Policy Analysis in Canada: The State of the Art



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Policy Analysis in Canada:

The State of the Art

Edited by:


Laurent Dobuzinskis

(dobuzins@sfu.ca)


Michael Howlett

(howlett@sfu.ca)


David Laycock

(laycock@sfu.ca)


Department of Political Science

Simon Fraser University

Burnaby BC

Canada


V5A 1S6

Manuscript prepared for the University of Toronto Press

Complete Final Draft 2

February 24, 2005



Table of Contents


Table of Contents ii

Table of Tables (Heading 9) ix

Table of Figures (Heading 8) xi

Acknowledgements xii

Introduction 1

CHAPTER 1 2

Introduction Policy Analysis in Canada: The State of the Art 2

THE EDITORS 2

Introduction 2

Knowledge Utilization and Policy Analysis: The 3rd Community 2

Knowledge Brokers and Policy Analysis 5

Ongoing Research Questions in the Study of Canadian Policy Analysis 8

The Origins and Purposes of the Book 12

Section by Section Summary 13

References 16

PART ONE 23

Overview 23

CHAPTER 2 24

The Policy Analysis Movement 24

The Evolving Demand for Policy Analysis 26

The Evolving Supply of Policy Analysis 33

Prospects for the Policy Analysis Movement 41

References 45

CHAPTER 3 49

The Policy Analysis Profession in Canada 49

STEPHEN BROOKS 49

Introduction 49

Perspectives on the Policy Analysis Profession 52

The Formative Period 1913-1945 57

Consolidating its Influence, 1945-1968 64

Policy Analysis in the Age of Scientism: 1968 Onward 73

Conclusion 82

CHAPTER 4 86

Policy Analysis Methods in Canada 86

AIDAN R. VINING AND ANTHONY E. BOARDMAN 86

Introduction: The Problem of Policy Choice 86

A Metachoice Framework 89

Goals 90


Monetization 95

The Four Choice Method Classes 97

(Comprehensive) Cost-Benefit Analysis 97

Efficiency Analysis 100

Embedded Cost-Benefit Analysis 109

Multi-Goal Analysis 113

Conclusion 117

References 120

CHAPTER 5 145

Beyond Formal Policy Analysis: Governance Context and Analytical Styles in Canada 145

MICHAEL HOWLETT AND EVERT LINDQUIST 145

Introduction 145

Parsing Out Policy Analysis 148

Modes of Policy Analysis 149

Differential Policy Skills and Analytical Capacities 150

Differential Values and Politics 152

Differential Governance Contexts: National, Sectoral, and Agency Variations 153

Patterns and Trends in Canadian Policy Analytic Styles 160

National Level: Westminster Traditions, Competitive Federalism 160

Policy Sectors: Dispersed Expertise, Selective Consultation, Power Asymmetries 163

The Agency Level: Analytic Capacity Varies by Jurisdiction and Sector 167

Concluding Remarks: Canada’s Policy Analytic Style 169

Notes 172

References 173

CHAPTER 6 187

Canadian Public Policy Analysis and Public Policy Programs in Comparative Perspective 187

IRIS GEVA-MAY AND ALLAN MASLOVE 187

Public Policy Analysis: Trends and Developments 187

The Policy Analysis Profession: Characteristics and Needs 188

The Development of the Profession 192

Institutional Developments in Canada, U.S. and Europe 198

Policy Analysis in Canadian Universities 198

Policy Analysis in American Universities 204

Policy Analysis in European Universities 209

Conclusions: Canada in a Comparative Perspective 215

Notes 219

References 219

Part II 225

The Core 225

CHAPTER 7 226

Soft Craft, Hard Choices, Altered Context: Reflections On 25 Years of Policy Advice in Canada 226

MICHAEL J. PRINCE 226

Policy Advice as Public Sector Work: The Soft Craft of Hard Choices 228

A Changing Context of Policy Advice in Canada 235

Speaking Truth to Power as a Model of Policy Advising 236

A New Model of Policy Advising: Many Actors Sharing Many Truths 240

Concluding Reflections 246

Notes 253

References 254

CHAPTER 8 259

Policy Analysis and Bureaucratic Capacity: Context, Competencies, and Strategies 259

