Pennsylvania diplomat  The War that Made America



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Benjamin Franklin

1706-1790
Pennsylvania diplomat



The War that Made America

A Pennsylvania delegate to the Albany Congress (1754), he proposed a plan of union for the colonies which was rejected by both the provincial assemblies and the British government. Franklin was a leader in the Pennsylvania Assembly. When the army was at a standstill, Edward Braddock asked Franklin to locate wagons to assist in transporting goods for the expedition against Ft. Duquesne. Franklin warned Braddock that taking the fort would not be easy. Franklin raised a Philadelphia militia and assumed command to help protect northern Pennsylvania at the beginning of the French and Indian War.




Charlotte Browne

unknown
Matron





The War that Made America

Mrs. Browne, a widow, left her two children in England and accompanied her brother who was a commissary officer in the army. As a nurse she organized a hospital unit for Braddock’s army. The matron was the highest paid woman in the medical services and had considerable respect and prestige. She supervised the nurses and had the general responsibility of overseeing the patients' comfort. She cared for her brother at Ft. Cumberland, but he died leaving her “a friendless exile.” Sick herself, she had to deal with the wounded refugees of Braddock's defeat. She was left at Frederick's Town and later traveled on to Philadelphia.




Christopher Gist

c.1706-1759


Trader/Guide



The War that Made America

Gist was a Maryland surveyor and Indian trader. In 1749, he became an agent of the Ohio Company of Virginia. He secured permission from the Indians at the Logstown Treaty of 1752 for the Company to build a storehouse at the Forks of the Ohio, where fur traders could keep goods and conduct business with Indian customers. Gist settled between the Monongahela and Youghiogheny Rivers in 1752. Gist used his home as a base for his business on behalf of the Ohio Company. Gist accompanied Washington to Fort Le Boeuf to warn the French to leave the Forks of the Ohio. During Washington's ill-fated campaign of 1754, Gist’s home served as a military headquarters. After the incident at Jumonville, Washington halted his campaign there and retreated to Fort Necessity. The pursuing French destroyed the Gist plantation. In 1757, Gist became Edmond Atkins’ deputy superintendent of Indian Affairs for the southern colonies.




Thomas Dunbar

unknown - 1777


Colonel



The War that Made America

Thomas Dunbar, a British soldier, was promoted to colonel of the 48th foot in 1752. He was stationed in Nova Scotia, but joined General Braddock's expedition against Fort Duquesne. Because of the slow pace of travel, Washington suggested that Braddock implement a flying march. On June 19th, Dunbar remained in charge of the reserve column while Braddock and Halket moved forward. Following the death of Halket and Braddock, Dunbar was in command of the army. His forces greatly outnumbered the French and Indians, but he began a retreat to Wills Creek. He destroyed his remaining artillery, burned stores and baggage worth £100,000. Upon reaching Wills creek with the largest military force in the region, Dunbar decided to go into winter quarters in Philadelphia.





Daniel Morgan

1736-1802


Wagon Driver



The War that Made America

In 1755 Morgan was hired as a civilian teamster to accompany the Braddock Expedition against Fort Duquesne. After the Battle of the Monongahela (July 9), his work removing the wounded brought him to the attention of Colonel Washington. This service earned him the nickname The ‘Old Wagoneer.’ In 1758 he joined a company of Virginia rangers. While carrying dispatches his party was ambushed. The others were killed and Morgan was seriously wounded. A bullet hit him in the neck and went through his cheek. He later won fame in the American Revolution.


George Croghan

c. 1720 - 1782


Trader/Guide




The War that Made America



George Groghan was born and educated in Dublin, Ireland. He immigrated to Lancaster County, PA about 1741 and then established his residence in Cumberland County. From 1749 to 1754 he and his brother-in-law, William Trent, entered the Indian trade. In 1750, he conducted assignments for Pennsylvania and used Montour as the interpreter. His trading business expanded and he had several trading posts, including Pickawillany. Some of his men were killed or captured by the French. Croghan was at Fort Necessity with Washington and was a captain in General Braddock’s failed expedition. Sir William Johnson named him Deputy Indian Agent. Croghan had a successful meeting with Pontiac that led to peace. 



