Pre-Cold War Recap Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt serve and 3



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Pre-Cold War Recap

  • Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt serve and 3rd and 4th Presidential term?



  • What events finally ended World War II?



  • The US _______ as the premier _______ and _______ power in the _______.

  • Why was the Marshal Plan introduced?



  • What did it do?


The Cold War

19__ to 19__

1946 – Post-___ Europe


  • After World War II, Western Europe and America are alarmed by Soviet advances in Eastern Europe.

  • Many Europeans and Americans believed that ________________

_______________________________________________________!

  • March 1946 - Winston Churchill warns of the “________________” of Soviet totalitarianism.

The Cold War

  • It was the _______________________________________________

__________________________________________________________.

  • The beginnings of the Cold War are found in Occupied ___________. The ___________ disagreed with the British, French, and Americans about the governing of Germany after World War II.

  • Why was it so dangerous?

- Because by 1950 ______________________________________.

  • October 24, 1948

- The term “Cold War” is coined by _______________________ in a speech to the Senate War Investigating Committee.

- “Although the war is over, we are in the midst of a cold war which is getting _____________.”



  • Why was it a “cold” war?

- countries never mobilized armies in an official war

1948 – The __________ ____________



  • What is it?

    • a plan to ____________ Europe after World War II using loans

  • What were the goals?

    • rebuild Europe

    • stop the spread of _______________________

  • Under the Marshall Plan

1948 – The ______________ Doctrine

  • ________________________________________________________

  • It was an important part of American foreign policy for the next 40 years.

  • Basically…______________________________________________!

1949 - NATO

  • What is it?

    • The N_________ A_______________ T___________ O__________________________

  • What was the point?

    • to respond to possible attacks by the _____________________

  • WHY?

    • Each nation in NATO believed the Soviet Union would not __________ western Europe if the _________ would launch nuclear war in return.

    • This is known as _______________________; it is designed to deter or _____________________ an attack.

1955 – ______________ Pact

  • What is it?

    • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Why was it formed?

    • to counter _____________________

    • an ________________________________________________

  • Why “Warsaw”?

    • Warsaw, Poland was the ________ where the treaty was signed

  • Satellite nation? Is that like satellite TV?

    • Satellite nations are ___________________________________

_____________________________________________________.

    • The Soviet satellite nations were ________________, ______________, _________________________, Hungary, ____________, and East Germany.

What about Berlin?

  • During the Cold war, there were many “hot spots”. The earliest hot spot was ____________.

  • At the end of World War II, Germany was divided into _________

_______________________ (American, _______, _______, and Soviet).

  • The Soviets controlled the __________ part of Germany; the western countries controlled the ___________ part of Germany.

  • The capital _________, deep within _________-controlled territory, was also divided into ________ occupation zones.

___________ Berlin

  • 19___ – Britain, France, and America ______ their occupation zones to promote _________ and _____________________________.

  • Germany was a traditional ___________ of the Soviet Union. The Soviets were ___________ any plan to make their enemy _________.

  • How did the Soviets react?

Berlin _____________!

  • In ___________, the Soviets blockaded ________________________ into western Berlin hoping to make Britain, France, and America ________________________. (Remember _____________________

_________________________________which the USSR occupied.)

  • In response, the United States and Great Britain began an _________.

Berlin Airlift

  • What’s an airlift?

    • a system of ___________________ into West Berlin by______

    • Day and night, ______________________ pilots flew in tons of _________, __________, and raw materials.

  • How long did it last?

    • ________________________

  • The airlift is over. Now what?

    • Germany officially becomes two _______________ with two _________________________.

    • ____________ becomes the capital of ____________ Germany.

    • _________________ becomes the capital of _______ Germany.

    • West Berlin remains a ____________________________, surrounded by ____________________________.

The Berlin __________

  • Berliners ______________ living under ______________________. Luckily, West Berlin and _____________ were just across the street!

  • About _____________ people fled to West Berlin looking for political freedom and better lives. The East German government wanted it to stop.

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

  • Guarded by ___________ troops, it became a _____________ of the split between Western and Eastern Europe.

  • Many East Germans continued to risk ___________ by escaping over the wall.


