PERSIAN WAR Designing and Delivering Instruction From a Textbook:
[Or Developing Your Own Materials] Type or paste into this document the information you will teach and the scripts (or at least an outline of scripts) for teaching the information.
Use this document to organize your presentation in a logical sequence. Use a lesson-plan format. (1) Review and form relevant background knowledge (e.g., big ideas, such as a theory of revolution, concepts) (2) Teach new pre-skills needed (3) Frame the instruction (what the class will be working on; objectives (what students will Do) (4) Teach small chunks of new information (5) Give guided practice on each chunk: students do it with you (6) Test each chunk (immediate acquisition test: e.g., questioning) (7) Integrate earlier and new material (review, project, essay, discussion).
Make a shorter version for your students to use as Guided Notes. So, THEY take notes while YOU use this doc for the presentation. For example,
Part 1. Preparation 1. Examine the section of text you’ll be teaching; for example, chapters on the American Revolution, or western civilization, or English 18th century poetry, or types of rocks.
a. Now look at the standard course of study. http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/curriculum/ Copy and paste relevant standards.
Make the standards concrete. What would be good objectives? What will students DO?
a. Standard course of study Ninth grade social studies Emerging Civilizations –
The learner will analyze the development of early civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
2.01 Trace the development and assess the achievements of early river civilizations, including but not limited to those around the Huang-He, Nile, Indus, and Tigris-Euphrates rivers.
2.02 Identify the roots of Greek civilization and recognize its achievements from the Minoan era through the Hellenistic period.
http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/curriculum/socialstudies/scos/ The standard course of study (above) does not state concrete objectives. So YOU have to. Given what you know, what would be good for students to be able to do? Start with terminal objectives. They tell you what to teach, what resources you need, and how to assess whether students have met the objectives. Terminal Objectives (1) List and briefly describe the stages in the development of Greek civilization. (2) Define concepts such as polis, city state, honor, philosophy, sophist, hegemon, phalanx, hoplon, Hellenic, Jacksonian. (3) Write an essay (5 pages) discussing the connection between the geography of Greece, organization of the polis, the definition of “good man” and citizen, Greek philosophy, and warfare (methods, panoply, virtues). (4) Write an essay (10 pages) describing the Greco-Persian Wars (contrast Persian and Greek social organization and citizenship; identify causes of the war; make a timeline of the main battles and describe each one; cite big ideas or lessons regarding peace and defense; explain contributions of the Greek honor system, definition of citizenships, and military preparation to the foundation of the United States (e.g., Declaration of Independence), Jacksonian democracy, and the Tea Party movement). Note that objectives 1 and 2 are specific isolated (but important) bits of information. But objectives 4 and 5 require INTEGRATION of information. You want both kinds of objectives.
I paste these objectives into chunk 1 (to introduce the unit to students) and in the last chunk (to remind myself what the class will do).
Does your textbook cover all that the standard course of study says you have to teach? If not, what’s missing from your textbook?
There isn’t much on the Persian Wars.
There is no effort to connect Greece with current segments of American society and with current politics.
SO I WILL FILL THESE GAPS.
b. Also examine research and expert opinion, and your own knowledge of the topic.
THE FOLLOWING QUOTATIONS SUGGEST PRINCIPLES (BIG IDEAS) I CAN TEACH TO STUDENTS THAT HELP TO EXPLAIN GREEK CONDUCT DURING THE PERSIAN WARS, AND CONNECT GREECE AND AMERICA. I lift some of these principles and paste them into the relevant chunk.
July 19, 2005 War and the West, Then and Now by Victor Davis Hanson Private Papers http://www.victorhanson.com/articles/hanson071905.html
So what are these protocols? What made Western armies so good? Not morally good, but good in the cold efficiency of killing people? One of them is freedom. There was a greater propensity in Western armies for the individual to feel that he had a stake in his army. [SAME AS GREECE. CITIZENS HAD A STAKE IN THEIR POLIS. THEY DEFINED THEMSELVES BY THEIR CITIZENSHIP. HONOR WAS CONNECTED TO FULFILLING DUTY.] Nothing provides a better or more clear illustration of this than Herodotus’s description of Thermopylae, where [soldiers] in the royal army of Xerxes were being whipped to fight, whereas Leonidas and the Spartans said they were there because they were following the law that they themselves had created. What kind of army, ancient or modern, would name their triremes “Free Speech” or “Freedom” like the Athenians did at Salamis, or have a play by Aeschylus that says, “We rowed into battle saying ‘freedom, freedom, freedom.’” It is very strange in comparison to what motivated other armies of the era….
