Period 6 World War I causes Imperialism, Nationalism, Militarism, Alliances

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Period 6

World War I


Imperialism, Nationalism, Militarism, Alliances

Immediate cause: Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

The War (1914-1918)

Trench warfare, new weaponry (machine gun, submarine, tank)

Soldiers from colonies fought (India, Australia)

Arabs unite against Ottomans (Lawrence of Arabia)

Russia withdrawals due to Russian Revolution/ US enters


Treaty of Versailles

Austria Hungary separated, Germany needed to pay reparations, League of Nations created

Wilson calls for self-determination inspires decolonization movements

Women in west get the right to vote

Ottoman empire gone

Ataturk overthrows sultan and becomes first president

Mandate system in place in the Middle East

France in Syria and Lebanon

Britain in Palestine, Jordan and Iraq
Between the Wars

Boom in the 1920’s/ Worldwide depression in the 1930’s

Reorganized governments:

Fascism in Italy (Mussolini) and Germany (rise of Hitler)

Japan becomes an aggressor

Invades Manchuria in 1931

Invades China in 1937 (Rape of Nanking)

Appeasement and continued aggression in the lead up to WWII
World War II

Policy of appeasement towards German aggression

Japan the aggressor in Asia (Manchuria and China)

Hitler invades Poland (1939)

Axis and Allies

Hitler and Stalin had a non-aggression pact

Hitler breaks pact and invades the Soviet Union

Comparison with Napoleon

Effects of World War II

Staggering loss of life (over 50 million)

Soviet Union loses 20 million civilian and soldiers

Holocaust revealed

State of Israel created 1947

UN replaces League of Nation and headquarters moved to US

New tactics in war (fire bombings Tokyo/Dresden, atomic bombs)

Nuclear age begins

Colonies get independence (From 1945-1980, 90 countries get independence)

US and Soviet Union emerge as superpowers and the Cold War begins

Russian, Mexican, Chinese Revolutions all enact land redistribution

Russian Revolution

Bolsheviks led by Lenin’s call for Peace, Land, and Bread!

USSR eventually established

Different versions of communism

Marx used the industrial workers in his revolution

Lenin believed that professionals should lead the revolution

Mao in China used the peasants in his revolution

Lenin’s New Economic Policy (communism with a little capitalism like Deng in China)

Lenin dies and Stalin takes over

5 year plan (call to industrialize)

Collectivization (took over farm land)

Hitler and Stalin comparison

Both used camps, leaders of totalitarian states, Stalin used collectivization and Hitler did not

Cold War (US versus USSR)

Capitalism versus Communism (Iron curtain speech by Churchill)

Berlin Wall (1961)

Marshall Plan (US) versus Comecon (USSR)

NATO versus Warsaw Pact

Truman doctrine versus Brezhnev doctrine

Space (Sputnik, race to the moon)

Korean War (1950-53)

UN fight with China


US containment versus Ho Chi Minh

1975 Vietnam becomes a united communist nation


Comparison between USSR in Afghanistan and US in Vietnam

Defeat of USSR/eventually Taliban win out


Egypt (Nasser) and India (Nehru) played both sides during the Cold War
Cold War in Latin America

Cuba Revolution (1959)

Fidel Castro

Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis

Che Guevara

Argentine Marxist who called for socialist revolutions throughout Latin America and the Congo in Africa

Protested capitalism and neo-Colonialism

Guerilla warfare in Nicaragua and El Salvador

Socialist Salvador Allende overthrown in 1974 by Augusto Pinochet with help from US

Cold War in Africa


Socialist Lumumba assassinated and replaced by Mobutu
End of the Cold War

Communist Yugoslavia shrugged off USSR just like France did to the US

Communist governments fall in Poland (Solidarity), Czechoslovakia (Velvet Revolution), and Hungary

Berlin Wall comes down (1989)


Reagan versus Gorbachev

USSR policy of perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness)

Democracy in USSR today (Putin, Medvedev)

Chinese Revolution of 1911 (end of Qing dynasty)

Led by Sun Yat-sen (promoted nationalism, more equality, land redistribution)

Successor to Sun Yat-sen was Chiang Kai-shek (nationalist)

Communism comes to China

Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek fight both Japan and communists in China

