Gender and Islamic Fundamentalism: Feminist Politics in Iran, Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. by Chandra T. Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991); and idem, Gender, Modernization, and Islamization in Iran, Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies, ed. by Valentine Moghadam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
16 Muhammad Muhammadi, Majera-ye taghir-e zan dar farsi-ye avval, Zanan vol. 8, no. 56 (1992): 2-3.
17 Margot Badran writes of a somewhat similar phenomenon in the earlier Arab women’s journals, when, “portraits of women famous for their public achievements, undermined the press’s own cult of domesticity.” See her Feminists, Islam, and the Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 65.
47 For details of this period see Nikki R. Keddie, Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modern Iran, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981); Abrahamian, Iran: Between Two Revolutions; Eric Hooglund, Land and Revolution in Iran, (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982); and Shaul Bakhash, The Religion of the Ayatollahs, (New York: Basic Books, 1990).
61 Parvin Paydar, Women and the Political Process in Twentieth-Century Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 240-241; and Payam-e Zan, vol. 3, no. 6 (Shahrivar 1374 [August/September 1995]): 4.
62 Zahra Rahnavard, Safar be diyar-e zanan-e botparast.
63 Ibid., p. 21 ff. For presentation of Iran’s non-Muslims, especially Baha’is, see Janet Afary and Reza Afshari, ed. Non-Muslim Communities of Iran. Special issue of Iran Nameh, vol. 19, nos. 1-2 (Winter-Spring 2001).
64 Ibid., p. 27.
65 Ibid., p. 88.
66 For summaries of the issue, see Zakia Pathak and Rajeswari Sunder RajanRajan, “Shahbanoo,” Signs, vol. 14, no. 3 (1989): 558-81; and Nadita Haksar and Anju Singh, Demystification of Law for Women (New Delhi: Lancer Press, 1986). On how Shahbanoo’s case fueled the Hindus’ campaign against the Babri Mosque, see Nikki R. Keddie, The New Religious Politics and Women Worldwide, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 18.
67 Rahnavard, Safar, p. 82.
68 Mir-Hosain Musavi, Rahnavard’s husband, was criticized while he was prime minister because of her pre-revolutionary conduct; pictures of her dressed in a miniskirt were reprinted in order to discredit him. Information from Azar Nafisi, personal communication, 2000.
75 Payam-e Zan, vol. 3, no. 13 (Esfand 1373 [February/March 1995): 26. For further information about domestic violence in Iran, see Mehrangiz Kar, Khoshunat `aleyheh zanan dar Iran (Tehran: Roshangaran va mutale’at-e zanan, 2000).