Please choose the best answer score /45 Why did the Pope refuse to grant Henry VIII of England an annulment of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon?

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Reformation, Absolutism, and English Monarchy Test Name____________
Please choose the BEST answer SCORE /45
1. Why did the Pope refuse to grant Henry VIII of England an annulment of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon?

a. Divorce was against the rules of the Catholic Church.

b. The Pope thought the marriage alliance between Spain and England was too important for maintaining peace in Europe.

c. The Pope did not want to anger Catherine’s powerful nephew Charles V who was emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

d. The Pope thought it would look bad if his favorite Catholic proponent were to get divorced.
2. Which of the following best compares Luther’s motivation to Henry’s motivation for challenging the Catholic Church?

a. There was no real difference between them, they were both spiritual

b. Henry’s motivation was political while Luther’s was spiritual

c. Luther’s motivation was nationalistic and pro-German while Henry was motivated by money

d. They were both angered by the anti-Jewish actions of the church in Spain.
3. The Spanish Inquisition’s main goal was to

a. convert nonbelievers b. promote education

c. terrify people so that they would not commit heresy d. reform the Catholic Church
4. Mary I (or Mary Tudor), Queen of England 1553-1558,

a. continued the Protestant reforms of her father Henry VIII.

b. militarily backed Spanish efforts to defeat Protestant rebels in the Netherlands.

c. made Calvinism the state religion of Scotland.

d. returned the English Church to Catholic control and executed hundreds of Protestants as heretics.

5. Put these in the order that they occurred (3 points)
Wars of Religion between Protestants and Catholics
Protestant Reformation
The Catholic or Counter Reformation
6. “Conversos” were
a. Jews in Spain who had converted to Christianity b. Protestants who had become Jesuits
c. Followers of Luther who became Calvinists d. Priests who denounced religion and became peasant rebels

7. The Spanish Inquisition would
a. judge heretics and then execute or imprison them.
b. pass sentence on heretics and then turn them over to the secular authorities for execution of sentence.
c. simply detain suspected heretics until they could be turned over to the proper authorities.
d. put heretics on trial after giving them a defense lawyer.
8. Inquisitions existed in which countries?
a. Spain, Portugal, and Italy b. Spain only

c. England, Scotland, Spain d. France, Spain, and Holy Roman Empire

9. Martin Luther nailed 95 Theses to the door of Wittenberg Church on October 31, 1517

a. as a Halloween prank b. to encourage debate c. as an act symbolizing the nailing of Jesus to the cross

d. so it would be picked up the next day for printing e. to start a rebellion.
10. Which statement is most true of Martin Luther?
a. He rebelled against the excesses and rigidity of the Catholic church, but criticized and demonized Jews and peasants.
b. He supported economic reforms to correct the wrongs done to peasants by the lords in Germany.
c. He urged Germans to go easy on the persecution of Jews
d. He wanted everyone to just get along even if it meant making concessions to peasant rebels and uppity women
11. Which of the following statements about the Diet of Worms is most accurate?

a. Martin Luther was tricked into coming to the Diet by the church, only to be arrested and burned at the stake.

b. Martin Luther was allowed to present his arguments, and after refusing to back down, was not convicted of heresy and allowed to go free.

c. As Martin Luther made his way through the Holy Roman Empire and into Worms, he was mocked by the German residents of the countryside.

d. Martin Luther’s defense at the Diet led to an immediate conversion to Lutheranism by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

12. Which of the following beliefs was one of the doctrines of Calvinism?

a. God has determined if you are going to heaven or hell before you commit a single act.

b. People should wait to be baptized as adults so that they can make their own decision about whether to be Christians or not

c. The idea that people should have to talk to a priest in order to be able to communicate with God.

d. All of the above
13. One of the main beliefs of Anabaptism is the idea that

a. Christians should never be baptized because they are naturally children of God.

b. saints should be prayed too as well as God.

c. people should be able to wait until they are old enough to make their own decisions about being baptized.

d. Jesus of Nazareth is not the son of God.
14. How did the Protestant Reformation change the role of women in European society?

a. As liberal Protestant thinkers matured, their ideas about the role of females led to more freedom for women.

b. The Protestant Reformation did not really change the role of women in society.

c. Protestant reformers gave more power to women in official church duties, but not in other areas.

d. The Protestant Reformation led to complete equality between the sexes.
15. Pope Leo X and other Catholic Church officials were keen to sell indulgences because they

a. wanted to help rebuild Rome after it had been sacked by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

b. had built a great deal of poor houses they needed to finance throughout the Holy Roman Empire.

c. could use the money to fund missions to help spread Christianity.

d. were in debt because Leo X and other popes had spent too much money.
16. Which 0f the following European Nations was not devastated by Protestant-Catholic Wars

a. Portugal b. France c. Holy Roman Empire (Germany) d. Netherlands

17. A theocracy is a form of government in which

a. wealthy landowners run things b. the military is in control the government `

c. power is shared equally between a monarch and representative body d. religious leaders are in control
18. Which of the following accurately describes the important use of the vernacular in the Reformation?

