Poiret On 5 for editions consult: Fabricius, ut sup., pp. 286294; Oehler, ut sup., pp. 776 781, Hertel, ut sup., pp. 308 325; and for discussions: BSlhr, ut sup., p. 23; Manitius, ut sup., 344 348; O. Bardenhewer, Patrdapie, Freiburg, 1901, Eng. tranal., St. Louis, 1908.
On 6 for editions consult: Hartel, ut sup., pp. 302 305; Peiper, ut sup., 227 230; for discussions, Bithr, ut sup., p. 24; Ebert, ut sup., pp. 313 314; Manitius, ut sup., pp. 130 133.
For the rest the works already cited are available. Additional sources for one or more are: S. Brandt, Ueber das dem Lact. zugeschriebene Gedicht, Leipsic, 1891; W. Brandes, Ueber die frbhchrldtliche Gedicht Laudes Domini, Brunswick, 1887; (on 10) G. Ddisle, in BibliotU9ue de 1'fcole des chartes, ser. 6, vol. iii., pp. 297 eqq., Paris, 1867, and T. Mommsen, in llermea, iv (1869), 350 363; (on 13 14): A. Mai, Class" auctorm, v. 382 385, Rome, 1833, and A. Oxe, Vietorini versus de lege Domini, Crefeld, 1894. For editions of 18 that of Bladus, Rome, 1542, and that in MPG, xxxviii. 131 338 may be named; and the later ones of F. Diibner, Paris, 1846; J. G. Brambs, Leipsic, 1885; A. Ellison, ib. 1885 (Greek and German; useful for the list of literature and the introduction); Germ. transl. by E. A. Pullig, Bonn, 1893. Consult Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp. 746 748 (also with lists of literature).
POESCHL, pfi'ahl, THOMAS:Austrian chiliast;
b. at H6ritz (20 m. s.w. of Budweis), Bohemia, Mar.
2, 1769; d. at Vienna Nov. 15, 1837. He was edu
cated for the Roman Catholic priesthood at Linz
and Vienna, and after ordination became, in 1804,
cooperator, catechist, and director of the school at
Braunau on the Inn. In 1806 he attended the
Protestant Johann Philipp Palm at his execution,
and became filled with wild hatred of Napoleon,
while his impassioned, sermons caused some to regard
him as a saint and others as a maniac. At this crisis
he came into contact with the mystic and chiliastic
Roman Catholic " Brothers and Sisters in Zion,"
and was accordingly removed to Ampfelwang,
whither the " Brothers and Sisters " also trans
ferred their headquarters. The great battle of Leip
sic, however, caused his insanity to become unmis
takable. Supported by the revelations of a certain
clergy at Vienna, where he remained until his death.
Under the leadership of a peasant named Johann
Haas, the followers of PSschl went on to still wilder
vagaries than their leader, though without falling
into sensuality or giving a single addition to Prot
estantism. Even when deserted by Haas and Mag
dalena Sickinger, they remained true to Poschl,
who had adherents a generation later, not only in
Bohemia, but also in Baden, Franconia, Hesse, and
Frankfort, while in 1831 some fifty emigrated to
Louisiana, where they made an unsuccessful at
tempt at communism. His three great tenets were
the indwelling of Christ in the heart through faith,
the conversion of the Jews, and the repentance of
the Christians; and he likewise advocated the use
of the vernacular in the liturgy, the administration
of the Eucharist under both kinds, and the rejection
of images. (GEORG LOESCHE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. W6rth, Die proteatantisehe Pforreu Vtiklabruck (1818 18,136). Bin Beitrap zur Kenntniss . . der Poschlianer, Marktbreit, 1825; M. Hiptmair, Thomas
Pbachl im Lichte seiner Selbatbiographie, Vienna, 1893;
T. Wiedemann, Die religiose Bewegung in Oberoateneich
. beim Beginne des 18. Jahrhunderta, Innsbruck, 1890;
ADB, xxvi. 454!55; KL, x. 118 121.
POETRY, HEBREW.See HEBREW LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, III.