Edward Braddock

1695 - 1755


General of British

Forces in North America 1755



The War that Made America

In 1755, General Edward Braddock was dispatched to reduce the French forts that had been erected on Pennsylvania's western frontier. Marching from Virginia to Fort Duquesne, Braddock’s men cut a road through the wilderness. Dismissing the advice of his staff, including young George Washington, Braddock displayed a fatal adherence to old school tactics and a disdain for Indians. His forces were outflanked by combined French and Native American forces near the Monongahela River. The British and colonists were grouped too tightly together, making them easy targets for their opponents. Braddock fought with great bravery having several horses shot out from under him, but sustained a fatal wound. English losses were tremendous: Only 459 soldiers of 1,373 avoided being killed or wounded.





Edward Ward

unknown
Ensign






The War that Made America

A half-brother to George Croghan, Ward was an ensign assigned to William Trent to build a stockade fort where the Monongahela River and the Allegheny River meet to form the Ohio. The British knew this was a crucial juncture for fur trade and land speculation. Tanaghrisson was said to have laid the first log in what was to be Ft. Prince George. Trent left to obtain additional supplies and bring additional men leaving Ward in command when a large French force arrived under the command of Captain Controcoeur and demanded surrender. Ward led his troops back to Virginia as Washington and the relief column was coming to his aid.





Frederick Christian Post

1710-1785


Missionary/Emissary



The War that Made America

A native of Prussia, Post became a Moravian missionary who preached to the Indians of Pennsylvania and Ohio. He was an official government emissary to the hostile Indians and carried news of the Treaty of Easton to the Ohio Indians. The French commandant of Ft. Duquesne put a price on his head and Post was said to be the most dangerous man in America. Prior to Forbes advance, Post met with Indian chiefs on August 24, 1758 and King Beaver introduced him, "Here is our English brother, who has brought great news." This mission of neutrality paved the way for General Forbes’ success in gaining control of the Forks of the Ohio.



George Washington

1732-1799


Lieutenant Colonel




The War that Made America

Washington and his two brothers were members of the Ohio Company of Virginia. Through his surveying George became familiar with the Shenandoah Valley and western Virginia. Governor Robert Dinwiddie asked Washington to be his envoy to the French and later appointed him Lt. Colonel of the Virginia Regiment in an expedition to western Pennsylvania. His mission ended in defeat and inflamed an already tense situation. Washington served as a volunteer aide to General Braddock in 1755. He became colonel of the Virginia regiment to defend the Shenandoah region. He was also involved in the Forbes Campaign. After the fall of Ft. Duquesne, he left the army and was elected to the House of Burgesses.


John Forbes

1710-1759


General



The War that Made America

John Forbes was born in Scotland. Although the son of an army officer, he intended to study medicine. He changed his mind and joined the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. In 1758, Forbes was assigned the responsibility of taking Fort Duquesne with Colonel Bouquet as his second-in-command. Analyzing the terrain, Forbes decided to build a new road with regular supply posts. George Washington was very displeased because the new road went through Pennsylvania instead of Virginia. Forbes was extremely sick and it was painful for him to travel. He left much of the work to Bouquet, but he continued to command. One of his officers, Major Grant lost an unsanctioned battle; but after that set back, Forbes’ army continued to Ft. Duquesne only to hear it explode as the French abandoned the Forks of the Ohio. Forbes renamed the area in honor of Prime Minister William Pitt. Forbes was aided in his victory by successful negotiations with the Indians that resulted in the Treaty of Easton.






James Smith

1737 – 1812


Colonel



The War that Made America

Eighteen year-old James Smith was captured by Indians in 1755 while working for a Pennsylvania road cutting crew supervised by his brother, William Smith. Taken to Fort Duquesne, he barely survived running through a gauntlet of about 300 Indians. While healing at the fort, he saw captives from Braddock's defeat being tortured. He was adopted by the Caughnawaga Mohawks and lived as Scoouwa for 4 years until he escaped. He and fellow frontiersmen known as the "Black Boys" disrupted British efforts at supplying goods for the Indians. Smith and his men even captured a British fort - Fort Loudon. Smith conducted his revolutionary actions in 1765.