Long March of communists led by Mao Zedong

Mao emerges as leader and proclaims The People’s Republic of China in 1949

Mao Zedong

    • Lenin and Marx used the industrial workers while Mao used the peasants

    • Used the Soviet Union as a model- both Mao and Stalin used collectivization

    • 1950’s Great Leap Forward (village based industrialization)

      • Failed as many died (30 million)

    • 1960’s Cultural Revolution (policy to erase all classes, erase western influence)

Deng Xiaoping

    • Introduces some capitalism into Chinese economy

    • Tiananmen Square

Women seem to have more rights in communist revolutions/countries


Indian National Congress 1885 and Muslim League 1906

Gandhi- nonviolent leader for Indian independence

Inspired Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

India independence 1947

Partition of India

Jinnah advocated for a Muslim state- Pakistan

South Africa free in 1910 but apartheid system in place

Nelson Mandela of South Africa good comparison with Kenyatta and Nkrumah as political prisoners who emerge as political leaders

UN support independence of Libya and Tunisia

Algerians fought for independence from France in 1962

      • Large migrations of Algerians to France

1957- Ghana first sub Saharan colony to gain independence

      • Kwame Nkrumah

Angola gains independence from Portugal

Congo gains independence from Belgium

Zimbabwe the last to gain independence in 1980

Colonial boundaries a cause for violence

    • Rwanda gains independence in 1962

    • Genocide in Rwanda in 1994

Southeast Asia

    • Vietnam (1975 independence complete) and Indonesia (1965)

      • Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam an educated enlightened political leader that sought independence like Kwame Nkrumah and Gandhi

      • Ho Chi Minh used guerilla warfare and the military to gain independence like Simon Bolivar of Latin America

Middle East

    • Egypt

      • Gained independence in 1922 but established a republic in the 1950’s

      • Nasser of Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal

    • Ottoman Empire broken up (Turkey, Syria, Jordan and Arabia)

    • Israel

      • Balfour Declaration/ Zionist movement

      • 1948- UN declares Israel as a nation

      • Religious differences (comparison to India/Pakistan)

        • Conflict/Violence

          • 1948 Arab-Israeli War

          • 1967- Six Day War

          • PLO- Arafat

          • Hamas and Hezbollah

    • Iranian Revolution

      • Shah modernized and westernized Iran (land and education reform and women’s rights had increased)

        • Islamic fundamentalists were angered

      • 1979- Shah was ousted by Ayatollah Khomeini (theocracy)

      • Iran/Iraq War

      • Comparison: Women gained rights in China after the revolution while women lost rights in the Iranian revolution

Latin America

    • Neocolonialism

      • Economies of Latin America dependent on exports to industrialized nations (coffee, sugar, fruit, oil)

    • Mexico

      • Revolution of 1910 (Zapata and Poncho Villa)

        • Created a constitution based on land reform

        • One party politics (PRI) from 1917 until 2000 election

    • Venezuela

      • Socialist president Hugo Chavez nationalizes industries

    • Brazil and Chile among fastest growing economies today

Development of technologies at an unprecedented pace

    • Communication, transportation, military

  • Power

    • Oil (OPEC) and Nuclear Energy (Chernobyl)

  • Science

    • Freud, Einstein, Big Bang, Quantum mechanics

  • Medicine

    • Polio vaccine, antibiotics and transplants combine to give this period in history the highest life expectancy

Population growth

    • In this century, the population has doubled

      • Green revolution provided more food with chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides

        • Has led to environmental protests (Ex. Greenpeace)

    • China and India develop child policies

Gap between the rich and poor continues to widen


    • Spanish influenza, HIV/AIDS and Poverty diseases (malaria, cholera)


    • Disney, Rock n Roll, McDonalds, Coca Cola, Nike, Starbucks

    • Shell, Exxon

  • International Organizations

    • Humanitarian (Red Cross/Red Crescent, World Health Organization)

    • Economic (World Bank, World Trade Organization)

    • Political (United Nations, EU, NAFTA, OPEC)

    • Cultural (FIFA, International Olympic Committee)

  • Cultural diffusion

    • Reggae music, Bollywood

  • Human Rights Movements

    • Civil Rights Movement in America, end of apartheid in South Africa

  • Genocides

    • Armenian, Holocaust, Cambodia, Rwanda, Darfur

  • Terrorism

    • Black Hand, IRA, Al Qaeda

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