Period 4 (1800 – 1848) Nationalism V. Sectionalism Chapter 7 (portion) 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

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PERIOD 4 (1800 – 1848) - Nationalism v. Sectionalism

Chapter 7 (portion) 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

(20 days)

ESSAY – use of evidence

  1. DBQ 1998 - With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. Analyze the reasons why this characterization of the two parties was or was not accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison.

  2. DBQ 2002 - Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the "Era of Good Feelings." Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1815-1825 to construct your answer.

  3. Long Essay: Causation - Explain how the second-party system that arose in the 1830s helped the United States move toward a more participatory democracy. Support your claims using specific evidence.

  4. DBQ - Analyze the changing nature of political parties in the United States between 1800 and 1850 in terms of competing conceptions of national identity, and group identity.

  5. Long Essay OR DBQ: Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time - In the peopling of America, explain how two of the following segments of the population changed between 1820and 1860: immigrants, urban dwellers, industrial workers.

  6. DBQ 2002 - Revival and Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to the years 1825-1850

  7. Optional - DBQ 1990 - Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. In light of the following documents and your knowledge of the 1820's and 1830's, to what extent -do you agree with the Jacksonians' view of themselves?

  8. Optional - Long Essay: Compare and contrast the changing roles of women in American society in the following periods: 1775-1800 and 1825-1850