EVERT A. LINDQUIST AND JAMES A. DESVEAUX 259

Introduction 259

The Institutional Setting for Policy Analysis 262

The Demand for Policy Expertise 262

The Supply of Policy Expertise 264

Competencies for Well-Performing Policy Units 267

Mobilizing Policy Expertise: Three Modal Strategies 272

Evaluating Strategies for Mobilizing Policy Capacity 276

Policy Mobilization Strategies in Perspective 281

Conclusion: Implications for Management, Reform and Research 285

Lessons for Management 286

Implications for Institutional Design 288

A New Research Agenda 290

291

CHAPTER 9 292



Policy Analysis in the Federal Government: Building the Forward-looking Policy Research Capacity 292

JEAN-PIERRE VOYER 292

Introduction 292

The Fellegi Report 294

The Policy Research Initiative 296

Reaching Out to the External Policy Analysis Community 300

Departmental Policy Research Capacity 304

The Leaders 304

The B Pool 307

Analytic Tools and Methods 310

Does All This Make a Difference? 313

Conclusion: Looking Ahead 314

Notes 315

References 316

CHAPTER 10 320

Observations on Policy-Making in Provincial Governments in Canada 320

DOUG MCARTHUR 320

Introduction 320

Policy Analysis and Politics 321

What Happens in the Policy Process? 326

Organizing Deliberations in Government 330

Analysis and Public Policy Development within the Bureaucracy 338

Program Reviews and Policy Analysis 340

New Public Management 345

Policy Negotiations 352

The British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly 360

Conclusion 365

References 367

CHAPTER 11 369

Policy Analysis for Whom? Institutional Inadequacy and the Potential for Democratic Policy-Making Deviation in Eight Canadian Cities. 369

PATRICK J. SMITH AND KENNEDY STEWART 369

Introduction 369

Exploring Democratic Policy-Making in Canadian Cities 369

Institutional Standards for Democratic Policy Making 373

Electoral Stage Institutions 374

Legislative Stage Institutions 379

Administrative Stage Institutions 382

The State of Canadian Local Democratic Policy-Making Institutions. 385

Electoral Stage Institutions 386

Legislative Stage Institutions 389

Administrative Stage Institutions 393

Conclusion: Assessing Potential for Deviation 396

Notes 399

Reference 400

Part III 405

Insiders 405

CHAPTER 12 406

Back to the Future? Is There a Case for Re-establishing the Economic Council and/or the Science Council? 406

LAURENT DOBUZINSKIS 406

Historical Background 407

The Economic Council 408

The Science Council 413

The Evolution of Policy the Councils’ Research Agendas 419

Canadian Policy Research Networks: The Economic Council Redux? 429

The Science Council’s Crusade for an Industrial Policy 430

The Legacy of the Science Council 435

The Case for Re-Establishing the Science Council 436

445


Notes 445

Table 1 451

Classification by Subject of the Publications (1964-92) of the Economic Council of Canada 451

