Political Science 2101/Introduction to Political Science Spring, 2015

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Political Science 2101/Introduction to Political Science

Spring, 2015

Dr. Douglas Young

Office: 148 in Academic II Building; 678-717-3872; douglas.young@ung.edu

Faculty web site: http://www.gsc.edu/facstaff/Pages/FacultyWebPages.aspx

Politically Incorrect Club on Facebook as “GSC Politically Incorrect Club”

“UNG Chess Club: Gainesville Campus” on Facebook
Office Hours: Mondays Tuesdays Wednesdays Thursdays Fridays

11-12 10-11 11-12 10-11 11-12

2:15-5 1:15-3:30 2:15-5 1:15-3:30

5-5:30 5-5:30

Course Description: This class introduces students to political science, focusing on four major areas of study: political philosophy, American government, comparative politics, and international relations.
Read: Kevin Dooley and Joseph Patten’s Why Politics Matters: An Introduction to Political Science, 2015
Tests: Please bring a pen for all four tests. Your all-essay tests also have 10+ one-point fill-in-the-blank extra credit questions derived from textbook readings assigned in the study guide.
Make-up Tests: If you miss a test, you must promptly justify your absence. Written documentation from your doctor, hospital, etc. is strongly preferred for Dr. Young to decide if you can take a make-up test. If the absence was unjustified, your test grade is O. Only if Dr. Young concludes the absence was absolutely unavoidable can you take a make-up test as soon as possible on your first day back on campus.
Each of your four tests will count as one-fourth of your final course grade. Your final exam is your fourth test and will only cover material covered after Test Three.

Severe Weather Policy: In the event of snow, freezing rain, or the wrath of God, listen to WDUN (550 AM; 102.9 FM) or WSB (750 AM) to hear if UNG wimped out and canceled classes.
Class Attendance: Woody Allen: “Eighty percent of success is showing up.”

A record of punctual regular class attendance will help you with a borderline g.p.a. (89+, 79+, etc.). Persistent absenteeism and lateness are rude and will not help you at all.

You alone are responsible for getting class notes for any class you miss.

Barring a legitimate emergency, a student can leave class early ONLY if he has received Dr. Young’s permission before the period began.

Absolutely no taping of any classes is allowed without Dr. Young’s permission pursuant to receiving documented proof of a student’s relevant learning disability. The contents of Dr. Young’s lectures are the sole legal intellectual property of Dr. Young.

No beepers, cell phones, or texting are allowed in class without permission.

Since an essential element in a good college education is for students to be challenged by competing perspectives, a wide variety of controversial subject matter will be discussed in a free and frank manner consistent with academic freedom protected by the Free Expression Clauses of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. So anyone easily offended and/or opposed to freedom of speech should NOT take this class.
Academic Honesty: Cheating on any test or assignment results in a O for that grade.
Withdrawals: Withdrawing from the class by the midterm earns a W (withdrawn, no F). After that it is a WF (F) unless documented extreme personal difficulties warrant a W.
Questions and Difficulties: Feel free to ask me questions about any aspect of the class.
To help avoid losing points for grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors in your test essays, please scrupulously follow these 25 guidelines:
Spell every word correctly.

Write in complete sentences.

Make sure you have subject-verb agreement in every sentence.

Write in paragraphs, but not one-sentence ones since none of us is Ernest Hemingway.

Do not turn in a full-page paragraph because none of us is William Faulkner, either.

Make sure to indent five spaces to denote the start of each new paragraph.

Do not use abbreviations, except for “etc.”

Write out and, because, with, and within -- do not use the informal symbols.

Spell out a number if it is below 10, like one, two, three, etc.

Use Arabic when using a double-digit number like 10, 11, 12, etc.

Spell out any number that is the first word of a sentence.

Write one-third, not 1/3.

Avoid contractions like don’t, can’t, won’t, wouldn’t, couldn’t, it’s, we’d, you’d, etc.

“Alot” is not a word.

Do not end sentences with prepositions: in, on, of, by, for, with, within, into, under, etc.

Write 95 percent, not 95%.

Always capitalize our Constitution, Congress, and Supreme Court.

Do not write “I feel.” Since this is an intellectual exercise, I think, believe, contend, posit, etc.

Profanity, crude language, and their abbreviations are unacceptable in academic prose.

“Lol,” “smh,” and other informal writing is also inappropriate in academic writing.

