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Partially through GS they are installing 15,000 solar systems very rapidcly

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Partially through GS they are installing 15,000 solar systems very rapidcly.

Look to examples of successes rather than failures.
You can learn from failure - but that's what the prototype process tells you.
Everson: What question should you be addresssing?

Ted: Unfair, but great question.

So - short answer - don't know.

Long answer - take an approach.

When you think about scalability - what may work in some places will not in others.

There are systems through which you can deliver this - but a multitude of solutions.

What are the conditions - is that a filter for the right entrepreneur? policies? technologies?

That's how I might think about it.
Ted: Hate to bring up Pyramid scheme.

Policy/Technology/Finance - standard supply side stuff.

Customers tell us when we are right.

No design - throuh ethnographic.

Latent needs - unmet needs that people have.


Some of the challenge around energy - people don't know how to tell you.

Ask: Do you turn lights off?

Go into people's home - how do you leave? They grab keys, leave TV on.
Identify tensions.

4 weeks.

Next step.

Jose: $4K for prototype.

Let's go.

4:04 [Back at NASA]

"Singularity University Energy Team Project

To Do List
Enter new to do list items with two leading underscores __

Mark to do list items as complete with an X or with with your inititals _x_ or _JC_

__ technologies you like

__ successes around the world

__ Jim: I know people in DC.

_GG_ Create GSP10 Energy calendar (Gary/Emem) [ see also Wiki: ]

_JG_ Photos at door.

_x_ Jim: Watch 60 Minutes piece. [on Bloom Energy ]

_x_ bring a list.



2:30 pm

Energy Team Meeting
x Alaeddine Mokri

x Alexandru Celac

x Emem Andrew

x Fabio Teixeira

x Gary Gautier
x Hind Ahmed

x John Graves

x Juan Martinez-Barea

x Marko Bitenc

x Mercy Njima


x San Ko
2:30 Jose: Plans
IDEO 2:30-4:00 pm Thursday - leave around 1:00 pm

CISCO 8:00 AM Friday

Bo Varga coming Friday night (re: storage)
Jose will be at
Aug 9th on: along with NIF
3:00 Gary: Review of points
Expect about 20 pages in final report. A couple paragraphs for each technology. Then decide which to pursue and which to discard.
Speakers Poll:
Next Wednesday:

Ola - Nigeria

Priv - India
New Songdo City
















Afternoon / Night



TP +



4:02 Gary: Continued review of technologies

Modifying matrix:

To new version:

Here we can find all the studies about energy that the MIT Energy Initiative are releasing.

Solar \u2192

Photovoltaics Plant - Alex +

Photovoltaics stand alone - Marko, Emem

Model to make it affordable

Solar Thermal - Al

Balloon - Juan

Stirling - Fabio

Wind \u2192

Micro wind turbines - John, San

Wind turbines - Al

Balloon Wind Turbine - San

Jose: Re-read Mark Jacobson for both wind/solar

Bio \u2192

Algae (Omega) - Mercy

Geothermal \u2192

- Mercy

Hydro \u2192

Water turbines (home) - ???

Dams - ????

Others \u2192

SNR (thorium) - Marko

Fuel Cells (like Bloom) - Juan

Costs $800,000 but material is cheap

4:19 Marko: Work from what people can afford

Emem: Or create small scale and have people share.

Marko: Not so much technology, but a model.

Emem: If that is where we are going to go, why do we need to spend time on technology.

Gary: 1/ It is required and 2/ once we have defined problems, find characteristics. Different countries may have different insolation.

Marko: Also, very different numbers.

