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Parts, usage and origin ( ie \u2013 chair); this is a frame

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Parts, usage and origin ( ie \u2013 chair); this is a frame

Words of tax relief touches the frame \u201ctax affliction\u201d

Frames drive our conclusions and emotions
Sometimes a frame is being invoked even though it is never mentioned

( 9/11 framing)
What keeps us safe? Bear in the woods
Frame is not ad, psa, slogan, bumper sticker, name of campaign,

underlying package of meaning...
Frame: the trigger, the frame, slots of the frame,
Frames Drive Our Conclusions and Emotions

-each frame emphasizes some aspects

-each frame de-emphasizes some aspects
Mac 1984 commercial
What makes us heroic?

You (buyer)

Established authority

Tool: product

Result: positive

Tells us who we are
Milk Campaign with Christie Brinkley
What makes up popular?

Good for you does not evoke strong emotion positive or negative (health benefits are boring)

Convey about buyer (winner's frame)
Johnson vs. Goldwater Debate (framing a campaign)

Daisy campaign

Hawkishness of Republican candidate usually

Candidate portrayed as paranoid who couldn't be trusted with nuclear messages
McGovern vs. Nixon

Toy soldier

Candidate = kid, playing game, doesn't take seriously
Harold Ford candidate

Subtle inference about African American men and Caucasian women in border state
What can be framed? issue, proposed policy, event, candidate, messenger (scientist, the media), institution, audience
Audience Framing and Identity: framing the audience involves activiating the identity among many and making it primary
Typical Liberal message

I want you to help me protect them (disadvantaged group) from some other them (exploitative)

Adroit framing: connecting people to be protected with the voter (Clinton work hard and play by the rules ought to have a decent life and chance for your children; Martin Luther King racism is everybody's problem, present it as win-win, both whites and blacks are suffering)
Typical Conservative message

I want you to help me protect you from them
Once a frame sticks, it's over.

Listener has decided.

Listener can hold postion against counterargument.

Listener can convince others.

Message goes viral more easily.

Awkward facts don't matter.

Gaps in logic don't matter.
What binds a frame?

Frame factors: formal fit (don't leave slots empty), fit with listener's experience

Messenger factors: elites with authority, celebrities, people we like, trusted institutions immediate peers

Delivery factors: being first, emotional power, repetition (advertising budget, free exposure), consistency
Frame Binding Energy

Energy required to bind each time decreases
Fundamental Frames

Nation as a family: our visceral understanding of power comes from our experience as children
How Raise a Child?

Conservative view: children born impulsive, focus on self-discipline, rules-based, punishment, retributive justice, strict father model, \"Dare to Discipline\"

Progressive view: children born good, focus on self-discovey, support natural maturation processes, education based, golden rule, justice based on empathy and restitution, nurturant parent model
Nation as a family lurks under most political issues (i.e. homelessness, obesity)

Most americans can view things in strictness or nurturant biconception

Altlhought one pole is usually predominates, the other can be activated with the right campaign

Advocates should always communiate at two levels: to win on the particular issue at hand

to reinforce your world view (frame)
5 Moralities (Jonathan Haidt)

Do not harm


In-group loyalty

Respect for authority

Purity/digust (taboos, rotten meat)
Each morality as a potential anchor point for framing
Liberals more weight do not harm, fairness higher

Conservatives hold all 5

True across many developed countries

Liberal morality will encourage much greater creativity but will weaken social structure and deplete social capital
Moral principle first then position you taking -> much more powerful
Practical Pointers

Know/feel when you're being framed (when you're confronted with an argument that you can't refute/reverse words because nonsensical, i.e., I'm against tax relief)

Do not reinforce the other side's frame

Get in touch with your core moral principle

Which ideas to encourage?

Which feelings to elicit?

What audience identity to tap?

Craft the frame that will do the job

Deliver with credibility, consistency, and power
Case study on nanomedicine
Who are victims, heroes?
Ideas can become so predominant, impossible to displace (cultural hegemony)

Starting point to get traction on a divergent viewpoint, break up predominant discourse ?


Welcome to EtherPad!
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Arrived late...
Brendan Nyhan
Subjects given plausible but false information followed by correction

Result: partisans absorbed corrections favorable to their
Frames: prestructured unit of meaning that exists in our brains
New event -> binds to pre-existing frame -> leads to conclusion, emotion, action


"Fri, August 6, 9 am - 12 noon
American Industrial Policy PLE B.20 Conference Room
Alexandru Celac

Candice Berezan

Connor Dickie

David Wyler

Dhaval Chadha
Dmitriy Tseliakhovich

Elizabeth Brook

Erika Anderson

Francesco Galietti

John Graves


Jorge Fernandez

Juan Martinez-Barea

Julian Ugarte

Maggie Jack

San Ko
15 students
9:13 am

David Brodwin
[student intros]
Worked in mgmt.

High tech, entertainment.

Most clients within a few miles from here.

Very interested in why we weren't doing a better job running our economy.

Public policy colliding with where we needed to go strategically.

My interest in that and other public policy issues took me into exploration of why public comes to value certain things, what makes it difficult for us to have the conversations we need to have.
Leading political messaging analyst - George Lakoff.

Framing and messaging.

A few of you attended yesterday.

Process of how people formulate their ideas.

Will review those points.
How do we frame the economy?

The free market.

Where does it come from.

What does it make clear

What does it hide

What damage does it do as innovators.

Dominant ideology can be harmful to innovation, lead businesses down the wrong path.
Will put information in front of you about risks resulting from that frame.
Takeaway: If you are on the business side - get more involved in how these debates are shaped. Don't step back and focus only on business. Changes going on publically.
If on policy side, consider more strategic, enlightening long term policies.
Context: regardless of political affiliation, everybody wants prosperity.