John Armstrong

1717- 1795


Major General




The War that Made America

Born in the north of Ireland, he immigrated to Pennsylvania when he was about 20. He was a surveyor who helped to lay out the town of Carlisle. In 1755 he helped open a road from Carlisle to the Youghiogheny River over which supplies were to be carried to Braddock's army. After Braddock's defeat, Armstrong was elected captain in a frontier company. He commanded an expedition against the Indian village of Kittanning in 1756. The commando type raid was successful in killing the Delaware Chief Jacobs.

Later he commanded the advanced division of the Pennsylvania troops in Forbes's expedition against Fort Duquesne and during Pontiac's war led a very successful expedition against the Indian towns on the West branch of the Susquehanna.




John Bush

1727-1758
Massachusetts Provincial Soldier




The War that Made America

John Bush was a Massachusetts Provincial soldier of African American descent who joined the military in 1747. John was noted for skillfully creating engraved powder horns. The engravings might commemorate the owner’s military experiences, places visited or battles fought. He inspired others to take up engraving of powder horns. Bush was captured at Fort William Henry in 1757 when the fort fell to Montcalm’s forces. He was imprisoned in Canada and died the following year on a ship headed to France. A letter from his father, George, to the Governor of Massachusetts asking about his son’s condition gives insight to a father’s concern. George, a former slave, lost 3 sons in the war.





Mary Jemison

1743-1833


Settler




The War that Made America

Mary was born on the Atlantic Ocean as her family emigrated from Ireland to America. Her family first settled at Marsh Creek near present day Gettysburg. Then Thomas Jemison moved his family to a homestead in a secluded valley several miles away. It was there in 1758 that she and others were captured by 4 French and 6 Indians. The Shawnee killed all but 2 of the captives to keep from being followed. Mary and a neighbor boy were taken to Ft. Duquesne There Mary was traded to and adopted into the Seneca nation. Following the war, she chose to stay among the native peoples instead of returning to white society. Today, there are statues to Mary's memory in Adams County, PA and in Letchworth Park, New York.




Martin Lucorney

Mercenary for the British Army



The War that Made America

This Hungarian born soldier fought in the British Independent Company of New York during the Battle of Monongahela. Braddock's column stumbled into Beaujeau’s forces in the Pennsylvania woods.

The French and Indians took cover behind trees and bushes. The British troops were helpless in this type of wilderness fighting. Lucourney bravely stood his ground, then took cover and continued firing. He survived and later helped carry the mortally wounded Braddock safely from the battlefield



Robert Dinwiddie

1693-1770


Governor of Virginia




The War that Made America

Robert Dinwiddie was a colonial administrator who served as Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. He was also a member of the Ohio Company of Virginia and understood how the French gave risk to settlement in the Ohio country. He sent Washington to Fort LeBoeuf to ask the French to leave. When Washington returned, Dinwiddie had the envoy’s journal printed and distributed. He also promoted Washington to Lt Colonel in the Virginia Regiment; but did not give him a British commission. Dinwiddie's actions as Lieutenant Governor are cited as precipitating the French and Indian War. He often clashed with the elected VA Assembly and with Edmond Atkin, a Superintendent of Indian Affairs.





Robert Orme

1732-1790


Captain



The War that Made America

Orme was a member of the Coldstream Guards and an aide- de-camp to Braddock. He developed a close personal friendship with George Washington. During the Battle of the Monongahela, he tried in vain to recruit soldiers to assist the wounded general. Orme received a serious wound to the thigh. He resigned from the army and returned to England. Thanks to the artist Joshua Reynolds, the likeness of Captain Robert Orme is widely known. The painting is one of the great romantic military portraits.