P08LE, pb'le, JOSEPH: German Roman Catholic; b. at Niederapay (7 m. s. of Coblenz) Mar. 19, 1852. He was educated at the Gregorian University, Rome (1871 79; Ph.D., 1874; D.D., 1879), and the University of Wiirzburg (1879 81); was teacher in the intermediate school at Baar, Switzerland (1881 83), professor of dogmatic theology in St. Joseph's College, Leeds, England, (1883 86), professor of philosophy at Fulda, Prussia (1886 89), professor of apologetics at the Catholic University of America (1889 94), and professor of dogmatic theology at the University of Munster (1894 97). Since 1897 he has been professor of the same subject at the University of Breslau. He has been one of the editors of the Philosophi8ches Jahrbuch der GorTesgesellschaft since its establishment in 1888, and has written P. Angelo Secchi, S. J., Bin Lebens and Kulturbild aus dem neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Cologne, 1883); Die Sternenwelten and ihre Bewohner, zugleich als erste EinfiArung in die moderne Astronomie (2 vols., 1883 84); and Lehrbuch der Dogmatik fur akademische Vorlesungen and sum Selbstunterricht (3 vols., Paderborn, 1902 05, new ed., 1908).
POINTS OF AGREEMENT, HESSIAN.See VERBESSERUNGSPUNKTE, HESSISCHE.
POIRET, pwdl"r6', PIERRE: Prominent French mystic; b. at Metz Apr. 15, 1646; d. at Rijnsburg (3 m. n. of Leyden) May 21, 1719. After the early death of his parents, he supported himself by the engraver's trade and the teaching of French, at the same time studying theology, in Basel, Hanau, and, after 1668, Heidelberg. At Basel he was captivated by Descartes' philosophy, which never quite lost its hold on him. He read also Thomas 6 Kempis and Tauler, but was especially influenced by the writings of the Dutch Mennonite mystic Hendrik Jansz van Barneveldt, published about that time under the pseudonym of Emmanuel Hiel. In 1672 he became pastor of the French church at Annweiler in the duchy of Deux Ponts. Here he became acquainted with Elisabeth, abbess of Hereford, the granddaughter of James I. of England and a noted mystic, with the Theologia Germanica (q.v.), and with the writings of Antoinette Bourignon (q.v.), which last supplied exactly what he wanted. The desire to make the acquaintance of this gifted woman took him to Holland in 1676. He settled in Amsterdam, and published there in the following year his Cogitationzs rationales de Deo, anima, et Malo, which gained him an immediate reputation for scholarship and philosophic insight. It is Cartesian in form; the Trinity is conceived in mathematical terms; all knowledge is to rest on evidence but the end of this knowledge of God is practical, to lead distracted Christendom back to unity. The influence of Thomas h, Kempis and Tauler is plainly visible.
From Holland Poiret went on to Hamburg, still
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG in quest of Antoinette Bourignon, was completely won by her at the first meeting, and until her death in 1680, he was her faithful disciple. He accompanied her in her wanderings, traveled several times as far as Holstein in connection with her exceedingly confused affairs, and returned to Amsterdam to see to the publication of her complete works, to which he prefixed a thoroughgoing defense of her and added a translation of the G6ttliche Gesicht of Hans Engelbrecht (q.v.), the Brunswick enthusiast. He defended her character and divine mission in a Mdmoire touchant la vie de Mlle. A. Bourignon (1679), and championed her cause against Bayle and ~eckendorf. He was also a warm admirer of Jane Lead (q.v.). In 1688 he settled at Rijnsburg, where he busied himself on his own works and in multifarious labors for the Dutch booksellers, such as in the Dutch edition of Ruinart. Among his original productions may be mentioned Llconomie divine, otc syatbme universel et dtmonw des vuvres et lea desseins de Dieu enver8 lee hommes (Amsterdam, 1687; Eng. transl., The Divine (Economy, 6 vole., London, 1713), which purports to reproduce the visionary notions of Antoinette Bourignon, but at least gives them in intelligible and consistent form. Another work, La Paix des dynes duns toua lee par& du Chriatianisme (1687), disregards the formal creeds of the various churches, and appeals to the minority of really sincere Christians, urging them to an inner union without the abandonment of their external affiliations. In De erudition, solids, superfciaria et fal8a (1692), he distinguishes between superficial knowledge of the names of things and real or solid knowledge of the things themselves, which latter is to be attained by humble renunciation of one's own wisdom and will. He continued to make contributions to the philosophical and religious controversies of the time, as, for example,
against Bayle and his " hypocritical " opposition
to Spinoza. The work which probably ran throug
the most editions was the little treatise on the education of children which first appeared in 1690 '
a collection of his shorter writings: was frequentl translated, and influenced the Pietistic controve
at Hamburg. His most permanently valuable contribution was Bibliotheca myaticorum seleeta (1708), which displays an astonishing acquaintance with ancient and modern mystics, and contains valuable information on some of the less known writers. He also published a large number of mystical writings both from the Middle Ages and from the French Pietists of the seventeenth century. In 1704 he brought out a new edition of Mme. Guyon's writings, with the addition of a treatise printed for the first time and an introduction. In spite of his devotion to her, he was not a Quietist in the ordinary sense of the word. He would not have man's relation to God one of pure passivity but of receptivity. He repudiated predestination, and condemned Pelagianism because it suppressed the feeling of inherent sinfulness in man just as he opposed Socinianism because it did not ascribe the whole of salvation to the operation of God's grace. Mystic as he was, he knew how to combine with his own peculiar attitude a firm insistence on certain dogmatic definitions, such as that of the Trinity. He
continually appealed to the authority of Scripture. Though after 1680 he led a quiet and retired life, he was recognized widely by the scholars of his time, such as Thomasius and Bayle, Le Clerc and Walch, as a man of great learning; and his zealous participation in the cause of Antoinette .Bourignon did not injure his good name as a devout mystic and an honorable man. His influence persisted after his death, not merely through the work of his spiritual son Tersteegen, but through the respect which his writings won for mysticism, forcing the regular theology, as represented by Le Clerc, Lange, Buddeus, Walch, and Stapfer, to take account of it. S. CRAMER.