Closely related is another element called “civic militarism,” and that is the idea that a citizen has particular rights as an individual that transfer into battle...they had the ability through the Republican avenues of government and civic protocols to empower people to feel that just because they put on a uniform, they did not lose their status as a free voting citizen.. [SAME AS GREECE. SOLDIERS WERE FIRST AND ALWAYS CITIZENS. IN LIFE AND DEATH THEY WERE TREATED WITH RESPECT. THE DUTIES IN BATTLE WERE THE SAME AS DUTIES IN PEACE---CONTRIBUTE TO THE GREATER GOOD; NEVER SURRENDER.]
Another element is this weird nexus of what I would call decisive battle and the primacy of infantry. If we look back at Greece and Rome, they are especially weak in archery, javelin throwing and cavalry. That lapse will actually serve them ill at particular times. But societies evolved in the West as property-owning citizenries. Property-owning is really the basis of constitutional government. I wish it wasn’t true in the sense the impulse is self-interested rather than idealistic. We created constitutional government in the early West to protect individual liberty, but it usually started out as a prior means of protecting the rights of property, the right to own property, to pass property down. That was the origin and reason-to-be of the early city-state. Property owners then would vote as free citizens — in the fashion of civic militarism — to fight or not, and usually the way to fight for and to protect land was through heavy infantry: shock battle among armored columns. It seems to be a proclivity of the West to notify [your adversary] that you are coming, and then to use massive amounts of firepower to shock, defeat, and destroy the enemy, ideally through annihilation rather than attrition.
[SAME AS GREECE. AS SMALL FARMERS OF ROCKY SOIL, LAND OWNERSHIP WAS ESSENTIAL TO SURVIVAL. HENCE, CONTINUAL PREPARATION FOR BATTLE COMBINED WITH FORMALIZING RIGHTS---CONSTITUTION AND LAWS. SAME AS JACKSONIANS AND TEA PARTY.] Gibbon. History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire The terror of the Roman arms added weight and dignity to the moderation of the emperors. They preserved peace by a constant preparation for war; and while justice regulated their conduct,
they announced to the nations on their confines, that they were
as little disposed to endure, as to offer an injury. [SAME AS GREEKS. A GREEK INFORMED THE PERSIAN KING THAT THE SPARTANS ALL FOUGHT LIKE THE 300; SO BE CAREFUL ABOUT INVADING.] Gibbon. Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. I)
That public virtue which among the ancients was denominated patriotism, is derived from a strong sense of our own interest in the preservation and prosperity of the free government of which we are members. [SAME AS GREECE. ]Such a sentiment, which had rendered the legions of the republic almost invincible, could make but a very feeble impression on the mercenary servants of a despotic prince; and it became necessary to supply that defect by other motives, of a different, but not less forcible nature; honour and religion.
(Gibbon. Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. I)
The attachment of the Roman troops to their standards was inspired by the united influence of religion and of honor.[JUST AS THE GREEKS VALUED THEIR SHIELD, DISPLAYING SYMBOLS OF THEIR CITY STATE. “Come home carrying your shield or carried On it.” SHOW SLIDES!!]
. (Gibbon. Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. I)
The Jacksonian Tradition
by Walter Russell Mead
CAN WE SEE SOME OF THESE TRAITS IN THE ANCIENT GREEKS?
Once wars begin, a significant element of American public opinion supports waging them at the highest possible level of intensity. [HANSON DISCUSSED THIS.]
The devastating tactics of the wars against the Indians, General Shermans campaign of 1864-65, and the unprecedented aerial bombardments of World War II were all broadly popular in the United States. During both the Korean
and Vietnam Wars, presidents came under intense pressure, not only from military leaders but also from public opinion, to hit the enemy with
all available force in all available places.
