DBQ 1998 - With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. Analyze the reasons why this characterization of the two parties was or was not accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison.
DBQ 2002 - Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the "Era of Good Feelings." Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1815-1825 to construct your answer.
Long Essay: Causation - Explain how the second-party system that arose in the 1830s helped the United States move toward a more participatory democracy. Support your claims using specific evidence.
DBQ - Analyze the changing nature of political parties in the United States between 1800 and 1850 in terms of competing conceptions of national identity, and group identity.
Long Essay OR DBQ: Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time - In the peopling of America, explain how two of the following segments of the population changed between 1820and 1860: immigrants, urban dwellers, industrial workers.
DBQ 2002 - Revival and Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to the years 1825-1850
Optional - DBQ 1990 - Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. In light of the following documents and your knowledge of the 1820's and 1830's, to what extent -do you agree with the Jacksonians' view of themselves?
Optional - Long Essay: Compare and contrast the changing roles of women in American society in the following periods: 1775-1800 and 1825-1850
Developing American National Identity
Territorial Expansion and Trade
Territorial Expansion and Slavery
Growing Sectionalism – Rise of the Democrats
Growing Sectionalism - Jacksonian Era Part 1 and 2
Market Revolution Part 1-4
2nd Great Awakening
CTJ including vocab, short answer, and Long Essay 5 minute drills and DBQ 15 minute drills
1998 DBQ Constructionists (Jefferson and Madison)– Chapter 7
Henry David Thoreau – Walden and Resistance to Civil Government
2nd Great Awakening
Thomas Paine – Age of Reason
New Light Dissenters
Universalism and Unitarianism
Baptists, Presbyterianss, Methodists
Burned over district
Mormons and Shakers
Dorothea Dix and Penitentiary Reform
Elizebeth Caddie Stanton
Seneca Falls Convention
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator
Frederick Douglass – The North Star
Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin
The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes.
Key Concept 4.1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them.
The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens.
As various constituencies and interest groups coalesced and defined their agendas, various political parties, most significantly the Federalists and Democratic - Republicans in the 1790s and the Democrats and Whigs in the 1830s, were created or transformed to reflect and/or promote those agendas.
Supreme Court decisions sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution. (McCulloch v. Maryland, Worcester v. Georgia )
With the acceleration of a national and international market economy, Americans debated the scope of government’s role in the economy, while diverging economic systems meant that regional political and economic loyalties often continued to overshadow national concerns. (New England opposition to the Embargo Act, debates over the tariff and internal improvements)
Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution.
Concurrent with an increasing international exchange of goods and ideas, larger numbers of Americans began struggling with how to match democratic political ideals to political institutions and social realities.
The Second Great Awakening, liberal social ideas from abroad and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility fostered the rise of voluntary organizations to promote religious and secular reforms, including abolition and women’s rights. (Charles G. Finney, Seneca Falls convention, Utopian communities)
Despite the outlawing of the international slave trade, the rise in the number of free African Americans in both the North and the South, and widespread discussion of various emancipation plans, the U.S. and many state governments continued to restrict African American s’ citizenship possibilities. (American Colonization Society, Frederick Douglass)
Resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion included proslavery arguments, rising xenophobia, anti-black sentiments in political and popular culture, and restrictive anti - Indian policies
While Americans celebrated their nation’s progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New World ideas, various groups of the nation’s inhabitants developed distinctive cultures of their own.
A new national culture emerged, with various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined European forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities. (the Hudson River School, John James Audubon)
Various groups of American Indians, women, and religious followers developed cultures reflecting their interests and experiences, as did regional groups and an emerging urban middle class.
Enslaved and free African Americans, isolated at the bottom of the social hierarchy, created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and their family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status. (Richard Allen, David Walker, slave music)
Key Concept 4.2: Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.
A global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing.
Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets. (steel plow, mechanical reaper, Samuel Slater)
Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low - skilled male workers, no longer re lied on semi - subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing. (Lowell system, Baldwin Locomotive Works, anthracite coal mining)
Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy.
Southern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade.
Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South.
Efforts to exploit the nation’s natural resources led to government efforts to promote free and forced migration of various American peoples across the continent, as well as to competing ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries, and natural resources.
The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power.
With the opening of canals and new roads into the western territories, native - born white citizens relocatedwestward, relying on new community systems to replace their old family and local relationships.
Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest.
The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections, while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth.
The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes, and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations. (cult of domesticity, Lydia Maria Child, early labor unions)
Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on economic issues including slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements.
Key Concept 4.3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives.
Struggling to create an independent global presence, U.S. policymakers sought to dominate the North American continent and to promote its foreign trade.
Following the Louisiana Purchase, the drive to acquire, survey, and open up new lands and markets led Americans into numerous economic, diplomatic, and military initiatives in the Western Hemisphere and Asia. (negotiating the Oregon border, annexing Texas, trading with China)
The U.S. sought dominance over the North American continent through a variety of means, including military actions, judicial decisions, and diplomatic efforts. (Monroe Doctrine, Webster - Ashburton Treaty)
Various American groups and individuals initiated, championed, and/or resisted the expansion of territory and/or government powers.
With expanding borders came public debates about whether to expand and how to define and use the new territories. (designating slave/nonslave areas, defining territories for American Indians)
Federal government attempts to assert authority over the states brought resistance from state governments in the North and the South at different times. (Hartford Convention, nullification crisis)
Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control American Indian populations. (War Hawks, Indian Removal Act, Seminole Wars)
The American acquisition of lands in the West gave rise to a contest over the extension of slaver y into the western territories as well as a series of attempts at national compromise.
The 1820 Missouri Compromise created a truce over the issue of slavery that gradually broke down as confrontations over slavery became increasingly bitter.
As over cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies.