Candidate portrayed as paranoid who couldn't be trusted with nuclear messages
McGovern vs. Nixon
Candidate = kid, playing game, doesn't take seriously
Harold Ford candidate
Subtle inference about African American men and Caucasian women in border state
What can be framed? issue, proposed policy, event, candidate, messenger (scientist, the media), institution, audience
Audience Framing and Identity: framing the audience involves activiating the identity among many and making it primary
Typical Liberal message
I want you to help me protect them (disadvantaged group) from some other them (exploitative)
Adroit framing: connecting people to be protected with the voter (Clinton work hard and play by the rules ought to have a decent life and chance for your children; Martin Luther King racism is everybody's problem, present it as win-win, both whites and blacks are suffering)
Typical Conservative message
I want you to help me protect you from them
Once a frame sticks, it's over.
Listener has decided.
Listener can hold postion against counterargument.
Listener can convince others.
Message goes viral more easily.
Awkward facts don't matter.
Gaps in logic don't matter.
What binds a frame?
Frame factors: formal fit (don't leave slots empty), fit with listener's experience
Messenger factors: elites with authority, celebrities, people we like, trusted institutions immediate peers
Delivery factors: being first, emotional power, repetition (advertising budget, free exposure), consistency
Frame Binding Energy
Energy required to bind each time decreases
Nation as a family: our visceral understanding of power comes from our experience as children
How Raise a Child?
Conservative view: children born impulsive, focus on self-discipline, rules-based, punishment, retributive justice, strict father model, \"Dare to Discipline\"
Progressive view: children born good, focus on self-discovey, support natural maturation processes, education based, golden rule, justice based on empathy and restitution, nurturant parent model
Nation as a family lurks under most political issues (i.e. homelessness, obesity)
Most americans can view things in strictness or nurturant biconception
Altlhought one pole is usually predominates, the other can be activated with the right campaign
Advocates should always communiate at two levels: to win on the particular issue at hand
to reinforce your world view (frame)
5 Moralities (Jonathan Haidt)
Do not harm
Respect for authority
Purity/digust (taboos, rotten meat)
Each morality as a potential anchor point for framing
Liberals more weight do not harm, fairness higher
Conservatives hold all 5
True across many developed countries
Liberal morality will encourage much greater creativity but will weaken social structure and deplete social capital
Moral principle first then position you taking -> much more powerful
Know/feel when you're being framed (when you're confronted with an argument that you can't refute/reverse words because nonsensical, i.e., I'm against tax relief)
Do not reinforce the other side's frame
Get in touch with your core moral principle
Which ideas to encourage?
Which feelings to elicit?
What audience identity to tap?
Craft the frame that will do the job
Deliver with credibility, consistency, and power
Case study on nanomedicine
Who are victims, heroes?
Ideas can become so predominant, impossible to displace (cultural hegemony)
Starting point to get traction on a divergent viewpoint, break up predominant discourse ?
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Subjects given plausible but false information followed by correction
Result: partisans absorbed corrections favorable to their
*DON'T PROVIDE DATA, APPEAL TO EMOTIONS
Frames: prestructured unit of meaning that exists in our brains
New event -> binds to pre-existing frame -> leads to conclusion, emotion, action
"Fri, August 6, 9 am - 12 noon
American Industrial Policy PLE B.20 Conference Room
Worked in mgmt.
High tech, entertainment.
Most clients within a few miles from here.
Very interested in why we weren't doing a better job running our economy.
Public policy colliding with where we needed to go strategically.
My interest in that and other public policy issues took me into exploration of why public comes to value certain things, what makes it difficult for us to have the conversations we need to have.
Leading political messaging analyst - George Lakoff.
Framing and messaging.
A few of you attended yesterday.
Process of how people formulate their ideas.
Will review those points.
How do we frame the economy?
The free market.
Where does it come from.
What does it make clear
What does it hide
What damage does it do as innovators.
Dominant ideology can be harmful to innovation, lead businesses down the wrong path.
Will put information in front of you about risks resulting from that frame.
Takeaway: If you are on the business side - get more involved in how these debates are shaped. Don't step back and focus only on business. Changes going on publically.
If on policy side, consider more strategic, enlightening long term policies.
Context: regardless of political affiliation, everybody wants prosperity.
We want work to be encouraged, rewarded.
People to be innovative, take risks, start companies.
Need resouces - roads, schools, police, protect borders
Want place where you can make a fresh start
We all want to live in a country where there is the prospect of upward mobility - children can aspire to a better standard of living.
These attitudes prevail.
Below surface - not much agreement on path to get there.
Free market 95 /5 -
Every one of you is familiar with this story in some form.
Not an economics class.
Point is not about literal truth.
We construct stories.
Free market - illustrated by Horatio Alger
Comes out of Adam Smith economics
Everyone pursues own interests
Market ties it all together
Winners earned and deserved to win
Losers are losers for a reason - did not have skills, intelligence.
Inequality is a feature, not a bug.
Nature of people competing to maximize position.
Another story. Not nearly as clearly articulated.
The Broad Prosperty Story.
Idea of the barn raising. Popular image in 19th century America.
People formed teams, put up barns. I'd help you. You'd help me.
That image has stayed in the popular consciousness.
You see it in books and movies - the idea of a communal enterprise.
About people working together. Sharing the investment to create something of value. Open to contribution - assumes people are motivated. It has a different look at winners and losers.
Story takes us to different place - no one wins on our own.
We are helped by others, help others.
By building on the collective - we are all better off.
Hero - repub
You can tell it is a problem when you think, \"I cannot refute this.\"
When asked, \"Are you in favor of tax relief?\"
You are trapped a bit.
You are tempted to say, \"Yes I am, but not quite that way.\"
Estate Tax labeled Death Tax - never mind it only applies to 1% of Americans - gave impression it applied to everybody.
Each frame emphasizes some aspects
- pain of paying taxes
- inevitability of death
Each frame de-emphasizes some aspects.
- the things we value that taxes pay for (roads, schools, police)
- the fairness of paying for benefits received
Regardless of your political views, frames tell stories and guide thinking.
Wide variety of things can be framed:
- a messenger (scientists, the media)
\"junk science\" is a way of saying don't listen to scientists.
They are just doing this to get jobs and grants
Attack media for bias - says \"don't listen\"
- an institution (\"Washington\", \"the market\")
- the audience (computer buyers)
People are very sophisticated about this.
Very high art.
Once a frame sticks, it's over
The listener knows what to believe.
Can now hold that belief in the face of a counterattack from someone else.
Two neighbors talk - the debate tends to stop, not convincable from that point.
Simple, compact - easy to repeat - more viral spread.
Whereas - in classic way of thinking, people can't remember all the facts and be bothered to repeat it.
- Awkward facts don't matter
- Gaps in logic don't matter.
Point out that tax rates are lower - this gets ignored.
People only fit in data that confirms the frame, rejects rest.
\"It's so hot\"
\"I tried to warn you\"
The world will end with Y2K, SARS, Global Warming.
Jorge: Whoever gets first wins.
Much easier to set a message than change a message.
Great example in US.
Health care. Tea party movement jumped out of nowhere.
Back in home districts - organized nationally.
Very aggressive, got lots of coverage.
Most americans had not absorbed.
Movement to block reform came up with
before proponents could set
Aside: who does / does not get treatment. Idea that who would
get treatment would be decided by panel.
Ola: Take what president says ... Industry?
Yes, there is a framing industry here.
The way politics is done here.
The people who want the proposal do battle in area of
public opinion to get people to thing proposal is stupid.
Tell people what to think about what will be announced.