Get right to the point. Do not waste time restating a test question. I know it since I wrote it.

Do not go off on tangents that are irrelevant to the question.

Write legibly. If I cannot read your writing, I will not read it and you will earn a 0.

If you know your penmanship is poor, please ask me to let you TYPE your essays.


Study Guide for First Test on Political Philosophy featuring 30 Major Political Theorists
Please read Chapters 1 through 4 and Pages 116, 129, 166-7, 216-20, 258, 266, and 270-75.
-Socrates (470?-399 B.C.) -conscience prevailing over law -logic -the Socratic Method

-government by unelected, educated elites -free thinker -willingness to die for principles

-Plato (427-347 B.C.) -The Republic (360 B.C.) -rule of reason -prescribed class structure

-Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) -Politics (350 B.C.) -the father of comparative politics

-rule of law -a mixed constitutional system -the good and virtuous life

-Cicero (106-43 B.C.) -natural law -humanism -republicanism -the art of political rhetoric

-Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) -The Prince (1515) -realism -the secular nation-state

-the benevolent dictator -“the end justifies the means” -the balance of power

-Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) -Leviathan (1651) -“man is a wolf to his fellow man”

-John Locke (1632-1704) -Two Treatises on Government (1690) -libertarianism

-natural rights -religious freedom -social contract theory -private property rights

-right to revolution -majority rule democracy -legislative primacy -tabula rasa theory

-Charles-Louis Montesquieu (1689-1755) -The Spirit of the Laws (1748) -written constitution

-separation of powers -checks and balances -climate-based theory of development

-Voltaire (1694-1778) -Candide (1759) -“clockmaker of the universe” deism

-libertarian monarchist -political satirist

-Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) -The Social Contract (1762) -condemning private property

-return to the “state of nature” -the general will -educational reformer -religious deist

-David Hume (1711-76) -empirical critic of natural law -agnostic -republican rule of law

-Adam Smith (1723-90) -Wealth of Nations (1776) -laissez-faire capitalism -free trade

-Edmund Burke (1729-97) -Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) -conservatism

-Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) -liberty and peace via constitutional republics & state sovereignty

-Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) -American Declaration of Independence (1776) -libertarian

-democrat -egalitarian -free thinker yet cultural Christian -educational reformer

-James Madison (1751-1836) -U.S. Constitution (1787) -The Federalist Papers (1787-88)

-Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) -utilitarianism -adaptive hedonism -pleasure v. pain principle

-Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) -statism to civilize the masses -the supreme leader

-Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-59) -Democracy in America (1835)

-balancing liberty, equality, and democracy -admiring American Christian volunteerism

-J.S. Mill (1806-73) -On Liberty (1859) -The Subjection of Women (1869) -utilitarian

-libertarian -women’s equality -abolitionist -expanding democracy -social welfare state

-Karl Marx (1818-83) -The Communist Manifesto (1848) -Das Kapital (1867)

-bourgeoisie v. proletariat class conflict -the means of production -labor theory of value

-economic determinism -scientific socialism -dialectical materialism -atheism

-Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) -command and control economy -collectivism

-democratic centralism -atheocracy -totalitarianism -the law of uneven development

-Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) -Beyond Good and Evil (1886) -evangelical atheism

-assaulting all religions, especially Christianity -nihilism -moral relativism

-make a godless life meaningful -“will to power” -ubermensch/superman -statism

-impacting existentialism, modern art, fascism, Nazism, deconstructionism, modern academia

-Ayn Rand (1905-82) -We the Living -Anthem -The Fountainhead -Atlas Shrugged

-objectivism: -individualism -selfishness as a virtue to achieve happiness -libertarianism

-laissez-faire capitalism -atheism -finding meaning through creative work -willpower

-impacting Fed. Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan, Reps. Ron Paul & Paul Ryan, Sen. Rand Paul

-John Dewey (1859-1952) -pragmatism -democratic socialism -progressive education

-John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) -Keynesian economic theory -a mixed economy

-Milton Friedman (1912-2006) -Free to Choose (1980) -laissez-faire capitalism -flat tax

-privatization -volunteer army -parental choice school vouchers -drug legalization

-Noam Chomsky (1928- ) -Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass

Media (1988) -libertarian democratic socialist -anarcho-syndicalist -critic of U.S., Israel

-Charles Murray (1943- ) -Losing Ground (1984) -critiquing the social welfare state

-pushing society’s need for strong families -libertarian conservative -volunteerism

