Post Colonialism And Migration Postcolonial experience in India Indian and Pakistan communities



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Post Colonialism And Migration
Postcolonial experience in India

Indian and Pakistan communities
1818-1947: colonial era

1857 : India comes under direct rule of the British crown after failed Indian mutiny

1885 : Indian National Congress founded

1920-22: The non-cooperation movement led by Mahatma Gandhi opened the ``Gandhi era`` → civil disobedience

1942-43: Quit India movement

1947:India gains independence from GB, Nehru → Prime Minister, Partition

partition:

-peace between Muslims and Hindus began to break after the British left

- supporters of India’s independence (Ghandi and Nehru) weren’t able to avoid the

division of the Indian subcontinent into three states

- India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim) became sovereign states


  • Outbreak of riots/massacres and increase of emigration

  • migration of millions of people out of fear of the dominant religious groups

  • border disputes: Kashmir

Immigration to England:

- the immigration wave started in the 1950s and had its maximum at the beginning of the

1960s


- the largest group are Indians (over 1 million); their first immigration wave started

shortly after having gained independence in 1947

- the third largest group are Pakistani and Bangladeshis (over 700.000)

- many Pakistani live in the West Midlands and in Greater London → “Asian suburbs”

which don’t afford integration

- religions of immigrants: 1 to 1.5 million Muslims, 500.000 Sikhs and 400.000 Hindus

→ cultural diversity

- important for the future and a successful integration: self – criticism, dialogue between the cultures, respect for diversity and expression of common values


The role of English in India:

  • colonialism/imperialism

  • English → official language

  • privileged people (well educated upper-class) grew up with English as their first language

  • most literature/newspaper/broadcast were in English

The change of language after independence:

- Hindi → national language / English → co-official language

-Indian authors writing Hindi → Indians can identify with

-problem : privileged people must learn Hindi


India today:

- worlds´ largest democracy

constitution based on the British model

-since independence India suffered from extremist movements based on religion and separatist movements with their roots in partition

-Caste system: divides society

discrimination against certain minority groups

constitution abolished ``untouchability``

economic expansion




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