-_the> contemporary times the causes may be placed in two into two groupings medical and social uh <#/>Medical explanation <#/>There is a view that homosexuality is a disease or illness and should be regarded as <+_article> medical problem <#/>It is also described that uh it is a manifestation of some sexual abnormality and some disturbed personality development <#/>Another explanation is <+_article> social explanation uh From <+_article> sociological viewpoint young mammals who have not uh been previously conditioned will react to any sufficient sexual stimuli whether these are <./>autocrat uh autoerotic heteroerotic or homoerotic in character <#/>Consequently homosexuality like heterosexuality is learned through one's social experiences with regard to the sex itself <#/>The causes of female homosexuality come to be viewed uh sociologically as a project of the total and on-going environment which includes the family peer groups various legal and societive penalties and sanctions and sub-cultural expectations all of which help to shape homosexuality <#/>Now we have seen uh these social problems as we have discussed <#/>Now let us see what is their social control <#/>Social control first of all means all collective efforts to ensure conformity to the norms of society so as to prevent deviance by eliminating its causes <#/>Its main function is resocialisation of people so that they cease wanting to deviate <#/>In many societies the major effort in preventing crime and deviance has been directed towards removing its causes <#/>Here the emphasis has been placed on childhood socialisation like social problems social controls differ from one society to another depending on the problem concerned <#/>Social control includes also scolding beating ostracism fine imprisonment and even death so as to discourage and penalise the deviants for failing to conform to culture <#/>Now I can conclude by saying that social problems can <-_>social problems<-/> uh those which are in the form of deviant behaviour like crime abortion prostitution homosexuality <#/>Also there are social problems which are not in the form of deviance such as unemployment and poverty <#/>Some of these problems such as truancy and teenage pregnancy are there because of some irresponsible people and these are parents and elders who look after their children <#/>Other problems like poverty and unemployment have to be analysed historically <#/>There are more problems now than in the past because socialisation which used to be uh the foremost role of the family was largely taken up by formal education institutions <#/>Children are sent to nursery schools as early as four years old <#/>As a result the quality of socialisation is different from the close primary and personal relations <#/>In addition since the family is no longer the focus of economic activities adult members of the family have <./>ve uh very little time to spare for the socialisation of children at home <#/>Hence the ill-mannered people exist as a result of the failure of the family and other institutions responsible for cultural maintenance to make them conform to culture of their society <#/>Social changes on the other hand cause social problems <#/>Such changes can be urbanization or industrialization <#/>Also social problems are not caused by lazy people because work is not a straightforward solution to poverty <#/>One may have a job and be poor <#/>Thank you <#/>Now this is the end of my presentation and I welcome any contribution and questions

<&_>Said Juma, male, 26, B.A. undergraduate (sociology), Teachers' seminar presentation on social problems