-Dennis Prager (1948- ) -Happiness is a Serious Problem (1999) -happiness is top moral duty

-Still the Best Hope: Why the World Needs American Values to Triumph (2012) -anti-leftist

-anti-Islamist -pro-Judeo-Christian values -cultural and political conservative

Study Guide for Second Test on American Government
Please read Pages Chapters 4 through 7
The U.S. Constitution

The genesis of the U.S. presidency

-1787 constitutional creation -competing conceptions of the office among Founding Fathers

-the Jeffersonian/Madisonian vision -the Hamiltonian vision

Presidential elections

-the electoral college: -constitutional basis -its evolution, especially since the 1820s

-controversies (elections in 1824, 1876, 1888, and 2000) -the case for the college

-the case against it -proposed reforms

-presidential election campaigns: -nomination -“boss rule” -post-1968 primaries

-summer conventions -fall general election campaign

Presidential Roles


-what the U.S. Constitution says -the war power -presidential precedents expand the role

-Washington -Jefferson -Jackson -Polk and the 1846-7 Mexican-American War

-Lincoln’s 1861-5 War Between the States -Theodore Roosevelt’s “Big Stick Diplomacy”

-Wilson and World War I -Franklin Roosevelt and World War II

-Truman and the Cold War and the 1950-3 Korean War -the 1945-90 Cold War

-Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and the 1961-73 Vietnam War -1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution

-1973 Eagleton Amendment -1973 War Powers Resolution -the Reagan resurgence

-post-Cold War Era after 1990 – Globocop? -Bush I and the 1991 Iraq War

-Bush II’s 2001- Afghan and 2003-11 Iraq Wars -Obama’s Afghan and Iraq Wars

-post-9/11/01 War on Islamic Terrorism waged by Bush II and Obama

-National Security Council (NSC) -Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)

-congressional bipartisan support for presidents’ foreign policies, especially post-WWII

-the U.S. Supreme Court endorses the dramatic growth of the commander-in-chief role

-giving Lincoln a pass -upholding Wilson’s Espionage and Sedition Acts

-twice okaying FDR’s internment of Japanese-Americans

-press treatment of presidents as wartime leaders -usually strong public support

-“the imperial presidency”? -Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.’s thesis on Johnson and Nixon

-a much weakened presidency in the wake of the Vietnam War: -Gerald Ford -Carter

-a major resurgence of presidential war powers under Reagan, Bush I and II, and Obama

-the thesis that the post-9/11/01 presidency is too imperial and militaristic

-U.S. drone strikes -intelligence revelations -the ever-larger national security state
-Chief Diplomat: -Founding Fathers’ intent -America becomes a 20th century world power

-treaty-making: -Wilson’s 1919 Versailles Treaty -Nixon’s 1972 SALT I & ABM Treaties

-Carter’s 1979 SALT II -Reagan’s 1988 INF -Bush I’s 1991 START I & 1993 START II

-treaty-breaking: -Goldwater v. Carter (1980)

-executive agreements -executive privilege: -U.S. v. Nixon (1974)

-16 U.S. intelligence agencies with 107,000+ workers and a $52.6 billion annual budget

-Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) -National Security Agency (NSA)

-National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)

-congressional restraints on presidential power as chief diplomat

-isolationism v. interventionism among the American people throughout our history

-Chief Executive: -growing presidential responsibilities, strengths, and weaknesses in the role

-competing management styles: -FDR’s many tracks -Eisenhower’s strong chief of staff

-Polk and Carter as micro-managers -Reagan and Bush II as delegators

-naming federal judges and U.S. Supreme Court justices: “the real prize of the presidency”

-Jefferson -Jackson -Lincoln -FDR -Eisenhower -Carter -Reagan

-increasing concentration of domestic power via executive orders and the regulatory state

-competing federal bureaucracies -Treasury, State, and Defense Departments

-Justice Department: -Attorney General -Civil Rights Office

-FBI history -FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover’s 1924-72 reign -post-Hoover Era
-Legislative Leader: -growing expectations, strengths, and weaknesses of the role -vetoes

-1921 Budget & Accounting Act -economic manager since the 1930s’ Great Depression

-the most successful legislative leader presidents and their winning tactics

-FDR -LBJ -Wilson -T.R. –Reagan

-less successful legislative leader presidents and their mistakes

-JFK -Carter -Bush I

-a legislative case study: the 2010 Affordable Healthcare Act/“Obamacare”
Congress: -roles -structure -similarities/differences between the two houses -leaders

-gerrymandering -committees -making laws -vetoes -filibusters -cloture -treaties

-confirming presidential nominees to the:

-High Court -lower federal courts -cabinet and sub-cabinet -ambassadorships

-Federal Reserve Board -heads of agencies, bureaus, administrations, etc.

