Requirements drive the design, simulation, and analysis of the system. The mission requirements represent the high level super system requirements for the design alternatives. The overwhelming focal point of these requirements is safety and cost. Requirements should have traceability to one or more of these six mission requirements. Traceability ensures there is validity within the requirement document.
M.1 The single pilot cockpit system shall reduce or maintain the baseline pilot flying task load of TBX.1
M.2 The single pilot cockpit system shall meet ARP4761 Level A assurance of 1 failure per billion flight hours.
M.3 The single pilot cockpit system shall decrease yearly pilot labor operating expense.
M.4 The single pilot cockpit system shall have a total lifecycle cost no greater than TBX.2 dollars.
Interface requirements ensure the system has the capability to send and receive information to other external systems. In the context of this study, the system is required to integrate avionics and NextGen elements to provide information exchange and situational awareness between the aircraft, ground, and/or other aircrafts.
INT.1 The single pilot cockpit system shall provide a standardized avionics interface.
INT.2 The single pilot cockpit system shall provide a NextGen Data Communications interface.
INT.3 The single pilot cockpit system shall provide a NextGen System Wide Information Management interface.
INT.4 The single pilot cockpit system shall provide a NextGen Voice Switch interface.
INT.5 The single pilot cockpit system shall provide a NextGen ADS-B interface.
TBX requirements are place holders for to be determined (TBD) or to be resolved (TBR) values. Further analysis is needed to establish what these values are. Upon resolution of TBX requirements, the placeholder is updated to reflect new value. Traceability to all requirement levels ensures that the TBX is properly flowed down to sub levels.
TBX.1 The single pilot cockpit system shall determine the baseline two pilot cockpit task load in units of tasks per hour.
TBX.2 The single pilot cockpit system shall determine the maximum total lifecycle cost feasible to meet the mission requirement to reduce operating expense of pilot labor.
System requirements are flowed up to stakeholder and mission requirements and flowed down to the functional requirements. A subset of the system requirements covering NextGen is included below.
SYS.1 The single pilot cockpit system shall integrate with NextGen ADS-B.
SYS.2 The single pilot cockpit system shall integrate with NextGen Data Communications.
SYS.3 The single pilot cockpit system shall integrate with NextGen System Wide Information Management.
SYS.4 The single pilot cockpit system shall integrate with NextGen Voice Switch.
SYS.5 The single pilot cockpit system shall integrate with aircraft avionics.
System design alternatives are described as a black box system. The nature of the design and analysis relies on the fact these technologies are largely absent within the current scope and context (outside of the baseline case). Although the component technologies are available, the integration of these components specifically for task automation/pilot replacement is unfounded. It is the assumption that the feasibility of such designs is derived from the task hierarchy and task performance associated with each alternative.
Figure : Physical process diagram
The physical process diagram shown in Figure describes the basic operation of the aircraft based on pilots following standardized operating procedures. The design alternatives will be augmenting the procedures and tasks which impact how the pilot(s) fly the aircraft.
The baseline cockpit system shall be the two pilot cockpits. The majority of aircraft used for air transport require, at a minimum, two pilots to fly. Some aircraft may have requirements for larger crew sizes, but the scope of this analysis is domestic operations; which presumably eliminates aircraft that may require more than two crew because of aircraft size or flight time.
The RJ100 FCOM will be used as the baseline procedural model for the two pilot cockpits. These procedures will be manipulated per the technological capabilities of each subsequent alternative.
5.2 Single Pilot No Support
Evaluating a system where only a single pilot flies the aircraft with no support for the pilot not flying roles is necessary to see what the change in workload will be for a pilot with and without some sort of technology to replace the flying and support role of the pilot not flying. Procedures where the pilot interacts with the co-pilot will be dropped, but some of the actions performed by the pilot not flying will be transitioned to the pilot flying. Potentially, the component tasks of the procedures maybe reduced. Costs would certainly be reduced by simply transitioning to the single unsupported pilot, though the load from the procedures will more than likely be unsuitable relative to the baseline case.
Noting that the technology does not exist currently, a “black box” system will be designed to implement automation that handles the task load of a co-pilot. This system design alternative takes flight state data and input from ground based entities and the single pilot. The data is used to execute predefined tasks such as those designated in a flight crew operating manual (FCOM). Automated tasks will fill the void left by the absence of a co-pilot. Feasibility for the task automation system is evaluated in terms of task load on the pilot flying and total lifecycle cost. If safety is impacted i.e. increased pilot task load or full lifecycle cost is too high, the system won’t be a viable alternative. Error: Reference source not found shows the functional flow of the task automation system.