See Assignments:
First Second


Solar \u2192 Photovoltaics Plant Alex Al

Photovoltaics stand alone Emem Hind

Solar Thermal Al Hind

Balloon Juan Marko
Wind \u2192 Micro wind turbines John San

Wind turbines Emem

Warm air (stirling/turbine) Fabio Alex

Balloon Wind turbine San
Bio \u2192 Algae (Omega) Mercy Gary
Geothermal \u2192 Wells Mercy Gary
Hydro \u2192 Water turbines (home) John Fabio

Dams John Fabio
Others \u2192 SNR (thorium) Marko

Fuel Cells Juan


Pumped hydro Juan Alex

Lithium Batteries Al San Mercy

Fuel-cells (Hydrogen) Al Juan Marko

Molten Salt John Emem Hind

CAES John Gary

Super Capacitor San Mercy Hind Fabio

Bacteria (bio) Batteries Gary (see Priv message) Marko
REQUIREMENTS What to look for

Bibliography (preferably no Wikipedia - then copy the sources)

1 Description of the technology One paragraph - what it is about

2 World Leaders

3 Future developments related to our problem - latest trends - Opportunities

4 Operating Costs per kWh, per unit

5 Investment in unit of production, per kWh

Scalability refers to how easy to make widely available - nuclear=10 yrs, solar panel=1 week

Input and output of technology

Efficiency and number of conversions

Operation - reliabilty (intermittent?) - for example coal=24/7, solar does not

WHAT IS THE TREND in cost per kWh

Negative externalities SWOT?? Threats

Deployment time time to market

Gary: Fix things that were wrong.

What does \"education\" in Energy mean?

Jose: What is a watt? Google meters.

Gary: [Reviewer improvements]

Point 3.


Juan: Somebody who really understands, explain.

Al: kW is RATE.

JG: A 100 watt bulb is so bright.

A 50 watt bulb would be dimmer.

A 200 watt bulb would be brighter.
But the meter does not turn until you burn the light for

a certain amount of time.

3 bulbs

100 - on for 1 hour = 0.1 kW-h

50 - on for 6 hours = 0.3 kW-h

20 - on for 5 minutes = 0.02 kW x 1/12 hours

Refridgerator - 1000 watts for 24 hours = 24 kW-h

Total usage is kW-hours
How Many Light Bulbs? David MacKay, Cambridge University:
Dear SU-per friends,
Besides the ENERGY BIBLE that I already sent below, please, also check the Wikipedia list of emerging technologies:
Juan also sent the link about the MIT energy reports ( and don't forget the Mark Jacobson presentation and \"Scientific American\" article (
Futuristically yours,
Jos\u00e9 Cordeiro (
Director, Venezuela Node, The Millennium Project (

Jim Hurd and Jose Cordeiro, Singularity University

inspiration first - perspiration second

30M families in China are using hot water heaters - no subsidies
Look forward to short, pointed questions.

Robert Freling, Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF)

Bob Freling's Solar Blog

Because Energy is a Human Right

since 1994, solar panels in Africa

\"Solar power as a Key Enabler of sustainable development\"

2 billion (1.6 Billion according to World Bank) people who never had a lightbulb. - How do we conceptualise a life without electricty?

[image of Earth at night with Africa dark (except South Africa and the Nile and rim of North Actually lower parts of West Africa are lit up. Most of that region is Cameroon, Nigeria, Togo and Ghana.)]
Bono edited issue of Vanity Fair about the problems in Africa without a single mention of Energy.
imagine not even having light overhead?

Millenium Development Goals access to enegry not included -

Toll of Energy Poverty on Health, Educatiom, Development in general
50 Wattt solar panel used to create energy in the first house experiments

use of micro credit to enable people to start using home energy generation

there are many people around the world who are willing to pay for solar power

Enable creation of a for profit Solar Electric Light Company (SELCO) now has installed over 100,000 systems. (
Desire to go beyond the home with solar energy eg. irrgation systems, rural school (where wires can't reach, says NYT)
SELF took school straight from NO electricity to solar powered, internet connected computer room.
Remote diagnosis. Solar power used for tele-medicine.
iIn Nigeria, solar power for water pumping, refridgeration for health clinic. Lighting for mosque, lighting for streets.