BIELI0aHAFHY: The one source, contemporary, exact, and detailed, sent by Poiret himelf to Ancillon and after Poiret's death printed in Latin in the Bsbliotheca Bremenaia, iii. 1, Bremen, 1720, is printed as gore Verhae2 van lea
8chryvem Petrus Poireta leven en &hriften in De poddelyke Huiahoudinp, ii 3188 1723. Next to this the best references are to A. lipeii, Gewhiedenia van de %riddyke %erk in de achttiende Eeuw, x. 510 531 Utrecht, 1809; idem, Geachiedenia der awtematiwhe Godgelwdheid iii. 48 81; and M. Gdbel, GewhicW des chriaaichen Lebena in der rheiniwh westphbliachen evangeliachen Kirche, Vol. iii., Coblenz, 1880. The more general works on blramecrsat (see the bibliography there) have practically nothing additional to what is contained in the preceding cf. R. A.
Vaughan, Hours with she Mystics, ii. 290, 8th ed., London, n.d.
There were present the king, his mother, the princes
and princesses royal, high dignitaries of the crown,
and many courtiers; while from among the lords
spiritual were present the cardinals of Tournon,
Lorraine, Chatillon, Armagnac, Bourbon, and
Guise; the archbishops of Bordeaux and Embrun,
thirty six bishops, representatives of absent prel
ates, many deputies of abbeys and monasteries,
and theologians and professors of the Sorbonne.
The Reformed were represented by twenty dele
gates and fourteen elders.
After preliminary addresses by the king and
chancellor, Beza delivered a long address in which
he sought to demonstrate the patriotism and peace
fulness of his party and gave a brief
The summary of the Reformed doctrines
Sessions. to show that they differed in very
essential points from tenets previously
held, and that they did not reject each and every
fundamental principle of Christianity so as to be
on a plane of those of Jews and Mohammedans. This presentation contained many citations for authority from the Fathers. When, however, Beza spoke of the Eucharist, and declared that the body of Christ was as far from the bread as the highest heaven is from the earth, he was interrupted with vehement disapproval. He was followed by Cardinal Tournon, who expressed his entire disapproval of Beza's attitude and concluded the session by demanding a written copy of the Reformed leader's address, which was apparently altered by Beza before it was printed. For the second session the prelates entrusted the cardinal of Lorraine with the refutation of Beza. The Roman Catholic reply was to comprise the following four doctrines: the Church and her authority; the powers of councils to represent the entire Church, which includes not only the elect, but also the non elect; the authority of the Scriptures; and the real and substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist. This was to be followed by the presentation of a creed controverting the Reformed confession and by pronouncing condemnation on the preachers if they should refuse to accept it, after which the conference was to be closed. The Protestants, learning of this, protested to the king, who obliged the prelates to defer their proposed condemnation and adjournment. The second session took place on Sept. 16, and was opened by the cardinal of Lorraine. Expressing the pleasure of the prelates to learn that the Reformed were in harmony with the Apostles' Creed, he yet called attention to other points in which they deviated from Roman Catholic teaching. In his discussion of the Eucharist, the cardinal carefully avoided all offensive phraseology, and even avoided references to transubstantiation and the mass, speaking of the real presence in a quasi Lutheran sense. .Discussion and a copy of the address were denied, to Beza's disappointment. On the following evening Catherine summoned Beza and Peter Martyr, the latter of whom expressed his hope of reaching an understanding if the Eucharistic problem were omitted from discussion and each one were permitted to believe and preach according as he was convinced by the word of God. The queen expressed her intention of doing all in her power to bring about such an understanding. [It is a significant fact that at the conference while the Roman Catholic prelates were seated, the Protestants were required to remain standing.]