Roger Morris

1726-1798


Captain



The War that Made America

Roger Morris was an officer in the 48th Regiment of Foot and one of the aides-de-camp to General Edward Braddock. During the Battle of the Monongahela, Morris was shot through the nose. Wounded, he was not able to command that day, but received treatment, and eventually healed. Morris continued to serve in the army and was with General Wolfe at Quebec. In 1758, Morris married Mary Philipse, the daughter of the Speaker of the NY Assembly. Philipse was lord of the old manor of Philipsborough and owned an immense landed estate on the Hudson. Morris left the army in 1764 and moved to New York.






Susanna Johnson

1729-1809


Wife and Mother



The War that Made America

She, her husband James, their 3 children and 7 others were captured by Abenaki Indians at Charlestown (Fort # 4) on August 29, 1754. Susanna, nine months pregnant, gave birth on the trail (the 3rd white child born in Vermont). The child was named Elizabeth Captive Johnson. After 18 months in captivity, Susanna and daughters, Polly and Captive, were loaded on a cartel ship for England and then returned home via New York. She was reunited with her husband on January 1, 1758. Unfortunately James was enticed by Governor Pownall to take a Captain’s commission that resulted in his death at Ft. Ticonderoga.





Thomas Bishop

Unknown - 1795


Title



The War that Made America

Thomas Bishop had served in the Coldstream Guards with Braddock in England. In 1755 he was the personal servant of General Braddock. When Braddock was shot during the Battle of the Monongahela, Bishop risked his life to obtain a horse and cart to carry the wounded general to safety.


Following Braddock’s death, George Washington employed Bishop for ten pounds per year. Bishop traveled with Washington and remained in his employ the rest of his life. During the American Revolution Bishop stayed at Mount Vernon as manager of the plantation.



Thomas Gage

1721-1787
Lt. Colonel



The War that Made America

In 1754, Gage was assigned to North America for service in the French and Indian War. The following year he joined the disastrous Braddock campaign in western Pennsylvania, sharing hardships with George Washington, Horatio Gates and Charles Lee.


Gage was named the military governor of Montréal in 1760 and later was promoted to major general. In 1763, he became the commander of British soldiers in North America.

He would become the highest ranking British official in the colonies at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War.





William McCord

Unknown - 1756


Settler



The War that Made America

William McCord and his brothers built a private fort to protect his family and those of other settlers. The fort was located near Chambersburg in what is now Franklin County, Pennsylvania. At night residents of the area would congregate at the fort for protection. The fort was a fortified strong-house built for defense; it did not have a stockade. On an April morning in 1756, Indians attacked ‘Ft. McCord’ as the settlers were preparing to return to their homes. Twenty-seven settlers were killed or taken captive and the fort was burned to the ground. A number of the captives were later rescued during Colonel John Armstrong's raid on the Native American stronghold at Kittanning.




William Pitt

1708-1778


Earl of Chatham

Secretary of State



The War that Made America

William Pitt, the great commoner, rose to power as Great Britain’s minister of war in June, 1757. The war was going poorly so he recalled Loudoun thus ending some bitter political feuds with colonial governors. Pitt gained great popularity in America during the French and Indian war. He also lavished cash reimbursements on the colonists for their military expenses. Those excesses, however, helped to create a massive public debt at home.

Post-war efforts to collect a portion of that obligation through taxes in the colonies would lead to estrangement, independence and ultimately the disintegration of the empire.



Jacob Van Braam


Lieutenant/Translator




The War that Made America

Van Braam was a former lieutenant in the Dutch army and a soldier of fortune. He had been in the British army and was a campaigning comrade of Lawrence, the older brother of George Washington. Lawrence hired him to teach George fencing and later Van Draam served as interpreter for Washington’s diplomatic mission to Ft. LeBoeuf in 1753. Van Braam, commissioned as a lieutenant, led one of Washington’s companies on the March to reinforce Trent’s fort. At Ft. Necessity, Van Braam was sent to meet with the French and delivered de Villiers’ surrender terms. The French required two hostages to ensure Washington lived up to the capitulation. Lt. Van Braam and Captain Stobo were selected.


