Explain the role of the pharaoh in Ancient Egypt. Pharaohs were rulers and gods
2. What is most important to remember about Hammurabi’s Code? 1st written code of laws
Where was it used? Babylon
3. Why is the Phoenician alphabet so important? It is the basis for our alphabet today.
What else are the Phoenicians remembered for? Great sea traders, purple dye 4. What is monotheism? Belief in one god
List 3 examples of monotheistic religions. Judaism, Christianity, Islam
5. Who was the 1st emperor of China and what were some of his other achievements?
Chin Shi Huangdi, he built the Great Wall of China, built roads, unified money and language 6. Explain the similarities between the Mandate of Heaven and the Divine Right of kings.
Both said that the right to rule came from God, both were used by leaders to stay in power 7. What 2 major religions developed in ancient India? Briefly describe them.
Hinduism: polytheistic, caste system, karma determines reincarnation
Buddhism: no god, reincarnation stops at nirvana
8. How did geography affect how the Greek polis formed? They formed separately from one another because of mountains, islands, and lack of rivers
9. Who were the 3 major Greek philosophers? Did any other ancient civilization have major
contributions in philosophy?Socrates, Plato, Aristotle; No.
10. What was Alexander the Great’s most important accomplishment? Spreading Greek culture wherever he conquered 11. What was the Silk Road and what two places did it connect? Trade route that connected most of the ancient world, but ran all the way from China to Rome. 12. What caused Christianity to spread throughout the known world? It spread because it became the official religion of Rome and Rome had a huge empire. 13. What is the difference between Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar? Julius was dictator at the end of the Roman Republic, Augustus was 1st emperor of Roman Empire. 14. List the major reasons for the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire. Poor leaders, bad economy, lots of invasions, natural disasters
2nd 9weeks Review: 10. How did the Byzantine Empire form? Eastern part of Rome that survived after western Rome fell.
How long did it last? 1,000 years
Who eventually conquered them? Ottoman Turks (Muslims)
What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? Constantinople
Why was it so important? Geography – it was at the center of trade routes
What did the name change to and why? Istanbul, after the Turks conquered them
Explain how the Christian church split in 1054. What was it called? The Schism split the church into east (Orthodox) and west (Roman Catholic). This was the 1st split of the church.
What is important to remember about Justinian’s Code of Laws? Laws for Byzantine Empire, they were based on 12 Tables (Roman law), were used for 900 years, and are the basis for laws of many countries today.
Who was the founder or prophet of Islam? Muhammad
After his death, how AND why did the religion split in two? There was anargument over who should rule after Muhammad’s death, the religion split into Sunni and Shia
What was the role of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages? Most powerful group; political, economic and religious.
What was the feudal system? social, economic, political system based on exchange of land for services between lords and vassals
Why did it develop? For protection because there was no central government
What were the Crusades? wars fought between Christians and Muslims over control of the Holy Land
What major city were they fighting over? Jerusalem
Who won? Muslims
18. Why would the Crusades be called successful failures? What was the biggest “success”? Even though the Crusaders lost, they brought lots of changes to Europe. Biggest change was trade with the Muslims. 19. Explain how Sundiata and Mansa Musa were important to Mali? Sundiata=lion king, 1struler of Mali; Mansa Musa=Sundiata’s grandson, made Mali big, rich, and famous. He went to Mecca and threw money in the streets along the way.
What city in Mali was most important and why? Timbuktu, Mansu Musa made it a Muslim learning center after going to Mecca.