From grinding peanuts by hand to solar powered oil expeller (food processor).
Working with Partners in Health with Dr Paul Farmer -
Recommends Tracy Kidder's Mountains beyond Mountains ( -- $19
Benin in Kalale - Integrated systems of solar power for a variety of uses

drip irrigation: the solar power pumps water into the tower and then it feeds into the drip system .. you don't even need battries

Use low-power drip system to feed high-value food growth

20% of produce used by women and their families and rest sold for profit at market
Question now is how can we scale? How can we get commitment to help 2 billion people?
We can't afford to let them make our mistakes of developing using fossil fuels
Cost of renewables has come down. Today, using PV is the least cost option.

Solar is Cheaper than diesel generators.
Extending the grid in these rural areas can cost >20k per mile.
2:25 [applause]
Q: Erika Anderson/US. what is the extent that carbon finance plays into what you do?

A: We didn't set out to provide carbon offset credits.

First became carbon neutral through Nigeria project.

Nice thing from credits from SELF, they are \"charismatic\" credits. Addressing development goals.

Fantastic way to combat poverty and climate change at the same time.
Q: Ludmilla/US. Have you encountered situation when solar power was not effective? What then?
We are by default working off grid. Option is to extend grid, $20,000/mile. Or generators - cheap at first, more expensive over time.
Question of finance is critical. Asking people to pay for 25 years of power upfront. If people had a more long term view, solar would be more attractive.
How do you define affordable?

Affordable is a loaded word. Solar is often affordable today.

Jim: Keep an eye on cleantech deployment funds. Next 1 or 2 yrs.

Chinese are putting a price on carbon quickly. Reduction of snow melt hits their water.
Q: Sasha/Canada. Amazing work. Cultural resistence and challenges?
Certainly. We have not encountered resistance. We wouldn't go where we are not invited.

Having light is universally wanted. Perhaps isolated tribes that don't want to be bothered.

Solar cooking is a different story. We have not be involved. Some organizations involved. 100,000s of years of cooking with fire. Women are reluctant to give up.

Once they try them, they love them. Easier to clean up. Gives time to do other things.
Destroy culture? Technology is always a double-edged sword. Rural exodus going on today. People migrate to overcrowded towns and cities every day.

Clean electricity, acces to information, in communities, in close contact with nature and each other.

Preserve dying languages of the world. Remote regions get power, save languages.
Jim: Thank you.

[applause] \x3c-I'm not sure we need to transcribe everything... :) [OK, OK ...]

Jose: Good afternoon!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!(fine, fine) \"w/ energy\" :) \"let's welcome who welcomed us \"
Steve Zornetzer, NASA Ames

Director for Informations Sciences and Technology, NASA Ames



Board of Directors for Redwood Neuroscience Institute:

collaborated with Jeff Hawkin (author of On Intelligence0
[no slides]
I'm going to be the odd man out on this panel today. Not home energy.

Focus on different aspect: energy management. Out o of the contect of the project here at Ames.

New construction by main gate: sustainability base.

Facts & Figures.

Built environment - common term used in sustainability.


128 million residences and

Buildings Consumes now:

40% of e now In5 billion around the world in urban seettings. If we can do something to optimize and maximize the energy management in this environment, we will influence other areas of need drastically.
How can we make this building sentient and aware of itself?

In neurobiology, sentience depends on a nervous system: thermostat is an example (feeback, communication and effector systems)

As a neurobio, my approach:

How can we make this building sentient?

sensory endings

transducers into something meaningful for nervous system

thermostat is a sensory instrument
What if buildings were given the hardware, software, intelligence, to control their own environments?

Optimize consumption
What if they could learn to improve their performance? Not far fetched.

In 20 yrs we can create infrastructure that will lead to energy mment to reduce consumption, pollution, etc.nergy

12% of Water

emits 40% of CO2

20 years from now In5 billion around the world in urban seettings. If we can do something to optimize and maximize the energy management in this environment, we will influence other areas of need drastically.
How can we make this building sentient and aware of itself?

