Pre-historic Britain

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Pre-historic Britain


About 3000 BC inhabited Europe.


2 waves:

  • 600BC- the Gaels

  • 300BC- the Britons

The celts

  • Art of smelting the iron

  • Lived in villages

  • Built forts with diches

  • Had a free of private property, and classes

  • Grew corn and wheat, tamed animals

  • The art of pottery

Celtic language is the ancestor of the Gaelic, Irish and Welsh languages


  • Purpos is unknown, (assumed to be connected with sun and a ritual place)

  • About 3100

  • Great knowledge of astronomy and arithmetic.


Julius Caesar

  • Channel on 55 BC

  • 2 successful raids: 55 and 54BC

  • Withdraw because of a rebellion in Gaul




  • Queen of the Iceni tribe

  • Joined forces with the Romans to defeat a rival tribe

  • Romans turnes on the Iceni tribe

  • Unfortunate destiny

Roman merits

  • Paved roads

  • Towns and cities

  • Roman baths(Aquae Sulis)

  • Brought Cristianity in 4th century.

Hadrian’s Wall

Built in 122, against Picth and Scots, 112.6 km long, from Solway to the Tyne.

Anglo-Saxon Britain

In the 5th centuty the Angles Saxons and Jutes began raiding Britain. In 100 year kingoms were established(Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia)

  • Destroyed Roman establishments

  • Traiding increased

  • Celts were driven to North, West and ti islands

  • Were agricultural:no shops, little trading

  • The conersion of the Anglo-Saxons into Christianity began in the 6th century.


  • During the 9th century Vikings invaded and stayed. Vikings were succesful becaus the kingdom of England did not have fleet in North Sea nor a regular army.

  • In 871 Danes invaded Wessex. King Alfred the Great les Wessex’s resistance.

  • Danelaw was founded in North, with York as its capital.

Canterbury cathedral

  • 1st Archbishop was St. Augustine

  • The assassination of Thomas Becket in the north-east Transept on 29 December 1170(misunderstanding between king and the knights)

Alfred the Great

  • Was able to read and write

  • Translating the bokks started

  • He translated Ecclesiastical History of the English People

  • The Anglo-saxon Chronicle


  • English epic poem

  • Is a strong hero, many victorious battles

  • The single major surviving work of Anglo-Saxon heroic poetry

Edward the Confessor

  • Reign:1042-1066

  • Successor: Harold Godwin

  • Time of peace

  • Declaired a saint in 1163

Norman Conquest


  • Harold Godwin said that Edward promised throne to him on his deathbed

  • Duke William of Normandy said that Edward had promised throne to him when he visited England in 1051

  • Harald Hardraada, king of Norway, also claimed throne

Battle of Hastings

  • 1066

  • Godwin marched to meet the forces of Hardraada, then received word that William had landed in South, then marched there.

  • Battle was won by William tgrough trickery

  • King Harold died(an arrow in his eye)

  • It was the last successfu invasion of Britain

  • Bayeux Tapestry, made about 1080, valuable historical document

William of Normandy

  • New king of England

  • Brought French culture

  • Built the White tower in London (to dominate the city)

The Plantagenets

Henry II

  • Son of Stephen Blois(adopted)

  • Inherited English kingdom, Normandy, Anjou, Maine and Touraine

  • Athletic, strong, travelles ceaselessly

  • Struggle between churhc and king led to the murder of Thomas Becket

  • His son was Richard the Lionheart

John I

  • Lost dominions in France to Philippe II Auguste in 1204

  • Nickname: John Lackland

  • Disputes with the Pope and nobility

  • Was forced to sign Magna Carta 1215

Henry III

  • John’s eldest son

  • Was intersed in art and cultur

  • University of Oxford

  • 1st parliamnet in 1265

Edward III

  • Son of Isabella(daughter of Philip the Fair, had no male inheritans)

  • Claimed the French throne , but new king was Philipe IV

  • 1337 landed his army in Normandy

  • 100 Years War began

  • 1348 founded a chivalric order-The Most Noble Order of the Garter

  • War brought weatl to England

  • 1431 French started to rise

  • Joan of Arc burnt at the stake

  • 1453 war ended, only Calais remaind to England

The Wars of the Roses

  • Nobleman were bored, nothing else to do

  • The House od Lancaster and York fought over the throne

  • Richard II was forced from throne

  • Many battles

  • 1485 Henry Tudor fedeated the royal army, Richard III was killed

  • Beginning of the Tudors, 1st was Henry Tudor

  • He married Edward IV’s daughter and united two houses

The Tudors

Henry VII

  • Founded the Tudor dynasty

  • United two rival houses

  • Maried Elizabeth of York

  • 1457-1509

Henry VIII

  • Anglican Church

  • Had 6 wives

  • 1491-1547

Mary Tudor

  • Tried to restore catholicism

  • Married to Felipe II of Spain

  • Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

  • 1516-1558

Elizabeth I

  • England became an empire

  • The English Renaissance

  • Established Virginia, the 1st colony

  • 1533-1603

The Stuarts

Mary Stuart

  • Queen of Scotland

  • Was Catholic, that caused problems in the Protestand Scotland

  • Was suspected of treason against Elizabeth I

  • Married to Francis II of France and later to Hendry Darnley

  • 1542-1567

James I

  • First king of England and Scotland

  • Gunpowder plot

  • Very paranoid

  • 1566-1625

Charles I

  • Was executed by the English commons

  • English Civil War

  • 1600-1649

Charles II

  • Son of Charles I

  • The Great Plague 1665

  • The Great Fire 1666

  • 1630-1685

Georgian Era

Georg I

Robert Walpole

  • First Prime Minister of GB

  • Made most of the decisions

  • 1676-1745

Politics at that time

  • The Whigs against the Tories

  • The Cabinet

  • Loss of American colonies

The Jacobite Rebellions

  • 1688-1746

  • Organized by the Jacobite

  • Aimed at the restoring the Stuart dynasty to the throne

  • Ended by the Battle of the Culloden

The Napoleonic Wars

  • 1803-1815

  • One of the biggest military conflicts of that time

  • Revolutin in Europian armies and weapons

  • Napoleon lost, Bourbon dynasty was restored

Victorian Era

Queen Victoria

  • First Empress of India

  • Mother of many children

  • Longest reigning monarch

  • „The Grandmother of Europe“

  • 1819-1901

  • Loved monarch

  • After death of husband dressed in black, moved less in public

Prince Albert

  • Husbend of Queen Victoria

  • Happy mariage

  • Big influence in British politics

  • 1819-1861

The Industrial Revolutin

  • Traiding

  • Railways

  • Changed the world

  • Less manual labour

  • Heavy machinery

Oscar Wilde

  • 1854-1900

  • Some of the greatest English comedies

  • Beautiful fairy tales

Ewardian Age and Post-War Years

Edwars VII

  • Son of Queen Victoria

  • Always in shadow of his mother

  • Grandfather

  • 1841-1910

  • Prince of Wales


  • Very rigid

  • Poverty, miserable conditions

  • Women’s suffrage

  • Age of optimism

  • Arms race with Germany

George V

  • Dedicated leader

  • Changed family name to Windsor

  • Beloved king

  • Many great successes while he ruled

  • 1845-1936

After the War

  • Treaty of Versailles

  • Increased in size

  • British Commonwealth

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