Post Colonialism And Migration Postcolonial experience in India Indian and Pakistan communities

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1. Volume

2. Pitch

3. Variation

4. “Special effects” (laughter, crying, singing etc.)




Organization of a speech

  • The message is stated with simplicity, clarity and logical consistency

  • The speaker intends to attract the audience’s attention, for example by

→making clear the purpose of the speech

→mentioning the topic and by emphasising its importance

→showing or referring to something related to the topic, such as an object, a photo, statistic, etc.

→a quotation

→a rhetorical question

→an interesting statistic

→a brief true story

→in the USA and in GB speakers often begin with a humorous story or a joke so as to establish a quick contact with their audience

  • In the main part of the speech the speaker tries to maintain the audience’s attention, for instance by

→forming rather short and clear sentences

→developing his/her thoughts and main points step by step

→backing up his/her main ideas/points with facts and background information

→suggesting what should be done to improve the situation or presenting solutions to the problem

→including personal experiences, examples or a story to makes his/her speech more lively, establish a „personal“ relationship to become well-liked

→using rhetorical devices such as repetition, alliteration, comparison

→determining the purpose of his speech and which arguments about his topic are the strongest

→developing a thesis statement and select the best two to five main ideas supporting it

►► ►The speaker draws his/her audience’s attention to....

►He/she informs about...

►He/she appeals to feelings and emotions by....

►He/she intends/tries to convince/persuade the audience by...

►The speaker tries to win the audience over to his side

→re-explains the development of the thesis

→sums up the main points

→gives a final dramatic example supporting the thesis

Rhetorical Analysis

ethos - appeal based on the reputation of the speaker/author

logos - appeal to reason or logic

pathos - appeal to emotions

tone - attitude toward self, topic, and audience

topic - the subject of the argument

counterargument - the opposing position

evidence - facts, data, statistics, testimony, etc. that support the argument

exigence - the situation that prompts the argument

audience - the people intended to hear or read the argument

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