The Cold War in the US

Birth of the Cold War



  • The Cold War began out of _____ that the ____ and the ______ would expand around the world as Superpowers.

  • While the Cold War was never a physical war, the US and the Soviet Union often supported _____ sides.

    • For example, the US sent troops to support _______, while the Soviet Union and China sent troops to support ______ during the Korean Conflict.

    • What was the result of the Korean Conflict?

National Security

  • The US and Soviet Union competed in an _____ race. Which meant that each country was trying to develop the most powerful ________.

  • The US fear of Communism was illustrated by President Eisenhower as he fired over _______ federal employees suspected of __________ ________________________________________________________.

  • Why did cities develop emergency warning systems?

  • Even though the US spent millions on a system to detect nuclear attack, it was useless after the Soviet Union developed the first _________________________. This allowed them to send nuclear missiles in unmanned aircraft.

  • How did the world feel about the arms race between the US and the Soviet Union?

A Different Kind of Race

  • The ______ Race began in the late 1950s.

  • What was Sputnik?

Relationships Improve….Maybe

  • In 1959, US ____________ Nixon visited Soviet _________ Khrushchev.

  • Despite President Kennedy’s attempts to develop peaceful relations with the Soviet Union, in 1962 the Soviet Union installs _____________ missiles on the island of _________.

  • The US responded with a naval blockade; the Soviet Union agreed to dismantle their missiles if the US agreed _______________________.

  • This five day period was known as the ________________________.

  • At the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the US and Soviet Union signed an agreement to _____________________________________.


End of Day 1

Freedom in Berlin



  • The Berlin Wall remained in place until _______________________.

  • ___________________ by people prompted the government to ______________ border-crossing restrictions. When the announcement was made, East and West Berliners climbed the wall and __________________.

  • At the end of 1989, the Berlin Wall, a symbol of ________________, was __________________.

  • Shortly after the Berlin Wall fell, _____________________________

__________________________________________________________.

Перестройка and Гласность



  • Early 1980s – USSR ___________________ situation is critical

    • They can’t compete with the rest of the world.

    • Everything seems peaceful, BUT the people are ____________

_____________________.

  • 19___ – Mikhail Gorbachev starts ________________

    • Perestroika – “______________________”

    • Glasnost – “__________________”

  • 1987 – Gorbachev calls for the introduction of _____________ ideals. For the first time, Soviets can ___________ from multiple candidates.

1988 – A year of radical change

  • The USSR allows ____________ _________________ of businesses.

  • President _____________ visits Gorbachev in _________________!

  • Gorbachev’s reforms spark __________ change in Latvia, Lithuania, _____________, ________________, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary.

1989 – ____________’s Turn

  • Poles wanted change in their communist government in the early 1980s.

  • At that time, a ___________ formed for worker rights named _____________________, lead by Lech Walesa, organized.

  • Solidarity experienced many difficulties, at one point having to go underground.

  • Gorbachev’s rise to power in 1985 allowed Solidarity to remerge and, in ________, hold Poland’s first _______ ____________ in decades.

  • In August of 1989, Tadeusz Mazowiecki became premier of Poland, ushering in __________________.

Freedom in Eastern Europe

  • By 1991, Soviets were _________ about the economic and social _____________ of the USSR.

  • They elected ____________________, the former head of the ________________________________, president.

  • Gorbachev was still the acting Soviet president and wanted to give Soviet Republics their ______________. Communist leaders were outraged and ordered the Soviet _______________ to take control.

  • __________ kept Gorbachev from leaving his home. Yeltsin, supported by 100,000 Russians, ___________ the military’s efforts.

  • The coup ended 48 hours later. Yeltsin gained popularity and put Gorbachev back into power.

  • December 8, 1991 – ______________, _____________, and ______________ agreed to break up the Soviet Union and form the ______________________________________________________.

  • In late December of 1991, Gorbachev _____________ as president of the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin is president of the _________ Russia.

Communism had ___________________

  • pre-1917: Russian Empire

  • 1917 – 1991: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union)

  • post-1991: Russia

    • Russia’s current president is Vladimir _______. He is serving his second term. The next election will be in March _______.

    • Russia ended 2006 with its eighth straight year of __________________ _________________.

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