a. It allowed people to read the Bible in their own language and come up with their own ideas rather than depending on a priest.

b. It was easier to print in the vernacular. This made the spread of ideas faster.

c. It was integrated into the Catholic Church during the Counter Reformation. This led to a revival of the Catholic Church.

d. It became common in the monarchy and noble classes. This made it easier to communicate with the common masses.
19. What famous Christian Humanist was executed for refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy?

a. Desiderius Erasmus b. John Wycliffe c. Ulrich Zwingli d. Sir Thomas More

20. The original geographical base of Calvinism was
a. France b. Scotland c) Switzerland d. Austria
21. Unlike Martin Luther, the Catholic Church believed salvation could be achieved through

a) charitable works b) a mixture of good works and faith c. confessing to a priest d. purchase of indulgences

22. The Huguenots were

a. French Catholics. b. Spanish heretics. c. French Protestants d. Dutch rebels

23. The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572 involved

a. the slaughter of large numbers of Jews by followers of Martin Luther.

b. the rounding up and execution of large numbers of suspected witches in Germany.

c. the killing of thousands of Protestants in Paris by Catholic mobs.

d. the killing of thousands of peasants during the Germany Peasant Wars.

24. The Edict of Nantes in 1598

a. declared that Martin Luther was a heretic b. made the Netherlands independent of Spain

c. made Elizabeth I absolute monarch of England d. ended the religious wars in France
25. What is the most accurate description of the Thirty Years’ War that lasted from 1618-1648?
a. It wasn’t really a war, but really a series of clashes between Protestant and Catholics mobs.
b. It was the last of the great religious wars in Europe and killed millions of people.

c. It ensured that the Italy and Spain would remain Catholic.

d. It ensured that England would remain Catholic.

26. Johann Tetzel was
a. the inventor of the printing press. b. a Dominican friar whose selling of indulgences angered Luther.

c. the man who spread Calvinism to Scotland. d. the Catholic official who excommunicated Luther.

27. The Act of Supremacy in 1534
a. named Elizabeth I as the sole heir to the English throne.

b. declared that Philip II was the leading defender of the Catholic Church in Europe.

c. gave the Spanish Inquisition the power to do whatever it wanted to stamp out heresy.

d. completed the break of Church of England from the pope in Rome by making Henry VIII head of the English Church.

28. The printing press was most like the ____________ of Luther’s time.

a. automobile b. Xbox c. social media/Internet d. energy drink

29. King Henry VIII initially opposed Martin Luther’s criticism of the Catholic Church.
True False
30. As a result of the Reformation, both Protestants and Catholics placed more emphasis on education.

True False

31. The belief that a monarch ruled by God’s will and is a representative of God on Earth is called
a. The Oath of Supremacy b. Habeas corpus c. Divine Right of Kings d. Predestination
32. Absolute monarchs relied on what to maintain power (circle all that apply to get credit)?
a. a powerful nobility b. a centralized bureaucracy staffed by members of the middle class

c. a large standing army d. the backing of the Catholic Church

33. The main conflict between English King Charles I and Parliament involved
a) hairstyles b. taxes/money
c) administration of the colonies d. none of these
34. During the English Civil War, (1642 to 1649), the Puritan followers of Parliament were called
a. Roundheads b. Cavaliers c. papists d. Presbyterians
35. The return of the monarchy under Charles II is called
a. the Return of the King b. The Revival c. the Glorious Revolution d. the Restoration
36. The leader of the forces of Parliament during the English Civil War was
a. James I b. William of Orange

c. Oliver Cromwell d. Mary, wife of William of Orange

37. The (relatively) bloodless overthrow of the James the II in 1688 is called the “__________ Revolution.”
38. Which of the following European nations was NOT an absolute monarchy during the late 1600s and early 1700s?
a. France b. Prussia c. Austria d. Russia e. They were all absolute monarchies
39. Habeas corpus, which means “to have the body” in Latin,

a. gave nobles the right to control serfs. b. meant that prisoners couldn’t be held indefinitely without specific charges or a trial.

c. was a horrible disease like the bubonic plague . d. gave the Catholic Church the power to try heretics
40. A monarchy in which power is shared between the king/queen and a representative body and where the monarch’s power is limited by law is called a _____________________________ monarchy.
41. The execution of Charles I was significant because it
a. was the first time that a king in Europe had been put on trial and publicly executed.
b. meant the end of any possibility of Catholic rule in England.

c. ended the religious rivalry between Protestants and Catholics.

d. signaled a revival of the power of the nobility.
42. A cabinet is
a. a group of government ministers b. a secret agreement between countries

c. a meeting of parliament to try someone for treason d. a government agency that collects taxes

43. Which of the following rights is NOT in both the English and U.S. Bill of Rights?
a. freedom of religion b. the right to bear arms

c. the right to petition for redress of grievances d. no cruel or unusual punishment shall be inflicted
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