It is often remarked that the American people are more religious than
their allies in Western Europe. But it is equally true that they are
of elite units in such forces as the British Army, American troops have
a stronger "warrior culture" than do the armies of other wealthy
countries. [SAME AS THE SPARTANS]
Jackson laid the foundation of American politics for most of the nineteenth
century, and his influence is still felt today. [TEA PARTY? OATH KEEPERS.]
Suspicious of untrammeled federal power (Waco), skeptical about the
prospects for domestic and foreign do-gooding (welfare at home, foreign
aid abroad), opposed to federal taxes but obstinately fond of federal
programs seen as primarily helping the middle class (Social Security
and Medicare, mortgage interest subsidies), Jacksonians constitute a
large political interest.
In some ways Jacksonians resemble the Jeffersonians, with whom their
political fortunes were linked for so many decades. Like Jeffersonians,
Jacksonians are profoundly suspicious of elites. They generally prefer
a loose federal structure with as much power as possible retained by
states and local governments. [GREEK CITY STATES MAINTAINED INDEPENDENCE
SAME AS JACKSONIANS AND MORE GENERALLY FEDERALISTS WHO INSIST ON STATES’ RIGHTS AND STRICT INTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION.]
A principal explanation of why Jacksonian politics are so poorly understood
is that Jacksonianism is less an intellectual or political movement
than an expression of the social, cultural and religious values of a
large portion of the American public. [JUST AS GREEK WARFARE FLOWED FROM CULTURE AND PERSONAL IDENTITY.]
Jacksonian America is a folk community with a strong sense of common values and common destiny; [JUST AS GREEKS LIVED IN SMALL CITY STATES. PLATO THOUGHT THE IDEAL SIZE WOULD PERMIT EVERYONE TO KNOW EVERYONE ELSE. STRONG COMMUNAL BONDS.]
Although few Americans today use this anachronistic word,
honor remains a core value for tens of millions of middle-class
Americans, women as well as men. The unacknowledged code of honor that
shapes so much of American behavior and aspiration today is a recognizable
descendent of the frontier codes of honor of early Jacksonian America.
have spread to so many people outside the original ethnic and social
nexus in which Jacksonian America was formed. [SAME AS GREEK CODE OF HONOR---AND HOW THIS AFFECTED CITIZENSHIP AND FIGHTING.]
The first principle of this code is self-reliance. Real Americans, many
Americans feel, are people who make their own way in the world.
Jacksonian honor must be acknowledged by the outside world. One is entitled
to, and demands, the appropriate respect: recognition of rights and
just claims, acknowledgment of ones personal dignity. Many Americans
will still fight, sometimes with weapons, when they feel they have not
been treated with the proper respect. But even among the less violent,
Americans stand on their dignity and rights. Respect is also due age.
The second principle of the code is equality. Among those members of
the folk community who do pull their weight, there is an absolute equality
of dignity and right. No one has a right to tell the self-reliant Jacksonian
what to say, do or think.
The third principle is individualism.The Jacksonian does not just have
the right to self-fulfillment-he or she has a duty to seek it.
[DISCUSS HOW THESE THREE ARE FOUND AMONG THE GRREKS AS WELL.]
Despite this individualism, the Jacksonian code also mandates acceptance
of certain social mores and principles. Loyalty to family, raising children "right", sexual decency … and honesty within the community are virtues that commend themselves to the Jacksonian spirit. [JUST AS TO THE GREEKS, THE GOOD PERSON WAS SOMEONE WHO DID HIS OR HER DUTY TO PROTECT BOTH THE POLIS AND GREEK CULTURE.] Jacksonian Americas love affair with weapons is, of course, the despair of the rest of the country. Jacksonian culture values firearms, and the freedom to own and use them. The right to bear arms is a mark of civic and social equality, and knowing how to care for firearms is an important part of life. Jacksonians are armed for defense: of the home and person against robbers; against usurpations of the federal government; and of the United States against its enemies. Jacksonians tolerate a certain amount of government perversion, but when it becomes unbearable, they look to a popular hero to restore government to its proper functions.[GREEKS SUPPLIED THEIR OWN WEAPONS AND ARMOR—JUST AS DID EARLY AMERICAN PATRIOTS, WHO, LIKE GREEKS, WERE FARMERS. GREEKS, TOO, ELEVATED SKILLED PERSONS TO BE HERO-GENERALS---MILTIADES, LEONIDAS, EPAMINONDAS.]