  1. Frames (13):

    1. Developing American National Identity

    2. Territorial Expansion and Trade

    3. Territorial Expansion and Slavery

    4. Growing Sectionalism – Rise of the Democrats

    5. Growing Sectionalism - Jacksonian Era Part 1 and 2

    6. Market Revolution Part 1-4

    7. Romanticism

    8. 2nd Great Awakening

    9. Antebellum Reform

  1. CTJ including vocab, short answer, and Long Essay 5 minute drills and DBQ 15 minute drills

  2. PSDs:

    1. 1998 DBQ Constructionists (Jefferson and Madison)– Chapter 7

    2. 2002 DBQ - Era of Good Feeling – Chapter 7 and 8

    3. 1990 DBQ – Jacksonian Democracy – Chapter 9

    4. Market Revolution (Industrialism) - Chapter 10

    5. DBQ - Changing Political Parties

    6. 2002 DBQ – Antebellum Reform – Chapter 12

  1. Homework Journal – Brinkley Text

  2. Multiple Choice tests

  3. Long Essay and DBQ Essay


Lecture 19 – The Jeffersonian Revolution

Lecture 20 – The War of 1812

Lecture 21 – Introduction to the Ante-Bellum Period

Lecture 22 – Politics of Cohesion and Division

Lecture 23 – Jackson in Action

Lecture 24 – Shaping the American Character

Lecture 25 – From Secular to Strange to Radical Reform

Lecture 26 – Slavery the Peculiar Institution

Lecture 27 – Slavery As It Was

Lecture 28 – The Slave Society v. Abolitionism



  1. Eli Whitney

  2. Cotton gin

  3. Whitney’s Gun Factory

  4. Lancaster turnpike

  5. National Road

  6. Internal Improvement Bill

  7. James Madison

  8. John C. Calhoun

  9. Henry Clay

  10. American System

  11. Tariff of 1816

  12. 2nd BUS

  13. Oliver Evans

  14. Robert Fulton

  15. Robert Livingston

  16. The Clermont

  17. Napoleonic Wars

  18. Battle of Trafalgar

  19. Continental System

  20. Orders in Council

  21. Impressment

  22. Chesapeake Leopard Affair

  23. The Embargo Act of 1807

  24. Peaceable Coercion

  25. Non-Intercourse Act

  26. Tecumseh and the Prophet

  27. Prophetstown

  28. William Henry Harrison

  29. Battle of Tippecanoe

  30. War Hawks

  31. War of 1812

  32. Hartford Convention

  33. Daniel Webster

  34. Treaty of Ghent

  35. Rush Bagot Treaty

  36. Battle of New Orleans

  37. Answer Jackson

  38. Erie Canal

  39. Boom-Bust Economic Cycle

  40. Sectionalism

  41. American Intermediary

  42. Stephen Austin

  43. William Becknell

  44. Cheap money (easy credit)

  45. Land Act of 1820

  46. Plantation System

  47. Southwest

  48. King Cotton

  49. Northwest

  50. Lowell System

  51. Black Belt

  52. American Colonization Society

  53. Monrovia

  54. Plantation Aristocracy

  55. James Tallmadge

  56. Missouri Compromise

  57. Denmark Vesey

  58. Nat Turner

  59. Era of Good Feeling

  60. First Party System

  61. Virginia Dynasty

  62. Seminole War

  63. Adams Onis Treaty

  64. South American Independence Movement

  65. Monroe Doctrine

  66. Panic of 1819

  67. Federal Supremacy

  68. John Marshall

  69. Fletcher v. Peck

  70. McColloch v. Maryland

  71. Dartmouth College v. Woodward

  72. Cohens v. Virginia

  73. Gibbons v. Ogden

  74. Johnson v. McIntosh

  75. Election of 1824

  76. John Quincy Adams

  77. Corrupt Bargain

  78. Democrats

  79. Whigs

  80. Panama Conference 1826

  81. Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abomination)


  1. National Republicans

  2. Bucktail Philosophy

  3. Second Party System

  4. King Caucus

  5. Revolution of 1828

  6. Spoils System

  7. Nullification Crisis

  8. Nullification Doctrine

  9. Force Bill

  10. Webster-Hayne Debate

  11. Robert Hayne

  12. Daniel Webster

  13. Gag Rules

  14. 5 civilized tribes

  15. Indian Removal Act 1830

  16. Cherokee Nation v. GA

  17. Worchester v. GA

  18. Trail of Tears

  19. Indian Intercourse Act of 1834

  20. Nicholas Biddle

  21. Bank War

  22. Soft Money v. Hard Money

  23. 3rd BUS

  24. Pet Banks

  25. Roger Taney

  26. Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge

  27. Caroline Incident

  28. Aroostook Incident

  29. Creole Incident

  30. Webster Ashburton Treat 1842

  31. Treaty of Wang Hya

  32. Market Revolution

  33. Rapid Urban growth

  34. Irish and German Immigrants

  35. Irish Potato Famine

  36. Primacy of New York City

  37. Nativism

  38. Native American Party

  39. Know Nothing Party

  40. Railroads

  41. Chicago

  42. Trunk lines

  43. Telegraph (Samuel Morse)

  44. Western Union

  45. Cyrus Field (transatlantic cable)

  46. Rotary Press

  47. Associated Press

  48. John Deere and Steel Plow

  49. Cyrus McCormick and mechanical reaper

  50. Elias Howe and Isaac Singer

  51. Oliver Evans and Automated flour mill

  52. Capitalistic Economy

  53. Merchant Capitalists vs. Industrial Capitalists

  54. Corporations

  55. Limited Liability Corporations

  56. Patent records

  57. Charles Goodyear and vulcanized rubber

  58. Truck farming

  59. Commercialization

  60. Union of Factory Girls Association

  61. Factory system

  62. Trade unions

  63. Cult of Domesticity


  1. Romanticism

  2. Hudson River School

  3. James Fenimore Cooper – Last of the Mohicans

  4. Walt Whitman

  5. Herman Melville

  6. Edgar Allen Poe

  7. Transcendentalism

  8. Ralph Waldo Emerson – Nature and Self-Reliance

  9. Henry David Thoreau – Walden and Resistance to Civil Government

  10. Utopian Communities

  11. Brook Farm

  12. Oneida Community

  13. New Harmony

  14. Nathaniel Hawthorne

  15. 2nd Great Awakening

  16. Religious skepticism

  17. Deism

  18. Thomas Paine – Age of Reason

  19. New Light Dissenters

  20. Universalism and Unitarianism

  21. Baptists, Presbyterianss, Methodists

  22. Cane Ridge

  23. Camp meetings

  24. Handsome Lake

  25. Charles Finney

  26. Burned over district

  27. Mormons and Shakers

  28. Joseph Smith

  29. Brigham Young

  30. Horace Mann

  31. McGuffey Readers

  32. Dorothea Dix and Penitentiary Reform

  33. Temperance

  34. Grimke sisters

  35. Lucretia Mott

  36. Elizebeth Caddie Stanton

  37. Seneca Falls Convention

  38. Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions

  39. Peculiar Institution

  40. William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator

  41. Frederick Douglass – The North Star

  42. Harriet Tubman

  43. Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  44. Amistad Case

  45. Underground Railroad


The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes.

