This chapter begins with an examination of the basic principles of emergency planning and outlines the process of assessing the emergency response organization’s ability to perform four basic functions—emergency assessment, hazard operations, population protection, and incident management. Communities are most effective in preparing to implement these functions if they follow eight fundamental principles of emergency planning. In addition, emergency preparedness is supported by three recent organizational structures—the Urban Areas Security Initiative, Metropolitan Medical Response System, and National Incident Management System. The latter is implemented through the Incident Command System and the jurisdiction’s Emergency Operations Center. The chapter continues with a discussion of Emergency Operations Plan development and concludes with a discussion of emergency preparedness by households, businesses, and government agencies.