Adam Stephen

c.1718-1791


Colonel




The War that Made America

Born in Scotland, he received a degree in surgery then immigrated to America in 1748. Stephen established a doctor's practice in Fredericksburg and purchased land in Frederick County, Virginia. In 1754, he joined Washington’s Virginia regiment. Stephen became first Captain and next in command to Washington. Stephen commanded Washington’s left flank during the Jumonville incident. Following the surrender of Ft. Necessity, Washington resigned and Stephen was promoted to Colonel and given command of Ft. Cumberland. His men were part of Braddock’s second brigade. In 1758 he joined the Forbes expedition and was later stationed at Ft. Pitt. Remaining in service until 1762, Stephen spent time negotiating with Native Americans in South Carolina, western Virginia and Ohio. He laid out the town of Martinsburg, WV.





William Johnson

c.1715-1774


Major General/Baronet

Chief Big Business, Warraghiyagey





The War that Made America

An Irish pioneer and army officer in colonial New York, he became the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs from 1755 to 1774. General Braddock tasked Johnson to lead militia forces against Crown Point. In September 1755, his expedition defeated Baron Dieskau. In recognition of this victory he was awarded £5,000 and title of Baronet. In 1758 he was part of General Abercrombie’s failed attempt to take Fort Ticonderoga. The following summer, when General Prideaux was killed, Johnson took command and captured Fort Niagara. He also accompanied Amherst in capture of Montreal in 1760. After the war, King George rewarded him with the grant of an additional tract of 100,000 acres north of the Mohawk River. Sir Johnson never married; but, he had at least 3 common law marriages and it is believed that he fathered at least twenty children by about eight different women mostly Native American..




John Winslow

1703-74
Major General






The War that Made America

Winslow was a Mayflower descendant and great grand-son of the first governor of Plymouth Colony. John became a captain in the Massachusetts provincial army in 1740. Winslow was charged with overseeing the deportation of Acadians from Minas and Grand Pré in 1755. Although he stated the job was “very disagreeable to my natural make and temper," he effectively carried it out in hopes of a command of his own. He replaced Sir William Johnson at Ft. William Henry. He in turn was replaced by General Webb. In 1757, after bitter experiences with Monckton and Loudoun, Winslow left the army and involved himself in Massachusetts politics. He served in the Massachusetts legislature and in 1762, Winslow was made Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas in Plymouth County.




Conrad Weiser

1732-60
Lieutenant Colonel







The War that Made America

An Indian agent for Pennsylvania, he negotiated treaties and served as a translator at conferences. Conrad’s father, believing his German community needed a cultural liaison with Indians, sent his son to live with the natives. An Iroquois described Weiser this way, “When we adopted him we divided him into two equal Parts, one we kept for ourselves and one we left for You." He helped to forge the alliance between Pennsylvania and the Six Nations and worked to help the English and Native Americans understand each other. In 1756 Weiser accepted a commission as a Lieutenant Colonel in the PA regiment. He was stationed on the northern frontier between the Susquehanna and Delaware rivers.



Benedict Arnold

1741 – 1801


Almost a Soldier





The War that Made America

Benedict Arnold was a native of Connecticut, but he was a direct descendent of the Arnold who was one of the fifty-four proprietors in the first settlement of Rhode Island. Arnold enlisted in the Connecticut troops at age 15. He lied about his age and had fabricated a permission letter from a guardian. He marched to Albany and Lake George to resist the French invasion at Fort William Henry. It seems he quickly tired of discipline and made his way home alone through the wilderness without fighting any French. Years later he would battle in this same theatre.






Edmond Atkins

1707- 1763


Indian Superintendent





The War that Made America

As a well-recognized Charleston merchant in the Indian Trade, Atkins was given a seat on the South Carolina Governor’s Council. He impressed the Board of Trade with his plan for superintendencies of Indian affairs. In 1756, he was appointed Agent for, and Superintendent of the Indian tribes bordering the southern colonies. Atkins later hired Christopher Gist as his deputy. The superintendents operated in subordination to the commander-in-chief of British forces in America. A number of colonial governors and assemblies noted a significant loss of their assumed power. Atkins was known to have clashed with the Virginians, Dinwiddie and Washington over policy.