Key Concept 4.1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them.

  1. The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens.

  1. As various constituencies and interest groups coalesced and defined their agendas, various political parties, most significantly the Federalists and Democratic - Republicans in the 1790s and the Democrats and Whigs in the 1830s, were created or transformed to reflect and/or promote those agendas.

  2. Supreme Court decisions sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution. (McCulloch v. Maryland, Worcester v. Georgia )

  3. With the acceleration of a national and international market economy, Americans debated the scope of government’s role in the economy, while diverging economic systems meant that regional political and economic loyalties often continued to overshadow national concerns. (New England opposition to the Embargo Act, debates over the tariff and internal improvements)

  4. Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution.

  1. Concurrent with an increasing international exchange of goods and ideas, larger numbers of Americans began struggling with how to match democratic political ideals to political institutions and social realities.

  1. The Second Great Awakening, liberal social ideas from abroad and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility fostered the rise of voluntary organizations to promote religious and secular reforms, including abolition and women’s rights. (Charles G. Finney, Seneca Falls convention, Utopian communities)

  2. Despite the outlawing of the international slave trade, the rise in the number of free African Americans in both the North and the South, and widespread discussion of various emancipation plans, the U.S. and many state governments continued to restrict African American s’ citizenship possibilities. (American Colonization Society, Frederick Douglass)

  3. Resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion included proslavery arguments, rising xenophobia, anti-black sentiments in political and popular culture, and restrictive anti - Indian policies

  1. While Americans celebrated their nation’s progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New World ideas, various groups of the nation’s inhabitants developed distinctive cultures of their own.

  1. A new national culture emerged, with various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined European forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities. (the Hudson River School, John James Audubon)

  2. Various groups of American Indians, women, and religious followers developed cultures reflecting their interests and experiences, as did regional groups and an emerging urban middle class.

  3. Enslaved and free African Americans, isolated at the bottom of the social hierarchy, created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and their family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status. (Richard Allen, David Walker, slave music)

Key Concept 4.2: Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.

  1. A global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing.

  1. Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets. (steel plow, mechanical reaper, Samuel Slater)

  2. Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low - skilled male workers, no longer re lied on semi - subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing. (Lowell system, Baldwin Locomotive Works, anthracite coal mining)

  1. Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy.

  1. Southern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade.

  2. Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South.

  3. Efforts to exploit the nation’s natural resources led to government efforts to promote free and forced migration of various American peoples across the continent, as well as to competing ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries, and natural resources.

  1. The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power.

  1. With the opening of canals and new roads into the western territories, native - born white citizens relocated westward, relying on new community systems to replace their old family and local relationships.

  2. Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest.

  3. The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections, while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth.

  4. The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes, and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations. (cult of domesticity, Lydia Maria Child, early labor unions)

  5. Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on economic issues including slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements.

Key Concept 4.3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives.

  1. Struggling to create an independent global presence, U.S. policymakers sought to dominate the North American continent and to promote its foreign trade.

  1. Following the Louisiana Purchase, the drive to acquire, survey, and open up new lands and markets led Americans into numerous economic, diplomatic, and military initiatives in the Western Hemisphere and Asia. (negotiating the Oregon border, annexing Texas, trading with China)

  2. The U.S. sought dominance over the North American continent through a variety of means, including military actions, judicial decisions, and diplomatic efforts. (Monroe Doctrine, Webster - Ashburton Treaty)

  1. Various American groups and individuals initiated, championed, and/or resisted the expansion of territory and/or government powers.

  1. With expanding borders came public debates about whether to expand and how to define and use the new territories. (designating slave/nonslave areas, defining territories for American Indians)

  2. Federal government attempts to assert authority over the states brought resistance from state governments in the North and the South at different times. (Hartford Convention, nullification crisis)

  3. Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control American Indian populations. (War Hawks, Indian Removal Act, Seminole Wars)

  1. The American acquisition of lands in the West gave rise to a contest over the extension of slaver y into the western territories as well as a series of attempts at national compromise.

  1. The 1820 Missouri Compromise created a truce over the issue of slavery that gradually broke down as confrontations over slavery became increasingly bitter.

  2. As over cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies.

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