Post-War World: The Cold War Cold War: Origins and Background
The Cold War was an ideological struggle between the_______________________________. These two nations emerged as_____________________, and attempted to spread their influence and power on a global scale (capitalist democracy vs. communism). The Cold War is characterized by the ever-present_______________________, and lasted from approximately____________.
Ideological Differences:The United States feared that the Soviet Union would eventually spread communism throughout the world and______________________. The Soviet Union feared that the _____________________________would eventually trigger a revolution in the Soviet Union and destroy communism.
________________: After WWII, Stalin quickly established control in ___________nations (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia) known as Satellite States. The United States used the domino metaphor to warn of_______________________.
______________________: to halt the spread of communism by providing economic aid and military support to people ‘threatened’ by communism. The ___________________was the first step in this policy. It promised to support______________________________. The Marshall Plan was the second step to containment. In 1947, the US offered billions of dollars in aid to ____________________to help them resist the advance of communism.
Essentially, this is the___________ of the Cold War; both sides attempting to spread their influence in other regions, while trying to ‘__________’ or stop the other from doing the same. Cold War: Major Events and Confrontations 1. The ___________________4._The_______________,_1950_–_1953'>___________________and Airlift, June 1948
After WWII, Germany was divided into____________: West Germany was controlled by the United States, Britain, and France. East Germany was controlled by the___________. Berlin was situated within the Soviet sector of the country, and western nations were only permitted access to West Berlin through specified highways, corridors, and railways.
When western powers decided to introduce a _____________________in West Berlin, the Soviet Union refused to accept it. Stalin ordered a blockade of all routes to West Berlin, and the western nations were forced to either ______________(not an option; fear of the domino theory) or airlift supplies into West Berlin. Airlifts went on for__________________.
Result: Berlin was officially divided into two separate governments.
2. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949
Formed mainly in response to the Berlin Blockade incident and fear of the domino theory
Several western nations joined NATO to _______________________________and ensure mutual defense. Each member contributed to NATO’s military force, and agreed that an attack on one member meant an_______________________.
3. The__________________, 1955
Developed in response to NATO, as a defensive alliance between the Soviet Union and its satellite states(although satellite states were technically____________________, they formed Soviet-style governments and essentially answered to ‘Mother Russia’ –________________
4. The_______________, 1950 – 1953
After Japan lost control of Korea in 1945, the country was______________. North Korea soon became communist, and South Korea became democratic. You see the problem here?
_____________________ (supported by Soviet-built tanks and aircraft) invaded the south.
The United States demanded that the __________________intervene in South Korea. The United Nations replaced the bogus League of Nations after WWII. The big difference was that the UN established a _____________________that had the power to force member countries to follow decisions.
The UN sent troops from ____________to Korea (26,000 Canadians). Led by the Americans, South Korean and UN forces forced an end to North Korean advancement.
_____________________was signed, and Korea remained divided between North and South.
Significance: The United Nations showed the world that unlike its predecessor, it was willing and able to take serious action when called upon. Also, _________________on March 5th 1953.
5. The_______________, 1956
Egyptian President Nasser seized the Suez Canal from_________________. Britain and France joined with Israel to attack_______. The Soviet Union, in response, supported Egypt.
Canada’s________________________, Lester B. Pearson (later PM Pearson) suggested that the UN create a ______________________________(UNEF)to keep combating forces apart until a settlement was reached. Pearson won the ________________________for his efforts.
Although the US promised to aid against Soviet aggression, the incident was diffused.
6. The_________________, 1954 – 1975 (periods of varying severity and combat)
The Indochina (______________) War between France (the colonial power) and the Vietminh (_________________) lasted from 1946 until the defeat of the French in________.
Following the French defeat, Vietnam was divided between the North (communist support) and the South (________________). Fearing the spread of communism, the United States (with minor support from other anti-communist countries) began to support South Vietnam’s war against the North. By 1969, there were 543,000_____________________________.
Although the Soviet Union and China _________________to Vietnam, they did send massive amounts of supplies to aid the Northern communists.
Widespread television images and _________________witnessed a large anti-war protest in the US and abroad. Many _______________came to Canada to escape military conscription.
In 1975, after _______________of conflict, the last American troops left the country, and Vietnam was soon under the control of the _________________________of the North.
Both the US and the Soviet Union had ___________________stored all over the world.
In 1962, an American plane discovered Soviet missiles in ___________(communist).
The United States set up a _________________around Cuba, to stop Soviet ships from delivering more missiles, and demanded that all nuclear weapons be removed from Cuba.
The crisis intensified when Soviet ships (and submarines)_____________________.
Some say that nuclear war was avoided with ________________(probably an exaggeration, but it was wayyyy to close for comfort nonetheless).
The Agreement: communication between US President ___________________and Soviet leader __________________resulted in the following: the Soviets promised to remove all weapons from Cuba as long as the Americans promised to_____________________.
President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22nd, 1963. 8._________________, late 1960s – 1979
Détente simply means a_________________. Although indirect conflicts and disagreements continued throughout this period, the détente era _______________between the two nations.
Détente was possible through ________________(each nation possessing an equal amount of nuclear weapons) as both countries feared complete annihilation from the other.
_______________________________: In 1968, the USA, Soviet Union, and Britain signed a treaty to limit the number of nuclear weapons in the world (_________________by 1975).
________________________________ (SALT): In 1972, an agreement was signed between the US and the Soviet Union to limit certain missile types. These talks failed__________.
________________, 1975: US, Soviet Union and European powers discussed the following:
to accept the division of Germany and the existing boundaries in Europe
the USSR agreed to ____________________
the movement of people across borders was made easier and more possible
9. The Soviet Invasion of__________________: End of the Détente Era
In 1979, the Soviet Union placed 350 missiles in _______________and invaded Afghanistan
The Soviets placed ___________________as President (dictator) of Afghanistan
Many countries (including the US) feared that the USSR was trying to control the Persian Gulf. The United States (and many others) banned the____________________________.
From________________, a vicious war between the Soviet military and Afghan patriots caused many deaths and created a huge ___________________in neighbouring states.
In 1988, the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan due to domestic problems.
_______________________: flaws in the strict state-controlled communist economic system slowly began to cripple the Soviet economy.
______________________: Constant competition with the US cost the USSR billions of dollars that they could not afford.
____________________: Greedy communist officials abused the system and refused reform.
_______________: Approximetly 50% of the Soviet population was not ethnically Russian. As people became increasingly unhappy with the Soviet system, they sought independence.
Gorbachev became the Soviet leader in____________. He attempted to rid the communist party of corruption, and tried to implement several key reform policies:
__________________: roughly translated, this term means “openness”. Gorbachev shocked the world (and most Russians) when he advocated for ____________________facing the country, ‘_________________’ communism would make it superior to capitalism.
________________: this term means “_____________”. Gorbachev pushed for economic, social, and political reform in order to focus on _____________and revitalize Soviet society.
Gorbachev’s Problem: Simply put, Gorbachev wanted _________________without an ideological change (ex. Communists would remain the only political party).
C.The End of the Soviet Union, ___________
Through the late 1980s and early 1990s, Soviet citizens began to demand more freedom, ethnic minorities______________________, and the Soviet system was in general decline.
August 1991: __________________replaced Gorbachev as the leader of the country.
December 1st 1991: an ________________broke the Soviet Union into 15 smaller states.
December 31st 1991: documents were signed to______________– The Cold War ends!!