2. Do the resources (above) suggest strands of knowledge to weave together to help your students to GET and to retell the story (in a history course, for example)? Knowledge strands might include:
Timeline of events Persons Groups (families, political parties) Social institutions. Culture (values, beliefs) Technology. Geography.
OKAY, I’LL FLESH THESE OUT.
Extract big ideas that organize the content.
I’ll do this below.
Design instruction so that information from all of the strands is covered. [I will include knowledge from all the strands when discussing ancient Greece and the war with Persia..
Okay, here’s what I’ll include…
1. Timeline of events (1) The rise of the city state and Greek culture; (2) causes and battles in the Persian War.
Plato and Socrates. For example, after Socrates is sentenced to death for “corrupting the youth of Athens” with his appeals to reason, and not to the gods,a friend of Socrates---Crito—tells him to escape. Socrates replies
Think notof life and children first, and of justice afterwards, but of justice first, that you may be justified before the princes of the world below. For neither will you nor any that belong to you be happier or holier or juster in this life, or happier in another, if you do as Crito bids. Now you depart in innocence, a sufferer and not a doer of evil; a victim, not of the laws, but of men. But if you go forth, returning evil for evil, and injury forinjury, breaking the covenants and agreements which you have made withus, and wronging those whom you ought least to wrong, that is to say, yourself, your friends, your country, and us, we shall be angry with you while you live, and our brethren, the laws in the world below, will receive you as an enemy; for they will know that you have done your best to destroy us. Listen, then, to us and not to Crito."
This is the voice which I seem to hear murmuring in my ears, like the sound of the flute in the ears of the mystic; that voice, I say, is humming in my ears, and prevents me from hearing any other. And I know that anything more which you will say will be in vain. Yet speak, if you have anything to say.
3. Groups (families, political parties) Polis, family, tribe, army, phalanx
4. Social institutions Polis, religion, military, economic Culture (values, beliefs), religion Definition of citizen and good person, bravery, fate GET THESE FROM POETRY!! Technology Weapons and armor (panoply), battle tactics Geography CITY STATES ARE SEPARATED BY MOUNTAINS. THE PASS AT THERMOPYLAE. THE EAST (ATTICA--ATHENS)/WEST (PELOPONNESE—SPARTA, AND HOW THE PERSIANS WOULD HAVE TO GO BETWEEN THEM---BATTLE AT SALAMIS.
3. Do your resources also suggest “big ideas” to introduce and organize the presentation?
YES, I’LL START WITH THE IDEAS BELOW AND USE TEXT CONTENT TO REVEAL THEM. THEN I’LL SHOW HOW THEY APPLY TO THE U.S. NOW.
I’ll get the big ideas from Victor Davis Hanson, Walter Russell Mead, and Edward Gibbon---above. I paste these into the relevant chunks Soldiers who are fighting to defend land, tribe, family, and polis (political unit) fight harder and are more willing to die for the good of the whole, than soldiers who are either slaves or mercenaries.
When character (e.g., manhood, womanhood) is defined by the universalistic civic virtues of duty, honor, courage, and the welfare of the whole over the person, a greater proportion of the polis is willing to fight, and soldiers fight with greater courage and selflessness, than when character is defined by the particularistic values of the individual and group.
Superior weapons, armor, and battle tactics can enable a smaller force to defeat a larger one.
Soldiers who have a stake in the polis (they own land and they vote) fight harder than soldiers who are slaves or mercenaries.
To defeat an enemy so that he stops, you must destroy his ill to fight. This is done more through destruction of infrastructure (food, housing, communication) than through destruction of life.
4. Do the resources (above) say that you need additional content?
For example, original documents, biography, definitions of vocabulary, more details on events, maps? Identify what’s needed based on standard course of study, experts, and your own knowledge.
1. So, do a Google search.
2. Find more resources.
3. Extract quotations, concepts, rules, facts, lists, explanations,
theories that you want to teach.
