→mentioning the topic and by emphasising its importance
→showing or referring to something related to the topic, such as an object, a photo, statistic, etc.
→a rhetorical question
→an interesting statistic
→a brief true story
→in the USA and in GB speakers often begin with a humorous story or a joke so as to establish a quick contact with their audience
→developing his/her thoughts and main points step by step
→backing up his/her main ideas/points with facts and background information
→suggesting what should be done to improve the situation or presenting solutions to the problem
→including personal experiences, examples or a story to makes his/her speech more lively, establish a „personal“ relationship to become well-liked
→using rhetorical devices such as repetition, alliteration, comparison
→determining the purpose of his speech and which arguments about his topic are the strongest
→developing a thesis statement and select the best two to five main ideas supporting it
►► ►The speaker draws his/her audience’s attention to....
►He/she informs about...
►He/she appeals to feelings and emotions by....
►He/she intends/tries to convince/persuade the audience by...
►The speaker tries to win the audience over to his side
→sums up the main points
→gives a final dramatic example supporting the thesis