20. Compare and contrast the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas? They were all in the Americas (Mayans/Aztecs in Mexico and Inca in South America), all polytheistic. Mayans disappeared but Aztec and Inca were conquered by the Spanish. Mayans had writing, but the others didn’t
3rd 9weeks Review: 21. What was the Renaissance? Rebirth of Greek and Roman culture
It began after what time period? Middle or Dark Ages
22. How was Renaissance art and literature different from medieval art and literature? Medieval art and lit focused more on church and religion. Renaissance art and lit used more perspective, more emotions, more life-like. 23. Who was known as the “Renaissance Man” and why? Leonardo da Vinci because he excelled in many different areas: painter, sculptor, engineer, architect, scientist, mathematician, musician, inventor. 24. What invention had the greatest impact on the spread of Renaissance ideas; who invented it? The printing press; Gutenberg
Explain Machiavelli’s beliefs on power. Rulers must be willing to use any means to get and keep power, they need strong militaries and rule with absolute power
What rulers were considered Machiavellian and why? Napoleon, Bismarck, Hitler, Stalin because they all came to power by strengthening the military and using it to their advantage.
What was the Protestant Reformation? 2nd split in the Christian Church when many groups broke away from the Catholic Church
Who wrote the 95 Theses and what was his original goal? Martin Luther; his original goal was just to protest and make changes in the Catholic Church
What actually happened as a result? He was kicked out of the church and forced to start his own, the Lutheran Church – the 1st Protestant Church.
Describe King Henry VIII’s role in the Protestant Reformation. He needed to get a divorce so he broke away from the Catholic Church and started a new Protestant Church, the Anglican Church
What is the heliocentric theory? Sun is center of universe, planets revolve around sun.
Explain the roles of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton in relation to the heliocentric theory. Copernicus developed theory, Galileo proved it with telescope, Newton explained it with gravity.
Explain how people changed their way of thinking during the Scientific Revolution.
How did new scientists prove their theories were true? They began to use the Scientific Method of experimenting, observing, and collecting data
Explain how the voyages of Christopher Columbus, Zheng He, and Ferdinand Magellan all helped prove that the world was round. Columbus explored New World (Atlantic Ocean), Zheng He explored India and Africa (Pacific and Indian Oceans), and Magellan circumnavigated (sailed all the way around)
Describe the Columbian Exchange. Trade of goods/foods between Europe and Americas
Explain how it still affects our lives today. We still use the products that were originally traded. Examples: Americans eat chicken, pork, beef; Italians use tomatoes. 33. How did Emperor Kangxi of China attempt to separate his Manchu people from Chinese people?
By forcing them to wear their hair in a queue.
What precedent was set by his reign? longest reigning Chinese emperor – 61 years
What one thing were the Chinese rebelling against in the Opium War, Taiping Rebellion, and Boxer Rebellion? Outsiders entering their country and destroying their traditions
35. Explain how Tokugawa Ieyasu (Japan) was similar to Louis XIV (France) and Peter the Great (Russia).
They all wanted to rule with absolute power 36. How did Matthew Perry’s visits change Japan’s isolation? Japan was forced to trade with outsiders 37. Who were Napoleon Bonaparte and Toussaint L’Overture and how were their revolutions related?
Napoleon: dictator/emperor of France, L’Overture: led slave revolt in Haiti. L’Overture fought Napoleon, Haitians got their independence from the French.
What was the major idea or concept that all Enlightenment thinkers believed in? Freedom; that people have rights and should be a part of their government
What did their ideas lead to? American Revolution and then others
Why were so many Latin American countries able to gain independence from Spain in the early 1800s? (hint: what was going on in Europe at that time?) Spain was fighting Napoleon in the Napoleonic Wars – they were busy so they couldn’t send lots of troops to the Americas
40. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin? Great Britain
What was the first industry? Cotton textiles (clothing)
What did all the new factories lead to? pollution, poor working conditions, crowded cities
What did Karl Marx predict concerning the Industrial Revolution and why? A worker’s revolution because all the workers were poor and at the mercy of the few rich factory owners 4th 9weeks Review:
Who was Otto von Bismarck? Prime Minister of Prussia, “Iron Chancellor”
What was his motto? Iron and blood, very Machiavellian
Explain the role he played in German unification? He strengthened the military and fought 3 wars to unify all the German states into one country of Germany
Define imperialism. Stronger countries take over weaker ones to create empires
What country was the imperialistic leader in 1900? Great Britain, the sun never set on the British Empire