4. Find images that you can turn into Powerpoint presentations.
YES. I NEED…
MAPS OF PERSIA AND GREECE. ALSO MAPS OF BATTLES.
POETRY TO REVEAL VALUES.
QUOTATIONS FROM HERODOTUS ON THE BATTLES.
MORE INFORMATION ON THE CAUSES OF THE WAR AND ON EACH BATTLE.
PICTURES OF SOLDIERS (HOPLITES), THE PANOPLY, AND PHALANX COMBAT.
Paste it in.
5. Examine the materials---both in the textbook and the NEW supplementary materials (above).
Identify what you want students to learn. Again, what will they DO to show that they have learned; these are your objectives.
Lists: of persons, events, groups, places.
Rules: statements of how things are related, connected, caused.
Models (diagrams) and theories (a set of rules in a sequence) that explain something.
Remember: there is a procedure for teaching each kind of knowledge.
Underline the information (facts, concepts, etc.) in the materials, or take notes, or copy and paste smaller chunks into this doc in Part 2.
Label the type of knowledge, so that you know HOW to teach each one.
6. Arrange all the materials in a logical sequence of chunks.
Also, think of one or more objectives for the information in each chunk. What do you want students to DO after the information is presented?
PUT ALL THIS IN GUIDED NOTES.
State three problems of ……
Compare and contrast….
Summarize the…. [Could be a list.]
Explain… Use a set of rules (If,…then…) backed up by facts (“And X
And each lesson, review a sample of what was taught earlier (retention). Correct all errors and if needed reteach weak knowledge.
7. Add scaffolding.
a. Make a syllabus for the whole course.
b. Make weekly chart, with column for each day: topic, vocabulary/big ideas with objectives, activities/projects, tests. Review each day to prepare class.
c. Make glossary that accompanies weekly chart. Hand out right before use; e.g., when reading chart for the day or week.
d. Make guided notes that accompany daily column on weekly chart.
e. Make handouts that list what to review. State WHAT to know for each item; that is, objectives.
f. Teach students to make the format for, and to use Cornell note taking.
g. Powerpoint presentations
PART 2. PRESENTATION
1. Introduce each section by having students read the guided notes with you. Call on individuals to read SOME of the chunks/objectives to get them engaged.
2. Initially, teach students HOW to make sense of text---using, model-lead-test/check/verification.
a. YOU read an objective from the guided notes and show students how to find the relevant chunk of information in the text or on a
b. Help students to extract the information: facts, lists, concept/definitions; rules/propositions; routines (e.g., a whole theory).
(1) Model how to read a small part, and then extract the information.
(2) Then have students do the same thing, one part at a time. Test.
(3) Then have students read the whole thing. Test in such as way that they give all of the information.
(5) Now have students organize all of the information for storage,
review, and future use.
3. Later, students can both read, ask questions, and do Powerpoint presentations more on their own. At this point, the format is more like a group discussion.
4. Make sure to cover not just acquisition of new knowledge, but also fluency, generalization, and retention.
a. Fluency. Fast question and answer on facts and definitions.
Fast worksheets. Teacher-class, peers.
Generalization. Have students apply concepts and rule and theories/models to other situations.
“How are the Spartans like the Marines?”
“How does the Greek panoply compare with the modern infantry
“Compare the reaction of many Americans to the attack on 9/11
to the invasion of Greece by Darius I.”
c. Retention. Cumulative review (weekly at least) of what was
covered earlier, with emphasis on more recent information.
5. Make sure to have discussion and to develop assignments that strategically integrate much of the information learned.
THIS IS WHAT YOU FILL IN AND GIVE TO STUDENTS TO USE DURING PROESENTATIONS. IT COULD BE ON THE INTERNET OR ON FLASH DRIVES. YOU SIMPOLY HAVE STUDENTS OPEN THE GUIEED NOTES DOCUMENT AND INSTRUCTION IS THEN ORGANIZED AROUND IT.
Guided Notes Organized With the Cornell Note-Taking Method
Cues. Student writes questions to self. “What is the definition of militia?” “Compare and contrast position of federalists (nationalists) vs. anti-federalists (confederationists).”
Note-taking area. Teacher writes in topic/task and summary. Students take notes on the chunk/section.