References 454

CHAPTER 13 460

The Public of Public Inquiries 460

LIORA SALTER 460

Dealing with the Terminology 464

How Do Inquiries Conceive of the Public? 474

What Are The Options? 486

References 489

CHAPTER 14 490

Committees Inside Canadian Legislatures 490

JOSIE SCHOFIELD AND JONATHAN FERSHAU 490

Introduction 490

Defining and Classifying Committees 494

Defining Committees 494

Parliamentary Committees 495

Caucus Committees 496

Classifying Committees 497

Policy Cycle Model 497

Agenda-setting stage 498

Policy Formulation Stage 499

Decision-making Stage 501

Policy Implementation Stage 502

Policy Evaluation Stage 502

Summary 503

Assessing the Effectiveness of Committees 504

Institutional Constraints 504

Political Factors 506

Size of a Legislature 506

Number of Parties 510

Legislative Independence 513

Legislative Resources and Services 515

Conclusion 516

Notes 517

CHAPTER 15 524

How Policy Makers View Public Opinion 524

FRANCOIS PETRY 524

Introduction 524

Methods 525

The Sources of Public Opinion 528

Three Conceptions of Public Opinion 535

Explaining Variation in Conceptions of Public Opinion 541

Conclusion 545

Note 553


Reference 555

CHAPTER 16 559

The Invisible Private Service: Consultants and Public Policy in Canada 559

KIMBERLY SPEERS 559

Introduction 559

Defining Consultants 563

History of Consulting in Canada 568

Why Governments Hire Management Consultants 573

Impact of Consultants on the Policy Process and Policy Analysis 578

Consultants and Public Policy 585

Closing Thoughts 592

CHAPTER 17 599

Policy Study and Development in Canada’s Political Parties 599

WILLIAM CROSS 599

Introduction 599

Members and Party Policy Development 600

Policy Making Within Parties: The Need for Policy Foundations 609

Conclusion 618

References 620

CHAPTER 18 625

Academics and Public Policy: Informing Policy-Analysis and Policy Making 625

DANIEL COHN 625

Introduction 625

Knowledge Users, Generators and Brokers 628

Academic Research and Public Policy: Decisions and Analysis 630

Activated Academics in Action: Economic Reform 637

Academics and Policy-Making: Taking Account of Context 644

References 649

CHAPTER 19 657

Any Ideas? Think Tanks and Policy Analysis in Canada 657

DONALD E. ABELSON 657

Introduction 657

Classifying Think Tanks 661

The Canadian Think Tank Experience 663

The First Wave, 1900-45 663

The Second Wave, 1946-70 664

The Third Wave 1971-1989 665

The Fourth Wave? 1990-2004 668

Think Tanks at Work 671

Competing in the Marketplace of Ideas 677

Think Tanks and Policy Influence 679

Conclusion 683

References 688

Business Associations and Policy Analysis in Canada 691

ANDREW STRITCH 691

The Extent of Policy Analysis 692

Means and Mechanisms of Policy Analysis 698

Analytical Focus 703

Level of Government 704

Issues 706

Dissemination of Results 711

Conclusions 714

Appendix – Policy Analysis Questionnaire 717

CHAPTER 21 724

The Media 724

CATHERINE MURRAY 724

Introduction 724

The Media and Policy Networks 726

Factors Affecting the Media’s Entry into Policy Networks 729

Mediated Policy Making 736

Reportage & Framing 737

Interrogation & Whistle-blowing 742

Investigation 744

Interpretation 748

Conclusion 751

References 754

CHAPTER 22 759

Policy Analysis and the Voluntary Sector: An Open and Shut Case 759

SUSAN D. PHILLIPS 759

The Voluntary Sector Defined 761

The Governance Context: New Opportunities 764

Elements of a Policy Style for the New Governance 765

Regulating Policy Participation 768

Capacities for Policy Participation 770

Policy Capacity 772

Network Capacity 777

Project and Program Capacity 782

Matching Opportunity and Capacities: The Policy Presence of the Voluntary Sector 783

Conclusion: Implications for Policy Studies 787

Notes 790

References 792

Chapter 23 798

1Policy Analysis by the Labour Movement in a Hostile Environment 798

ANDREW JACKSON AND BOB BALDWIN 798

Introduction: From Junior Insiders to Outsiders 798

Continuity and Change in Labour’s Policy Goals 811

Policy Analysis Related to Party Politics 813

Engagement in the Formal Policy Process 814

Policy Analysis by Labour at the Provincial Level 818

Shifting the Contours of Public Policy ‘Against the Prevailing Winds’ CLC 819

Research 819

Labour Policy Analysis in Relation to Non-Governmental Organizations and Think- Tanks 821

Concluding Thoughts 827

831


Contributors 831



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