In neurobiology, sentience depends on a nervous system: thermostat is an example (feeback, communication and effector systems)

As a neurobio, my approach:

How can we make this building sentient?

sensory endings

transducers into something meaningful for nervous system

thermostat is a sensory instrument
What if buildings were given the hardware, software, intelligence, to control their own environments?

Optimize consumption
What if they could learn to improve their performance? Not far fetched.

In 20 yrs we can create infrastructure that will lead to energy mment to reduce consumption, pollution, etc.
Here at NASA:

Sustainability Base

Designed to be the cleanest building in the federal gov't.

Generate its own energy

Net energy producer

Testbed for new tech.

Water purification system. takes grey water and purify it to a purified form of grey water which will be used for toilet flushing, so don't need to rely on potable water.

Adaptive Intelligent control system developed for space deployed to the space station and Mars, we know the software works

Siemens control system, commercial off the shelf system(COTS) underlying the adaptive intelligent control system

Goes to web and knows weather forecast

Knows people's schedules

Self monitoring almost every aspect of building environment. (a mesh of over 2000 (?) wireless sensors)

Self diagnosing

Deep Geothermal wells, no AC, day to day planning of heating/cooling based upon the current weather, photovoltaics

Optimization algorithms and planning and learning ability.
Could have a very large impact with technology available today and affect a billion people.
Q: Rand: Does this create a huge achilles heel in terms of hacking the system or inherrant errors in the software?

Siemens system beneath the control system is robust enought to fall back to normal building mode???

Q: Jan : Do you have any plans to scale the sentient building approach to an urban dimension?

Saul Griffith, Makani Power


most well known for his low cost eyeglass manufacture technique... neat!

Questions: Lightning? Birds? Ice?

Small-scale wind energy Technical Report (direct link to 7 MB pdf)
Rats, that was a neat talk... I wish we had the notes!
Here's a transcript of a talk that is much shorter, but has some of the same points:
His TED talk also looks to cover much of the same ground:
The whole kit weights like 1.5 tons, and the cable weights around 400Kgs (or 600, cant remember)...

Kate Steel, World Bank
PHD from MIT
\"Rural Energy Systems in Africa\"
disclaimer: not representing world bank here!
People using biomass for cooking is as problematic as lack of electricity.

[photo of mud hut] \"This is your customer.\" (other pics:

Very rural. Electricity grids are difficult.

Poor. Not as big a challenge as you might think.

Three choices:

1/ parafin, batteries

2/ wait for grid

3/ interim solutions
Status quo - indoor cooking is smoky. Extremely deadly to women and children.

Biomass needs to be collected. Burden on environment.
Grid? Reaching less than 20% of people.
Saul brought up centralized generation. Also need distribution.
Grid in 20 years? Target is 30-40 years or much, much longer. Not a great option.
Interim solutions. Not best technologies, but bridges. Home system tied into mini-grid.

What is working?
1. Solar panels. PV is good source. Relatively cost effective, not cheap.

Easily deployed.

Prices coming down.

Lower maintenance.

All of these systems require storage.

Panel lasts 25 years, battery lasts 5 years. about 25-30% of system cost. Caveat.
2. Making charcol from corn cobs. Works well.

Biomass stoves.

Challenge here too. Caveat. Still use biomass.
3. Home systems and community level systems.

Donor-financed community grid.

Diesel generator in rural Tanzania. He has a chair to guard it. He has run his own distribution system.

Why this works: this is his business. Mixed customer base. Homes and business strip.