George II

1683-1760


King of Great Britain




The War that Made America

He was the second British monarch of the House of Hanover and the last British monarch to personally lead his troops into battle. His reign was marked with the permanent unification with Scotland following the English victory at Culloden. This battle in 1746 was the last military clash in mainland Britain.

The Seven Years' War continued after George II's death into the reign of his grandson, George III. The war led to important territorial gains for the British in North America and Asia, however; the expense of the conflict drained the royal finances. British attempts to tax the Americans would not be successful.



John Campbell

Earl of Loudoun

1705-1782


Nobleman and military leader



The War that Made America


As a commander, he was badly defeated on several occasions during the Jacobite Rising of 1745. With hopes of greater success, he went to America to replace William Shirley as commander-in-chief of the British army following the defeat of. Edward Braddock’s forces. Both PA and South Carolina named a fort in his honor. He dismissed Governor Shirley for incompetence, and then Loudoun ignored the advice of men such as John Winslow and George Washington. Franklin summed up Loudoun's character "...Indecision was one of the Strongest Features." His inaction may have contributed to the defeat of Ft. William Henry and did delay the attack on Louisbourg for another year. Loudoun was successful at agitating the colonists and even speculated that there seemed to be a rebellious tone to the colonies.







James Abercrombie

1706-1781


Commander-in-Chief 1757



The War that Made America

Born into a wealthy family in Scotland, he purchased a commission to enter the army. Abercrombie commanded a brigade at Louisbourg in 1757 and upon the recall of Loudoun was made Commander-in-Chief for North America. He was very skilled at organization and was able move an army to Fort Ticonderoga. His 15,000 men, without artillery support, attempted to storm the defenses of 3000 French. He lost 2000 men during the assault and retreated south of Lake George. This led to his recall and replacement by Amherst. Later ,as a member of parliament after the war, he agreed with the coercive policy towards North America.


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Jeffery Amherst

1717-1797
General and Baronet





The War that Made America

Born in southeast England, he joined the army and became the aide-de-camp to General Ligonier. William Pitt wanted someone to lead the siege on Louisbourg and Amherst was recommended. In 1758, he assisted with the capture of Fort Louisbourg, then succeeded James Abercromby as commander-in-chief of North American forces. He took Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 1759, while Wolfe captured Quebec. Amherst remained as Governor General of British North America. His harsh policies towards Native Peoples led to Pontiac's uprising. Amherst thought giving Indians blankets infected with Smallpox would reduce his problems.


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Thomas Cresap

c.1694 – 1787
Pioneer and Land Speculator




The War that Made America

Born in Yorkshire, England, he arrived in Maryland in the early 1700s and entered the border dispute between the Penns and Calverts. Upon release from jail the “Maryland Monster” decided to relocate to the upper Potomac Valley where he was the first permanent white settler. Cresap’s home was next to the Great Warriors Path and he became known as “Big Spoon” for his hospitality to the Indians. He was a driving force in the Ohio Company of Virginia. He and Gist blazed a path to the Forks of the Ohio in 1751. During the French and Indian war he was know as the “Rattlesnake Colonel.”




Joseph Frye

1712-1794


Major General




The War that Made America

Frye was born in Andover, MA. He supported his family by farming and surveying. With the outbreak of King George's War in 1745, he enlisted and served as a captain. When he returned to civilian life, he was elected to the Massachusetts General Court. In 1754 Frye became a major General John Winslow's forces. Winslow assigned Frye to burn farmsteads and evict the Acadian population. Frye was transferred to Lake George under the command of Colonel Monro. His journal has been referred to as “the most immediate and authoritative American eyewitness account" of the siege, fall and massacre at Fort William Henry. He described his ordeal, “ …I was strip’d myself of arms & cloathing, that I had nothing left by britches stocking shoes & shirt; …oblig’s to fly and was in the woods till the 12th, in the morning of which I arriv’d at Fort Edward almost famished…






Sir Peter Halket

1695-1755


Lt. Colonel and Baronet




The War that Made America

Born in Scotland, he married Amelia, daughter of 7th Earl of Moray. Halket served as a Member of Parliament from 1734-1741 and was commissioned Lt. Colonel to put down the Jacobite Rebellion. He was captured at the Battle of Gladsmuir.