<#/>What are these minority groups which require minority rights and do we have any minority communities in this country <#/>The second one probably how far have minority rights been dealt with in international law international convention as well as domestic law and the third question is to what extent did the report address itself to minority rights in Tanzania and finally I would look at what are the rights of the minorities that require special attention <#/>Mr Chairman the concept of minorities is one of those different concepts to define and I dare say so far even in the international fora there is no universally accepted definition of what a minority group or a minority community is and I would say uh whether a given community is a minority or not is not a question of law it is a question of fact <#/>Now the nearest definition that I have is the definition given by the international court of justice way back in nineteen thirty when they were giving their opinion on the question or on the dispute between Greek and Bulgarian emigrants and in that opinion which is dated thirty-first of July nineteen thirty the international court of justice said A minority group is a group of persons living in a given country or locality having a race religion language traditions of their own and united by the identity of such race religion language and traditions in a sentiment of solidarity with a view to preserving their traditions maintaining their form of worship securing instruction and upbringing of their children in accordance with the spirit and traditions of their race and mutually assisting one another <#/>Now briefly what we see in that definition is that a minority is either an ethnic religious or linguistic or cultural group which is numerically smaller than the rest of the population of the state to which it belongs and which possesses cultural physical or historical characteristics either a religion a language which is different from the rest of the population and it is the difficulties of having a clear-cut concept that has made the question of minority a little bit uh tense and controversial in Africa In fact most of the African countries do not accept that they have what anything called minority communities or minority groups Now in the context of Tanzania my question will be uh do we have minorities and if so which are these minority communities and my question would be have you heard about people called the who in my opinion in my view fall very closely to the definition that is given in this uh international court of justice opinion <#/>So it would appear from the definition that in order for there to be a minority in a given state you see the three basic elements are that first <-/>first that the minority should be a non-dominant group in the population and it should possess a culture a language or a religion which is so specific to itself very much different from the rest of the population and the second characteristic or element would be that the community should be sufficient in number not too small sufficient in number to deserve the preservation of such traditions or characteristics and that that minority should be loyal to the state within which it is living <#/>So that sort of definition avoids the question of succession or separation by some communities and so forth <#/>Now how far <-_>how far<-/> have minority rights been preserved internationally and so forth <#/>Formerly this concept and the <-_conflict><+_conflicts> that has that have arisen about minority groups can be seen much more clearer if we look at the history of Europe from right in the seventeenth century up to to date and we hear we still hear a lot of conflict ethnic conflicts and so forth <#/>Now I will not go into the history because it is going to take us extremely long but all that I can say in a summary is that if you look at the seventeenth century you will find that the concept of minority rights was very much used to preserve religious minorities against persecution you see so you'll find throughout Europe the concept is being used by those who belong to minorities in terms of religion to try and preserve their religion and in many cases the concept was also used as a pretext by some countries to invade other countries where they felt that religious minorities were not being given the freedom to worship <#/>For <-/>for <./>in <-/>for instance you'll find England intervening in France in <-/>in sixteen fifty-five uh Holland intervening in France also to protect the so-called Calvinists and Sweden intervening in Poland in seventeen sixty-seven in order to protect Protestants so-called minorities in terms of religion <#/>Now coming to the eighteenth century you'll find that several treaties are being concluded in Europe and the concept of minorities is being broadened not only uh being restricted to religious minorities but also to questions of languages the linguistic minorities uh racial minorities and so forth <#/>So a number of treaties are being concluded in Europe <#/>You have the Treaty of Vienna in eighteen fifteen between Austria and the Netherlands containing special protection for Belgian Catholic ethnic minorities <#/>You have the final act of the Congress of Vienna signed in Vienna in eighteen fifteen by Austria France Britain and Portugal and Russia and Sweden where they are trying to safeguard the interests of national minorities particularly the Poles and the Polish language and you have another convention the Treaty of Berlin in July eighteen seventy-eight between Germany Austria Hungary France and Britain and Italy which abolishes religious discrimination and so forth <#/>And the story goes on until you come to the twentieth century <#/>You have a lot of treaties and conventions to try to protect minorities <#/>So coming to the African continent and particularly in Tanzania the first thing that we can note both in terms of the constitution and domestic laws is that there is no recognition in the internal law of the rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities <#/>As you remember I said there are minority communities in Tanzania which require special protection and the argument has been that this is the country of people who are equal there are no language <-/differentiations> and according to the government we cannot distinguish the people of Tanzania by linguistic groups because there are so many linguistic groups and within the bigger linguistic groups if you say the Sukoma you still have some dialects which <-/>which differ from one Sukoma area to another so you cannot really define the people of Tanzania in those terms <#/>That is the government argument and therefore the question of protecting a minority who happen to be in a different linguistic group does not arise but I don't think whether that is true and I as I did say the question of whether you have minorities is really a question of fact and not <-/>not a question of law <#/>Now if we come down to the report volume two uh where you have the terms of no volume one the terms of report which are about seven there is no specific reference giving the commission in the course of its uh deliberations to look or to take into account the rights of minority communities <#/>The only <-_>the only<-/> reference which is very very ambiguous appears in what the calls which I consider to be guidelines because there is is probably terms of reference <#/>Then there is which would be some guidelines presidential guidelines to the commission and if you look at paragraph four sub-item five you see there is some mention there that the commission should try to incorporate the views of minority communities that would be my definition but in Kiswahili it simply says sentences etcetera would include <&/>laughter these linguistic communities <#/>Probably members of the commission will tell us to what extent did they consult communities like the and the to see whether their interests their special interests have been taken care of by the commission because it is my argument that these people belong to very different cultures to very different linguistic <-_group><+_groups> and their way of life is very much different from the <-_>from the<-/> rest of the population in Tanzania <#/>I will give you examples <#/>In nineteen seventy-five during the villages and villages exercise the government attempted to modernise the Sandawe by collecting them in villages establishing schools and teaching them farming <#/>And do you know what happened <#/>If you go there you'll find schools without children farms without the Sandawe and it is all a relic of a disaster because these people are essentially food gatherers and hunters and that is what all that they know about <#/>So to try to modernise them by actually destroying their culture is in fact to more contrary to some of the accepted internationally accepted conventions about the protection of minorities <&/>laughter <#/>And if you look at the constitution <-_>if you look at the constitution<-/> in the Bill of Rights article thirteen sub-article one article twenty-one sub-article two and article nineteen sub-article one you see there is express provision that the government <-_>the government<-/> must always take account of the freedoms and liberties of people such as the ones I'm talking about to make sure that they have the freedom of religion and the freedom to live the way they are used to and by no means to enforce them to live the way the government thinks they should live because that was because that will always prove a disaster <#/>Now in the <-_>in the<-/> UN convention on the prevention and punishment of genocide it is provided that any attempt <-_>any attempt<-/> whether deliberate or otherwise to try to change the conditions of way of life of an ethnic community is genocide because you are destroying them <#/>Mr Chairman I will stop there

<&_>Damian Lubuv on minority rights, 1994

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