Important to get a mix of customers. If they have the same load duration curve, it is a problem.
This is somewhat working. Blends into what is possible. Are working but could be expanded.
First, Bangladesh. Addresses both electricity and cooking. 400,000 systems sold thanks to the microfinance industry. Moved into biogas.
Used flexible tubing to provide gas from chicken's waste to homes nearby. Cooking gas and electricity. Runs on pure biogas. This works in Bangladesh. (Excellent example of a simple solution that works in local context!)
Lighting for rural Africa. Boiled down to lighting in off-grid areas. Develop specifically for this market. Fewer than 10 showcased - basically camping lanterns. Second showcase, 70 products. Top photo shows examples designed specifically for this market. Modular. Multiple input sources: pedal power, ...

Battery question - in industrial markets, goal is density. In rural Africa, 200 pound battery would have theft deterrent advantage.
Fuel kit decentralization. Kenya.
Shift toward decentralization. Example: Decentralized phone charging stations

We tend to think in a grid mentality. Sugar cane power is still put on grid.

US model started from centralized grid, now getting distributed.

Africa may be more fully distributed approach which grows into connected system.
Q: Alison Lewis/USA. Developing products for this part of the country. Design?
A: I can't take any credit for lighting Africa program. Lot of what they are doing is market research. Promotional materials. Ideas for it to pull back and become self sustaining. All technologies are built themselves.
Q: Kausar: You gave us a list of things that work. What does NOT work?
A: Plenty of things that don't work. A lot of them are cultural. Biogas didn't work in Africa. Solar cookers don't work (in Africa) -- maybe in refugee camps. If you don't think about who will be using them, they probably won't work.
Q: Everson/Brazil: Sugar cane model. Biogas. Centralized model?
A: Not so much in Brazil. Model there is very different from rest of world.

Quite limited in Africa. Mauritius uses boiogas generated from sugar cane. Kenya has one generator.
Q: Lizzy/ US (with awesome british accent!). Sanitation system.

A: Only think I know is that biogas is great for dealing with sanitation as well.

School toilet box generates energy.
Jim: Geothermal project. Google behind work.

A: Great success for Kenya. They developed a good industry along Rift Valley. Developed smartly. Very good geophysicists and engineers. World Bank with lenders have put 300mW of geothermal- great due to base load. Solar/wind not big baseload. Hydropower is usual baseload source. Other options are nuclear or coal.
Wasn't familiar with the term base load:
Jim: Thanks a lot.

Jose: I'm going to become African also.

How many know William. Incredible person. Just on video at MIT. 2 hours.

He has been working on windmills. The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind.

We wanted to have the real thing.

Jo-burg. SA Leadership Academy.

Coming to US to study.

Went to Dartmouth.
At TED, never saw so many white people.

[playing TED video 4 minutes]

William Kamkwamba, Wind mills in Malawi

[age 19]


Had idea at 14 to make a windmill

read a book and tried it and made one!

didn't exactly copy the book, book had 3 plates he had 4
Made windmill out of plastic pipe, pulley.

When wind blows it makes kW. Two radios, lights.

Wants to build another one for irrigation for crops.

For entire village.
Jose: TED talk 2007 he was 19. First windmil he built at 14.

Just looking at pictures, he built a windmill.
Jim: CNN article has good update, expansion as of a year ago.

People thought he was crazy.
1st TED talk video:

2nd TED talk video:

George Gaboury, San Francisco Tesla Society
Jim: Since 1999, president of SF Tesla Society.

Since 2003, board of CA Citizens for Health Freedom.

Space show.

Strong advocate for inventors rights.
Charles Ostman, Institute for Global Futures


Jim: Turned Eastern bloc technology into plowshares.

Will so you something out in the parking lot after we finish.
Now for something completely different.

George is the one with the vision. I'm more technical.
Plasma Fuel Reformer - change chemistry of fuel



Human waste

Small refinery.
Not just jobs, business, but get energy to more granular application.
Cover basic topics:

PFR - what is it?

80% sea water, 20% oil ???

[I understand from this video it can be any water - to be clarified]
Why use a fuel reformer?