In 1754 he arrived in the colonies to command the 44th Regiment of Foot. As the Braddock expedition fought the Battle of the Monongahela, Halket was shot. Seeing his father fall, Lt. James Halket ran to his aid and was also killed. Years later, Major Francis Halket located his father and brother’s bodies and gave them a proper Scottish burial.



George Monro

c.1700 - 1757


Colonel





The War that Made America

Born in Ireland to Scottish parents, he followed his father's footsteps into the military. Monro entered service in Otway's Regiment, the 35th of Foot. By 1750 he reached the rank of Lt. Colonel. He was transferred to Fort William Henry. Unfortunately, Monro was subordinate to General Webb who was indecisive and chose not to send reinforcements, so the Fort fell to Montcalm’s forces. Monro had to surrender and agreed to favorable terms of capitulation. However, the Indians felt betrayed and reacted by plundering, taking captives and killing. The massacre struck an emotional cord and rules of warfare were about to change. Monro died suddenly the following November. He is buried in Albany beside English hero, George Augustus Lord Viscount Howe.



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John Bradstreet

1714-1774
Major General




The War that Made America

John Bradstreet was born Jean-Baptiste at Annapolis Royal. His father was a British officer and his mother an Acadian. His mother purchased a commission for him in 1735. In 1744, he was captured by the French and sent to Louisbourg. Being fluent in French, he was able to gather information on weaknesses of the fort. Upon release, he was promoted and named Lt. Governor of St. John’s. Braddock sent him to Oswego. He also served at Halifax and Ticonderoga, where his advice to Ambercromby was rejected. Following the disaster at Ticonderoga, Bradstreet took a force across Lake Ontario and captured the French stronghold of Fort Frontenac. He closed out the war serving with Amherst and then commanded forces during Pontiac’s Rebellion. He was promoted to Major General in 1771. He achieved what had been Washington’s dream.




Thomas Pownall

1722-1805


Administrator




The War that Made America

Assignment from the British commissioners of trade and plantations brought him to the colonies in 1753 and at various times served as governor of New Jersey, South Carolina and Massachusetts. He was a serious student of politics and produced several works on colonial affairs in America. At the Albany Congress, he developed a friendship with Franklin and afterwards formulated a plan for an English speaking empire whose seat of authority was ultimately to be in America. He believed that the Americans had equal constitutional rights with the English in Great Britain. Pownall was personally active in war effort and in 1756 succeeded Shirley as governor of Massachusetts. He had troops from his colony involved in a number of campaigns including Nova Scotia and Fort William Henry. After the war, Pownall was elected to Parliament and in 1777 stated that “sovereignty over America was gone forever."






Robert Rogers

1731-1795


Commander of Rangers




The War that Made America

A New Hampshire farmer, Rogers created a military unit called Rangers. Rogers’ Rangers wore distinctive green outfits and developed tactics called "Rogers' Ranging Rules" (these tactics are still in use today by ranger units like the Green Berets). Rogers’ forces won fame for their engagements with the Abenaki Indians of St. Francis. His Rangers took part in Wolfe's expedition against Quebec, the Montreal campaign, the defense of northwestern posts, and participated in the Battle of Bloody Bridge at Detroit during Pontiac’s War. Former members of his forces fired on the British at Lexington and Concord. Rogers wished to fight for the colonies, but Washington refused his help thinking he may be a loyalist spy. As a result Rogers became so outraged that he joined the British and commanded the Queen’s Rangers.

