Pearl Harbor



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Pearl Harbor

  












presence

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  "Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan." These are the words President Franklin Delano Roosevelt used to address the United States Congress on December 8, 1941. Every American within the sound of a radio heard his words. He used the word "infamy." That word refers to someone or something that will be remembered for a very long time. Unfortunately, it will be remembered in a bad way, not a good one. The United States had just suffered a devastating attack on its navy and air force.


     Let's take a look at what led up to this attack. Japan had been at war with China since the mid 1930s. Germany, led by Adolph Hitler, had declared war on Europe in the late 1930s. Germany and Japan had signed a pact that they would not fight each other. Instead, they would help each other when they could. Italy became a member of this partnership when they all signed the Tripartite Pact. The United States had decided to stay out of the conflicts in Europe and Asia. The president and Congress had decided that there had been enough loss of life and material goods during World War I.
     Japan was in dire need of oil and other goods. The small land mass of all its islands was not able to produce the supplies it needed to keep its war efforts alive. The Japanese wanted to take control of the lands they needed to produce these goods. The United States and its European allies had effectively cut off their attempts to seize oil and other minerals in the East Indies and Southeast Asia. President Roosevelt had moved the United States Naval fleet to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 1938. He felt that the (1)  _______________________   of this fleet in the Pacific would deter Japan from any thoughts of invading the lands they wanted.
     Diplomats from Japan and the United States spent months in (2)  _______________________  . Their goal was to provide a compromise that would be (3)  _______________________   to both sides. Japanese ambassadors were meeting in Washington, D.C., in December of 1941. No (4)  _______________________   had been reached, but everyone was still hopeful.
     Then it happened. In the early morning hours of December 7, 1941, the skies over the Hawaiian island of Oahu filled with the sound of plane engines. The first wave of Japanese bombers started their attack at 7:53 AM. They had been launched from aircraft carriers 274 miles away. The next wave attacked at 8:55 AM. By 10:00 the death and (5)  _______________________   had ended. This surprise attack had left 2,403 people dead, 188 planes destroyed, and 8 battleships sunk or severely damaged. One battleship alone, the Arizona, had carried 1,177 naval personnel to their deaths at the bottom of the Pacific.
     The United States would not have been surprised if the Japanese had attacked islands in the East Indies, Malaysia, or even the Philippines. They had no clue that an American (6)  _______________________   would be the target of the attack. The Japanese had hoped that this "sneak attack" would completely (7)  _______________________   the leaders of America and the American people to stay out of the war. It was their hope that the American Navy and Air Force would suffer such great losses that they would not be able to join in the war effort even if the people wanted them to.
     Their plan did not work. The following morning, President Roosevelt addressed Congress and asked them for a declaration of war. The Senate gave its approval unanimously. The House had only one dissenting vote. This vote came from a pacifist from Montana who did not believe in war for any reason. The United States joined World War II. The military was scarred and battered, but they were determined that no one would ever (8)  _______________________   the United States again.



1. Which sentence supports President Roosevelt’s claim that “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy…?”

a. “This surprise attack had left 2,403 people dead, 188 planes destroyed, and 8 battleships sunk or severely damaged.”

b. “The military was scarred and battered, but they were determined that no one would ever underestimate the United States again.”
c. “That word refers to someone or something that will be remembered for a very long time.”


d. “Every American within the sound of a radio heard his words.”

2. Which statement summarizes the selection?

a. “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, the United states of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”

b. “The military was scarred and battered, but they were determined that no one would ever underestimate the United States again.”

c. “The United States had just suffered a devastating attack on its navy and air force.”

d. “In the early morning hours of December 7, 1941, the skies over the Hawaiian island of Oahu filled with the sound of plane engines.”

3. What was the effect of Japan’s attack on America’s navy and air forces at Pearl Harbor?

a. It convinced American leaders to stay out of World War II

b. It surprised the United States that Japan did not attack the East Indies, Malaysia, or the Philippines.

c. The United States joined World War II.

d. Germany and Japan signed a pact that they would not fight each other.

4. What is the main of idea of paragraph 5?

a. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941.

b. The Japanese attack on Pearl tried to cripple our Navy and Air Force while killing 2,403 people.

c. Japanese bombers started their attack at 7:53 AM.

d. One battleship alone, the Arizona, had carried 1,177 naval personnel to their deaths at the bottom of the ocean.

5. Based on the last paragraph, what is the meaning of dissenting?

a. approving

b. the same

c. common

d. different


6. How was the attack on Pearl Harbor similar to World War I?

a. Both had loss of life

b. Both crippled the United States of America

c. Both sent a strong message to the World of America’s power

d. Both were “sneak attacks”

7. What are the main ideas of paragraphs 2, 3, & 4?

a. The author explains United States’ reasons to stay out of the conflicts in Europe and Asia.

b. The author describes the events that led up to the attack on Pearl Harbor.

c. The author explains Japan’s reasons for attacking Pearl Harbor.

d. The author tells the events that happened the morning of December 7th, 1941.

8. Based on the selection, why did President Roosevelt move the U.S. Naval fleet to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 1938?
a. To discourage Japan from attacking the United States of America.
b. To prepare for the Japanese attack on the U.S. Naval fleet and Air Force.


c. To help protect Europe from Adolph Hitler.

d. To discourage Japan from invading lands that had oil and other minerals in the Pacific.






Chunking Information: 20 points

8 Vocabulary Words: 40 points

8 Questions: 40 points

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