The further course of events was determined by the intervention of the papal legate, the cardinal of Ferrara, uncle of the duchess of Guise. He advised the queen to restrain the king, the cardinal of Tournon, and the majority of the prel
Results. ates, from attending further confer
ences, pleading that an agreement
might the more easily be reached if the irreconcil
able spirits were absent. On Sept. 24, therefore, a
conference was summoned with twelve represen
tatives of each party; and the debate, which was
without result, concluded with the question of the
cardinal of Lorraine whether the Reformed were
ready to subscribe to the Augsburg Confession. On
the following day Montluc, bishop of Valence, and
Poland, Christianity is THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 104
D'Espence conferred, at the queen's command, with Beza and Nicolas des Gallarda on a compromise formula. The result was as follows: " We believe that the true body and the true blood of Jesus Christ really and substantially, that is, in their proper substance, are, in a spiritual and ineffable manner, present and offered in the Holy Communion and that they are thus received by the faithful who communicate." When, on Sept. 26, negotiations were continued publicly, Beza declared that the Reformed could not accept this formula. The ultimate failure of compromise is perhaps due to the Jesuit general Lainez, who hitherto played his part under cover but, admitted to the colloquy on Sept. 26, vehemently and scurrilously attacked the Protestants, to whom Beza replied. The debate continued until late at night; and for further discussion a committee of five on each side was appointed; among the Roman Catholics being Montluc and D'Espence, and among the Reformed Beza and Peter Martyr. After three conferences (Sept. 29, Oct. 1, and Oct. 3) a formula was reached teaching the real presence, of which the substance was given through the operation of the Holy Ghost, the body of Christ being received spiritually and through faith. All at court were satisfied, but when the formula was submitted to the assembled prelates on Oct. 9, the majority declared the formula heretical. A rigidly Roman Catholic formula was immediately drawn up, and it was resolved to give no further hearing to the Reformed after their refusal to subscribe, and to urge the king to banish the recalcitrants. Negotiations were broken off at Poissy on Oct. 9. Ten days later five German theologians arrived at Paris, Michael Diller, Peter Bouquin, Jakob Beurlin, Jakob Andrea (qq.v.) and Balthasar Bidembach, summoned to explain the Augsburg articles. Their leader Beurlin died on Oct. 28 and on Nov. 8 the rest were received in audience by the king of Navarre, who expressed a wish that they would bear witness to the harmony between the Augsburg Confession and the compromise formula at the conclusion of negotiations at Poissy. After many futile conferences on the union of German and French Protestantism, and, after having explained to the king the meaning of the Augsburg Confession and urged him to accept it, the envoys were finally dismissed on Nov. 23. The conference at Poissy had shown that reconciliation between Roman Catholics and Protestants on the basis of mutual concession was entirely impossible, and that the only alternatives were mutual toleration or a war for existence.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. M. Baird, Hid. of the Rise of the Huguenots, i. 505 546, London, 1880; Theodore Beza, Mist. eccl6aiostique des lglises r0formiea . . . de France, Geneva, 1580, new ed., ed. P. Vesson, 2 vols., Toulouse, 1882 83, and, in 3 vols., ed. J. W. Daum and A. E. Cunitz, Paris, 1883 .88• J. W. Baum, Theodor Beza, vol. u., Berlin, 1852; G. de F6Gee, Hilt. des Protestants de France, pp. 131 sqq., Toulouse, 1850, new ed., 1861, Eng. transl., 2 vols.; London, 1853; G. von Polenz, Geschichte des franzosischen Calviniamus ii. 47 sqq., Goths, 1859; N. A. F. Puaux Mist. de la r€formation francaiee, ii. 101 sqq., Pans, 1860; H. Klipffel, La Colloque de Poissy. Paris, 1868; A. de Ruble, Le Journal de Claude d'EepeRCe, in M6moiires de la soeiW d'histoire de Parts, xvi., 1889; H. Amphoux, Michel de fHBpidal, pp. 195 sqq., Paris, 1900.