We want work to be encouraged, rewarded.

People to be innovative, take risks, start companies.

Need resouces - roads, schools, police, protect borders

Want place where you can make a fresh start

We all want to live in a country where there is the prospect of upward mobility - children can aspire to a better standard of living.

These attitudes prevail.
Below surface - not much agreement on path to get there.

Free market 95 /5 -

Another story.
Every one of you is familiar with this story in some form.

Not an economics class.

Point is not about literal truth.

We construct stories.

Free market - illustrated by Horatio Alger

Comes out of Adam Smith economics

Everyone pursues own interests

Invisibile hand

Market ties it all together

Winners earned and deserved to win

Losers are losers for a reason - did not have skills, intelligence.

Inequality is a feature, not a bug.

Nature of people competing to maximize position.
Another story. Not nearly as clearly articulated.

The Broad Prosperty Story.

Idea of the barn raising. Popular image in 19th century America.

People formed teams, put up barns. I'd help you. You'd help me.

That image has stayed in the popular consciousness.

You see it in books and movies - the idea of a communal enterprise.

About people working together. Sharing the investment to create something of value. Open to contribution - assumes people are motivated. It has a different look at winners and losers.

Story takes us to different place - no one wins on our own.

We are helped by others, help others.

By building on the collective - we are all better off.

Because it focuses on the shared aspect of this -

Direction rules and structure

Markets need oversight

Bad things happen in an economy - plants close. Not individual factors.

Inequality past a certain point is a bug, not a feature.

Lot less inequality is possible.
Highlight differences left/right.

Individual / Social


Fin/Political is key to large teams/investments

vs Problematic

Efficient markets / difficult markets

GDP / measure broadly (quality of life)

Critics say - if you have to put in a security system, counts as GDP. Whereas safety has a value.

Inequality is feature / Inequality is a bug.
Electrify rural economy ...
One Picture, Two Stories - old lady, young lady
How do we get to these stories.

First Adam Smith - 1776

The pin factory.

- Nobody remembers the Presuppositions

From this thing,

we process it,

but we oversimplify it.

Our brains cannot handle that much complexity.

We boil it down to 1 of 7 things we can keep in our mind.

The things here need to be true for basic idea to work:

- Need good information about product and price

?? does this work in health care - no.

- Plenty of buyers and sellers

- low entry and low exit barriers

- capital is mobile

- labor is mobile

- externalities are small enough not to matter.
Frame lives in our brains metaphorically - without the logic.
- Frames

a pre-structured unit of meaning that exists in your brain

New Event - whose fault is this? BP? The government? Random act? You must form an opinon. Map to something else.

Hard to research details.

Map to Pre-existing Frame.

Leads to Conclusion / Emotion / Action

simplest - a chair. How do you know - seat / base / bottom.

What about beanbag chair - model in you head relates parts to whole.
Tree stump not chair? Must be made as artificial product, not natural thing.
These stories are no different.
What was 9/11?

Bush said: Act of War.

Villain = nation

Hero = army

Method = fight back

Public's role = support & sacrifice

Goal = surrender or destruction of attacking country.
COULD have said

Crime Frame

Villain = criminal

Hero = policy


\"Move along

Capture and convict
In almost all - some dynamic.

What are Taxes?
\" Tax Relief\"

Phrase tiggers a frame about an affliction.

Hurts somebody.

Villain - dems

Victim - Americans

Hero - repub
You can tell it is a problem when you think, \"I cannot refute this.\"

When asked, \"Are you in favor of tax relief?\"

You are trapped a bit.

You are tempted to say, \"Yes I am, but not quite that way.\"
Estate Tax labeled Death Tax - never mind it only applies to 1% of Americans - gave impression it applied to everybody.
Each frame emphasizes some aspects

- pain of paying taxes

- inevitability of death
Each frame de-emphasizes some aspects.

- the things we value that taxes pay for (roads, schools, police)

- the fairness of paying for benefits received
Regardless of your political views, frames tell stories and guide thinking.

Wide variety of things can be framed:

- issue

- policy

- event

- candidate

- a messenger (scientists, the media)

\"junk science\" is a way of saying don't listen to scientists.

They are just doing this to get jobs and grants

Attack media for bias - says \"don't listen\"

- an institution (\"Washington\", \"the market\")

- the audience (computer buyers)
People are very sophisticated about this.

Very high art.
Once a frame sticks, it's over

The listener knows what to believe.

Can now hold that belief in the face of a counterattack from someone else.

Two neighbors talk - the debate tends to stop, not convincable from that point.

Simple, compact - easy to repeat - more viral spread.
Whereas - in classic way of thinking, people can't remember all the facts and be bothered to repeat it.

- Awkward facts don't matter

- Gaps in logic don't matter.
Point out that tax rates are lower - this gets ignored.

People only fit in data that confirms the frame, rejects rest.

\"It's so hot\"

\"I tried to warn you\"

The world will end with Y2K, SARS, Global Warming.
Jorge: Whoever gets first wins.
Much easier to set a message than change a message.

Great example in US.

Health care. Tea party movement jumped out of nowhere.

Back in home districts - organized nationally.

Very aggressive, got lots of coverage.

Most americans had not absorbed.

Movement to block reform came up with

death panels

before proponents could set

Aside: who does / does not get treatment. Idea that who would

get treatment would be decided by panel.
Ola: Take what president says ... Industry?
Yes, there is a framing industry here.

The way politics is done here.

The people who want the proposal do battle in area of

public opinion to get people to thing proposal is stupid.

Tell people what to think about what will be announced.

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