-staff -interest groups -elections

The Federal Courts

-U.S. District Courts -U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal -the U.S. Supreme Court

-originalists -textualists -evolving standards interpretation of U.S. Constitution

-nationalists v. states’ righters -judicial restraint v. activism

-major constitutional issues faced by the High Court

-religion -speech -press -assembly -protest -guns -death penalty

-rights of the accused -privacy: -birth control -abortion -homosexual rights

-equal protection of the law -affirmative action -Obamacare

Political Parties: -definition and purposes -America’s two-party system -third parties

-political parties since FDR’s 1932 election -voter turn-out in recent decades

Interest Groups: -definition and purposes -how interest groups and parties differ

-bases of support for interest groups -examples -PACs -pros and cons

Study Guide for Third Test on Comparative Politics
Please read Chapters 5 through 8
Types of Governments: -authoritarian -absolute monarchy/dynasty -theocracy

-aristocracy -oligarchy -political/personal autocracy -fascist -military/junta

-puppet/colonial -Marxist-Leninist/communist -totalitarian -mixed/transitional

-constitutional -parliamentary democracy -presidential democracy

Political Concepts/Terms: -political ecology/geography -political culture -pol. socialization

-collective memory -political perception -colonialism -imperialist powers

-mass mobilization -coup d’etat -heir apparent -divine right -tyranny -mob rule
Economic Concepts/Terms: -development/modernization -evolutionary process

-1st, 2nd, and 3rd worlds -free enterprise/capitalist/market economies -laissez-faire

-democratic socialist -mixed -communist/command/state/centralized -privatization

-gross nation product (GNP) -per capita GNP -determinism -dependency theory

-terms of trade -capital flight -work ethic -International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Western Europe (major emphases on the United Kingdom, France, and Germany)

Common History: -“modernization from within” -ideal climate -Renaissance

-Protestant Reformation -mercantilism -Scientific Revolution -Industrial Revolution

-imperialism -balance of power -Enlightenment -secular humanism -liberalism

-WWI -WWII -Cold War -Marshall Plan -NATO -European Union
Contemporary Characteristics: -democratic -capitalist/democratic socialist -well-educated

-secular -middle class -urban -materialistic -high-tech -largely classist

-becoming post-industrial -debt problems
The United Kingdom [(Great) Britain (England, Scotland, Wales) and Northern Ireland]

History: -early unification -Magna Carta -London -English Channel -sea power

-empire -Anglo-American Alliance -loss of colonies -socialism -economic record

-immigration -Muslim terrorism -Northern Ireland -Scotland -Wales

Modern Government: -constitutional monarchy -rule of law -statutory law -common law

-custom and convention -works of authority -unitary system -parliamentary sovereignty

-House of Commons -MPs -House of Lords -Prime Minister (P.M.)

-Cabinet government -Whitehall -Tory (Conservative) Party -Labour Party -elections

-P.M.s Lady Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, David Cameron

History: -climate -geography -isolation -repeatedly invaded -imperialism

-Romanov Dynasty -Czar Nicholas II -WWI -10/1917 Revolution -Bolsheviks

-Vladimir Lenin -Leon Trotsky -Soviet government -Marxism-Leninism -Joseph Stalin -totalitarianism -collectivization -WWII -conquest of Eastern Europe -Cold War

-economic collapse -Mikhail Gorbachev -glasnost -perestroika

-12/25/91 break-up of Soviet Union -Boris Yeltsin

Modern Government: -Russian Federation -President/P.M. Vladimir Putin -Duma

-conversion to capitalism -corruption -democratic dictatorship? -Chechen Muslim terrorism


Common History: -Confucian societies -tradition-bound -hierarchical -empires

-dynastic authoritarianism -colonialism -population crunch -recent reforms -corruption
Contemporary Characteristics: -democratization -capitalist boom -Westernization

Modern History: -Confucianism -Buddhism -Royal Dynasty -Western imperialism

-1839-42 Opium War -Chiang Kai-chek -1931-45 WWII -1949 Revolution

-Mao Zedong rules from 1949 to 1976 -1950-53 Korean War -tyranny -economic chaos

-1966-76 Cultural Revolution -Deng Xiaoping rules from 1977 to the early 1990s

-population control -capitalist conversion -Westernized popular culture

-1989 Tiananmen Square Crisis -rapid, massive modernization -demands for more freedom

-Hong Kong since 1997 -Taiwan -enduring tensions with Japan -evolving ties with U.S.