(1) List and briefly describe the stages in the development of Greek civilization. (2) Define concepts such as polis, city state, honor, philosophy, sophist, hegemon, phalanx, hoplon, Hellenic, Jacksonian. (3) Write an essay (5 pages) discussing the connection between the geography of Greece, organization of the polis, the definition of “good man” and citizen, Greek philosophy, and warfare (methods, panoply, virtues). (4) Write an essay (10 pages) describing the Greco-Persian Wars (contrast Persian and Greek social organization and citizenship; identify causes of the war; make a timeline of the main battles and describe each one; cite big ideas or lessons regarding peace and defense; explain contributions of the Greek honor system, definition of citizenships, and military preparation to the foundation of the United States (e.g., Declaration of Independence), Jacksonian democracy, and the Tea Party movement).
Chunk 3. A few pre-skills; e.g., vocabulary, big ideas, rules/propositions.
1. Definitions of polis, hoplite, democracy, archon, hegemon, trireme, panoply, phalanx, tyranny, empire.
Objectives? Assess how?
a. I state word. Students write clear and accurate definition.
b. I show examples and nonexamples, and ask, “Is this….?” Students correctly identify examples and nonexamples (e.g., items in Greek vs. Persian panoply.
2. Big ideas that help to explain courage, readiness to fight, success against larger enemy forces.
(1) Soldiers who are fighting to defend land, tribe, family, and polis (political unit) fight harder and are more willing to die for the good of the whole, than soldiers who are either slaves or mercenaries.
(2) When character (e.g., manhood, womanhood) is defined by the universalistic civic virtues of duty, honor, courage, and the welfare of the whole over the person, a greater proportion of the polis is willing to fight, and soldiers fight with greater courage and selflessness, than when character is defined by the particularistic values of the individual and group.
(3) Superior weapons, armor, and battle tactics can enable a smaller force to defeat a larger one.
(4) Soldiers who have a stake in the polis (they own land and they vote) fight harder than soldiers who are slaves or mercenaries.
(5) To defeat an enemy so that he stops, you must destroy his will to fight. This is done more through destruction of infrastructure (food, housing, communication) than through destruction of life. This may require brutal, shock combat.
(6) From Plato’s Crito. Socrates refuses to escape his death sentence. He says, “Think not of life and children first, and of justice afterwards, but of justice first, that you may be justified before the princes of the world below.”
Objectives? Assess how?
a. Students list 5 features of Greek society that fostered courage and success in battle.
3. There is much similarity between the social conditions and the values/virtues of the Greeks and the Jacksonians in The U.S. (both in the 1800s and now—Tea Party, patriot groups.
Paste in quotations from Walter Russell Mead.
Objectives? Assess how?
a. Students make a table that identifies similarities between the Greek and Jacksonian codes.
The next chunks are new material from the different strands, organized in a logical way.
Chunk 4. ________________________
New material. Paste in text to teach from. What information? Facts? Lists? Concepts? Rules? Steps in a routine?
Script it. Gain attention. Frame. Model. Lead. Test. [Error correction? Firm part? Reteach?]
New material. Paste in text to teach from. What information? Facts? Lists? Concepts? Rules? Steps in a routine?
Objectives? Assess how?
Script it. Gain attention. Frame. Model. Lead. Test. [Error correction? Firm part? Reteach?]
Chunk Closure. Integration with review, project, essay, diagram, test, discussion (“What if….”).
Terminal objectives and assessment. (1) List and briefly describe the stages in the development of Greek civilization. (2) Define concepts such as polis, city state, honor, philosophy, sophist, hegemon, phalanx, hoplon, Hellenic, Jacksonian. (3) Write an essay (5 pages) discussing the connection between the geography of Greece, organization of the polis, the definition of “good man” and citizen, Greek philosophy, and warfare (methods, panoply, virtues). (4) Write an essay (10 pages) describing the Greco-Persian Wars (contrast Persian and Greek social organization and citizenship; identify causes of the war; make a timeline of the main battles and describe each one; cite big ideas or lessons regarding peace and defense; explain contributions of the Greek honor system, definition of citizenships, and military preparation to the foundation of the United States (e.g., Declaration of Independence), Jacksonian democracy, and the Tea Party movement).