Schematic of refinery. Cracker. Liquified vapor. Lot of process, energy.

Idea was to create very small, self contained unit.

Spinning at high temperature, high velocity.

applications on tractors, generators. About 1000 around the world.



now US.


Two things. Cut down pollutants, use of petroleum by 30-50%.

External electricity used to push plasma. Bulky/complex. Takes a lot of energy.
Jim: Communicate how easy or difficult.
This is harder one.

Ceramatec supplies industrial machinery of all kinds. Also requires external voltage.
MIT project - plasmatron.

Somewhat expensive. Takes energy.

Version from Italy.

Version in China - palladium as catalyst.

Highly complext.
Can we do something different? Yes.

Reaction chamber. Turn it into a different kind of fuel.

First in 30s in France.

Used in Germany during war.
Scheamtic shows nothing you couldn't buy at a hardware store.

Charged plasma state breaks down the chemistry. That part gets complicated.
Heat exchanger. Around for 30 years or more. Difference is magnetized rod to help develop a thermal coefficient. 80 nanometer film. Runs into field of 10-12 tesla.
Jim: Who is using it now?
Can be put together in a few hours.

Students in High School doing this.

Minimum amount of machining required.
Jim: Say it again.
20-50% increase in vehicle mileage.

Some are a bit easier than others.

Something like this can demonstrate the principle.
In may parts of the world, you don't have gasoline around.

Puts a lot of countries on the map.

We'd like to see this around the world.
Jim: Will void warranty on US vehicles. Better on older cars.
Suggested use on tractors.

Pollution reduction is over 90%. Don't have to use palladium to reduce pollution - uses ordinary metals. If you are going to have China going to one-car-per-person, need cleaner solution.
Multi-bubbler array. Ways to mix and match.
Video: NBC news.

\"With as much as 800,000 gallons of oil spewing into Gulf. Engine which runs on 80% sea water and 20% oil. Not that complicated. Would work. Mix of oil burns cleaner. It did burn for us ... up to a point. Inventors firing up new solutions.
BP said, 'No thanks.'\"\"
We're hoping BP will reconsider.

Smoke came out because I flooded engine.
Brand new prototype.
(Can use a diversity of fuel types)

ran a mixture of sea water and crude oil

Q: Derek/Canada. Amazing. 1967. What is barrier?
Social barrier. Snafus with other entities.
Q: Vincent. Lot of technical slides. What makes it work?
Will gladly give you the technical stuff. Vortex plasma fuel reformer. This is better version.

Any hydrocarbon will do.

Just like cracking column. When you convert something into vapor and pull of elements, we are not trying to crack whole chain. Small refinery.
Jose: Very easy to make. Challenge you to make something better.
Marco: Tomorrow's homework!
David H/New Zealand: Why no power?
Multiple fields. Cloud pulled through chamber.
Institute in Oaklahoma. Offers classes. Some available free on-line. Do experiments. Communicate with the inventor. Plenty of OEM (original equipment manufacture) opportunities.
Our point is to get this out there.
Q: Justin / Canada. Another technical. NOX drops. Why?
Burns more efficiently. Recycles exhaust through multiple times.

By using the bubbler.
Jim: Thanks. Talk more in Q&A.

Now panelists to come up. Questions for them:

What is one interesting/unusual development in last year that points to future?

Where do you see your organization in 5-6 years in scale?


35+ minutes.

Saul, what is interesting development that points to future?
Saul: I think the NIF at Livermore will do a net positive fusion reaction. Still 2 decades before it contributes. To give everyone an American lifestyle, fusion does it.

Jim: May do site visit.
Robert: First like to echo Kate's talk explosion in LED lighting. Combine with small scale solar panels, combines into many types of products. Innovative lighting solutions.

Pure PV side - when first invented by NASA in 50s to power satellites, cost 100s of dollars per watt.

PV died in its infancy.

Decline in cost of solar cells.

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