Modern Government: -politically communist -economically capitalist -President Xi Jinping
Study Guide for Fourth Test/Final Exam on International Relations
Please read Chapters 9 through 11

Modern geopolitical history

European prelude to World War I

-multipolarity -1870 Franco-Prussian War -nation-by-nation analysis -WWI causes

-WWI (1914-1918)

-between the two world wars (1918-1939)

-President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points Peace Plan of 1918 -1919 Versailles Treaty

-1920s/30s rise of Japanese, Italian, and German Fascism -1930s Appeasement

-Munich Pact of 1938 -Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939 -Maginot Line

-World War II (1939-1945): -Hitler’s mistakes

-Post-WWII Breakup of the British Empire

-Cold War (1945-1990)

-1945 Yalta Conference -Soviet Iron Curtain covers Eastern Europe (1945-1948)

-U.S. containment policy -Truman Doctrine: -Greece (1947) -Turkey (1947)

-Berlin crises (1948-9, 1961) -Marshall Plan (1948-51) -NATO -Warsaw Pact

-Communist China (1949- ) -Korean War (1950-1953) -1956 Hungarian Revolt

-nuclear arms race -MAD -nuclear triad -Sputnik

-1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba -1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

-1968 Russian invasion of Czeckoslovakia -Brezhnev Doctrine

-Vietnam War (1945-75) -Detente (1970s) -“the China Card” -Ostpolitik

-12/79 Russian invasion of Afghanistan -Gorbachev’s glasnost and perestroika

-1989 Tiananmen Square protest and massacre

-1989-91 collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

-Post-Cold War U.S. hegemony/unipolarity?: -1991 Persian Gulf War

-1990s’ Yugoslavian civil war -post-9/11/01 war on Islamic Terrorism

-2001 Liberation of Afghanistan -2003 Liberation of Iraq -soaring national debts

Americans: -Woodrow Wilson -Franklin Roosevelt -Harry Truman

-Dwight Eisenhower -John Kennedy -Lyndon Johnson -Richard Nixon

-Henry Kissinger -Jimmy Carter -Ronald Reagan -George Bush I

-Bill Clinton -George Bush II -Barack Obama

Austrians: -Emperor Francis Josef -Archduke Francis Ferdinand

British: -David Lloyd George -Sir Winston Churchill -Lady Margaret Thatcher

-Tony Blair -David Cameron

Chinese: -Mao Zedong -Zhou En-lai -Deng Xiaoping -Xi Jinping

Cubans: -Fidel Castro -Ernesto “Che” Guevara

French: -Georges Clemenceau -Charles de Gaulle -Francois Mitterrand

-Jacques Chirac -Nicholas Sarkozy -Francois Hollande

Germans: -Otto von Bismarck -Karl Marx -Kaiser Wilhelm II -Adolf Hitler

-Konrad Adenauer -Willy Brandt -Helmut Kohl -Gerhard Schroeder

-Angela Merkel

Italians: -Benito Mussolini

Japanese: -Hideki Tojo

Russians: -Czar Nicholas II -Vladimir Lenin -Joseph Stalin -Nikita Khrushchev

-Leonid Brezhnev -Mikhail Gorbachev -Boris Yeltsin -Vladimir Putin

Spaniards: -Francisco Franco

Vietnamese: -Ho Chi Minh

Major theories of international relations

Realism: -Niccolo Machiavelli E.H. Carr -Hans J. Morganthau

Idealism/Liberalism: -W. Wilson -Jimmy Carter -George Bush II? -Barack Obama

Marxism: -Karl Marx -Vladimir Lenin -dependency theory

Some thoughts to ponder….
Rose Tremain: “This life is not a dress rehearsal.”

Cory Branan: “Nothing scars you deeper than the things you haven’t done.”

M. Gandhi: “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.”

Abraham Lincoln: “It’s not the years of one’s life that counts. It’s the life of one’s years.”

Albert Einstein: “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that

counts can be counted.” Ooh. Deeeep.

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