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James Burd

Engineer/Colonel
1726 – 1793



The War that Made America

Burd immigrated to Philadelphia from Scotland in 1747. In 1750 he moved his family west to Shippensburg to manage the affairs of his father-in-law, Mr. Edward Shippen. Governor Robert Morris named Burd, George Croghan, William Buchanan, John Armstrong, and Adam Hoops commissioners to survey the site for a supply road from Shippensburg to Raystown to supply Braddock's expedition. In April, 1755, Burd was placed in charge of building the road. After Braddock’s defeat, he remained in western Pennsylvania fortifying the frontier. Burd's road-building efforts on behalf of Braddock paid off for the Forbes Expedition in 1758. During that campaign, Burd contributed to the construction of Fort Ligonier. A year later, he and James Shippen built Fort Burd on the Monongahela to serve as a depot for river transport to Pittsburgh.






Sylvanus Johnson

Child Captive
1748 – 1832




The War that Made America

He was the eldest child of James and Susanna Johnson of Charlestown (Fort # 4). He was captured along with the rest of his family in 1754. He was taken from Vermont to St. Francis where he lived with the Abenaki Indians for three years during which time he forgot the English language. His habits conformed to those of his Indian masters to such a degree that they never fully disappeared. He even expressed regret that he had been ransomed. Sylvanus gained the reputation of an honest and upright man. He was convinced that Indians were a far more moral race than the whites.





Henry Bouquet

1719-1765


Lieutenant Colonel




The War that Made America

The son of an army officer, Henry Bouquet was born in Switzerland. He served several countries as a mercenary including the Netherlands, Sardinia and the Swiss guards. In 1756 he joined the British army and came to America. Two years later he was second in command to General John Forbes. Forbes fashioned a plan to capture Fort Duquesne and Bouquet directed the expedition because Forbes was ill. When the campaign ended, Forbes returned to Philadelphia, but Bouquet stayed in western Pennsylvania. During Pontiac’s War when Fort Pitt was under siege, Bouquet was given responsibility to break the siege. His troops were ambushed at Bushy Run, however; his maneuvering was able to turn the tide and the Indians retreated. In 1764, Bouquet marched a large army west of Fort Pitt to restore peace. To obtain peace, Indians had to give up white captives including any children born to captives. Bouquet became commander of the British army in North America until died.






James A. Wolfe

1727-1759


Brigadier General




The War that Made America

The son of a general, a 14 year-old James Wolfe entered his father’s regiment. At 19 he participated in the defeat of Bonnie Prince Charlie at Culloden. In 1758 he captured the Fortress Louisbourg in Cape Breton. His success yielded him command of the British forces.

He employed a strategy of psychological intimidation against the Canadian populace by issuing the Wolfe Manifesto warning of disaster if support was given to French forces. Following a three-month siege of Quebec, his troops launched an amphibious assault and met the troops of Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham. The British carried the day, but Wolfe died of his wounds. His actions opened the way for the defeat of Montreal the following year by forces of Amherst and William Johnson. Wolfe became immortalized in a painting by Benjamin West.





James Grant

1720-1806


Major




The War that Made America



Grant was born on the family estate at Ballindalloch, Scotland. He purchased a commission as a captain in the Royal Scots when he was 24. In 1758, Grant led Montgomerie's Highlanders (the 77th Regiment of Foote) to determine the enemy strength at Ft. Duquesne. Becoming scattered in the dense woods, Grant recalled his troops by ordering the Scottish pipes to be played. This regrouped his troops and he marched straight on to the open plain in front of Fort Duquesne. The following battle resulted in 300 British casualties and Grant captured. Despite Grant’s actions, Forbes moved forward and two months later took control of the abandoned fort. Grant was released from prison in Quebec and went on to become governor of Florida. During the American Revolution, grant became a major general in the British army.





Daniel Boone

1734-1820


Wagon Driver




The War that Made America



Boone was born in Birdsboro, PA to Quaker Squire Boone and Sarah Morgan Boone. Being shunned by the Quakers, Squire Boone moved his family to North Carolina. Daniel returned to Pennsylvania as a blacksmith and wagon driver as part of General Braddock’s ill-fated trek to the Monongahela.



Boone survived the battle and his trailblazing efforts helped to open territory beyond the Allegheny Mountains. He earned fame following the War for his passage through the Cumberland Gap and leading a party of settlers who cut the Wilderness Road in 1775.





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